A crow's nest is a structure in the upper part of the main mast of a ship or a structure, used as a lookout point. This position ensured the best view for lookouts to spot approaching other ships, or land, it was the best device for this purpose until the invention of radar. In the early 19th century, it was a barrel or a basket lashed to the tallest mast, it became a specially designed platform with protective railing. The barrel crow's nest was invented in 1807 by Sr.. A statue in Whitby, North Yorkshire commemorates the event, it should not be confused with the top, the platform in the upper part of each lower mast of a square-rigged sailing ship. The first recorded appearance of the term was in 1807, used to describe William Scoresby's barrel crows nest platform. According to a popular naval legend, the term derives from the practice of Viking sailors, who carried crows or ravens in a cage secured to the top of the mast. In cases of poor visibility, a crow was released, the navigator plotted a course corresponding to the bird's flight path because the crow invariably headed towards the nearest land.
However, other naval scholars have found no evidence of the masthead crow cage and suggest the name was coined because Scoresby's lookout platform resembled a crow's nest in a tree. Sometimes, the term is used metaphorically in reference to topmost structures in buildings, etc. Since the crow's nest is a point far away from the ship's centre of mass, rotational movement of the ship is amplified and could lead to severe seasickness in accustomed sailors. Therefore, being sent to the crow's nest was considered a punishment. In classic railroad trains, the box-like structure above the caboose, the cupola, was called the crow's nest, it served for observation of the whole train when in motion. In hunting, a crow's nest is a blind-like structure where a hunter or a pair of hunters commit themselves to stalking game. A crow's nest is not a normal type of purchasable blind, but an improvised position, built by using locally discovered natural flora. A crow's nest works in most environments and provides a good lookout point when built in an elevated position like a hillside or top of a hill.
Media related to crow's nest at Wikimedia Commons
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sail and derricks, giving necessary height to a navigation light, look-out position, signal yard, control position, radio aerial or signal lamp. Large ships have several masts, with the configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed; until the mid-19th century all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections, known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood.
Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as pole masts. Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers. For square-sail carrying ship, the masts, given their standard names in bow to stern order, are: Sprit topmast: a small mast set on the end of the bowsprit. Shorter than the fore-mast. Sections: mizzen-mast lower—mizzen topmast—mizzen topgallant mastSome names given to masts in ships carrying other types of rig are: Bonaventure mizzen: the fourth mast on larger sixteenth century galleons lateen-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen. Jigger-mast: where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. Sections: jigger-mast lower—jigger topmast—jigger topgallant mast Most types of vessels with two masts are supposed to have a main-mast and a smaller mizzen-mast, although both brigs and two-masted schooners carry a fore-mast and a main-mast instead. On a two-masted vessel with the main-mast forward and a much smaller second mast, such as a ketch, or a yawl, the terms mizzen and jigger are synonymous.
Although two-masted schooners may be provided with masts of identical size, the aftmost is still referred to as the main-mast, has the larger course. Schooners have been built with up to seven masts with several six-masted examples. On square-rigged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal yards from which the individual sails are rigged. Folding mast ships use a tabernacle anchor point—"the open socket or double post on the deck, into which a mast is fixed, with a pivot near the top so that the mast can be lowered", "large bracket attached to the deck, to which the foot of the mast is fixed. A two-masted merchant vessel with a sizable foresail rigged on a inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan tomb painting from 475–450 BC. An artemon the same size as the galley's mainsail can be found on a Corinthian krater as early as the late 6th century BC; the foremast became common on Roman galleys, inclined at an angle of 45°, it was more akin to a bowsprit, the foresail set on it, reduced in size, seems to be used rather as an aid to steering than for propulsion.
While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can be deduced archaeologically from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the prow for a mainsail. Artemon, along with mainsail and topsail, developed into the standard rig of seagoing vessels in imperial times, complemented by a mizzen on the largest freighters; the earliest recorded three-masters were the giant Syracusia, a prestige object commissioned by king Hiero II of Syracuse and devised by the polymath Archimedes around 240 BC, other Syracusan merchant ships of the time. The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between Alexandria and Rome included three-masted vessels. A mosaic in Ostia depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Rome's harbour. Special craft could carry many more masts: Theophrastus records how the Romans imported Corsican timber by way of a huge raft propelled by as many as fifty masts and sails. Throughout antiquity, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of canvas size, although large enough to require full running rigging.
In late antiquity, the foremast lost most of
Dominion of Newfoundland
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949. The dominion, situated in northeastern North America along the Atlantic coast, comprised the island of Newfoundland as well as Labrador on the continental mainland. Before attaining dominion status, Newfoundland was a British colony, self-governing from 1855. Newfoundland was one of the original "dominions" within the meaning of the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and accordingly enjoyed a constitutional status equivalent to the other dominions at the time. In 1934, Newfoundland became the only dominion to give up its self-governing status, ending 79 years of self-government; this episode came about due to a crisis in Newfoundland's public finances in 1932. Newfoundland had accumulated a significant amount of debt by building a railway across the island and by raising its own regiment for the First World War. In November 1932 the government warned that Newfoundland would default on payments on the public debt; the British government established the Newfoundland Royal Commission to inquire into and report on the position.
The Commission's report, published in October 1933, recommended that Newfoundland give up its system of self-government temporarily and allow the United Kingdom to administer the dominion through an appointed commission. The Newfoundland parliament accepted this recommendation and presented a petition to the King asking for the suspension of the constitution and the appointment of commissioners to administer the government until the country became self-supporting again. To enable compliance with this request, the United Kingdom Parliament passed the Newfoundland Act 1933, on 16 February 1934, the UK government appointed six commissioners, three from Newfoundland and three from the UK, with the Governor as chairman; the dominion would never become self-governing again. The system of a six-member Commission of Government continued to govern Newfoundland until it joined Canada in 1949 to become Canada's tenth province; the official name of the dominion was "Newfoundland" and not, as is sometimes reported, "Dominion of Newfoundland".
The distinction is apparent in many statutes, most notably the Statute of Westminster that listed the full name of each realm, including the "Dominion of New Zealand", the "Dominion of Canada", "Newfoundland". The Newfoundland Blue Ensign was used as the colonial flag from 1870 to 1904; the Newfoundland Red Ensign was used as the'de facto' national flag of the dominion until the legislature adopted the Union Flag on 15 May 1931. The anthem of the Dominion was the "Ode to Newfoundland", written by British colonial governor Sir Charles Cavendish Boyle in 1902 during his administration of Newfoundland, it was adopted as the dominion's anthem on 20 May 1904, until confederation with Canada in 1949. In 1980, the province of Newfoundland re-adopted the song as a provincial anthem, making Newfoundland and Labrador the only province in Canada to adopt a provincial anthem; the "Ode to Newfoundland" continues to be heard at public events in the province. In 1854 the British government established Newfoundland's responsible government.
In 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada Sir John Thompson came close to negotiating Newfoundland's entry into confederation in 1892, it remained a colony until the 1907 Imperial Conference resolved to confer dominion status on all self-governing colonies in attendance. The annual holiday of Dominion Day was celebrated each 26 September to commemorate the occasion. Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On 1 July 1916, the German Army wiped out most of that regiment at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme, inflicting 90 percent casualties, yet the regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal". Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, Newfoundland's war debt and pension responsibility for the regiment and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway led to increased and unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.
After the war, Newfoundland along with the other dominions sent a separate delegation to the Paris Peace Conference but, unlike the other dominions, Newfoundland neither signed the Treaty of Versailles in her own right nor sought separate membership in the League of Nations. In the 1920s, political scandals wracked the dominion. In 1923, the attorney general arrested Newfoundland's prime minister Sir Richard Squires on charges of corruption. Despite his release soon after on bail, the British-led Hollis Walker commission reviewed the scandal. Soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 because of the unpopularity of his successors, the pro-business Walter Stanley Monroe and Frederick C. Alderdice, but found himself governing a country suffering from the Great Depression; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council resolved Newfoundland's long-standing Labrador boundary dispute with Canada to the satisfaction of Newfoundland and against Canada with a ruling on 1 April 1927.
Prior to 1867, the Quebec North Shore portion of the "Labrador coast" had shuttled back and forth between the colonies of Lower Canada and Newfoundland. Maps up to 1927 showed the coastal region with an undefined boundary; the Privy Council ruling established a boundary along the drainage div
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons. Wine was shipped in barrels of 119 litres. Barrel has come into use as a generic term for a wooden cask of any size. Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are either made of French common oak and white oak or from American white oak and have standard sizes: "Bordeaux type" 225 litres, "Burgundy type" 228 litres and "Cognac type" 300 litres. Modern barrels and casks can be made of aluminum, stainless steel, different types of plastic, such as HDPE. Someone who makes barrels is called cooper. Barrels are only one type of cooperage. Other types include, but are not limited to, the making of buckets, tubs, butter churns, firkins, kilderkins, rundlets, pipes, butts and breakers.
Barrels have a variety of uses, including storage of liquids such as water and oil, fermenting wine and sake, maturing beverages such as wine, armagnac, port and beer. Other commodities once stored in wooden casks include gunpowder, fish, paint and tallow. Early casks were bound with wooden hoops and in the 19th century these were replaced by metal hoops that were stronger, more durable and took up less space; the term barrel can refer to cylindrical containers made of modern materials like plastic. An "aging barrel" is used to age wine; when a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in. Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation, a portion known as the "angels' share". In an environment with 100% relative humidity little water evaporates and so most of the loss is alcohol, a useful trick if one has a wine with high proof. Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune and sherry are not.
Beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these compounds depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried, the degree of "toast" applied during manufacture. Barrels used for aging are made of French or American oak, but chestnut and redwood are used; some Asian beverages use Japanese cedar, which imparts an minty-piney flavor. In Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in earthenware; some wines are fermented "on barrel", as opposed to in a neutral container like steel or wine-grade HDPE tanks. Wine can be fermented in large wooden tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called "open-tops". Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, with either elliptical or round heads; the tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas.
To retain the desired measure of oak influence, a winery will replace a certain percentage of its barrels every year, although this can vary from 5 to 100%. Some winemakers use "200% new oak", where the wine is put into new oak barrels twice during the aging process. Bulk wines are sometimes more cheaply flavored by soaking in oak chips or added commercial oak flavoring instead of being aged in a barrel because of the much lower cost. Sherry is stored in 600-litre casks made of North American oak, more porous than French or Spanish oak; the casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving "the space of two fists" empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. Sherry is commonly swapped between barrels of different ages, a process, known as Solera. Laws in several jurisdictions require; the law in the United States requires that "straight whiskey" must be stored for at least two years in new, charred oak containers. Other forms of whiskey aged in used barrels cannot be called "straight".
International laws require any whisky bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled and matured in Scotland for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks. By Canadian law, Canadian whiskies must "be aged in small wood for not less than three years", "small wood" is defined as a wood barrel not exceeding 700 litres capacity. Since the U. S. law requires the use of new barrels for several popular types of whiskey, not considered necessary elsewhere, whiskey made elsewhere is aged in used barrels that contained American whiskey. The typical bourbon barrel is 53 US gallons in size, thus the de facto standard whiskey barrel size worldwide; some distillers transfer their whiskey into different barrels to "finish" or add qualities to the final product. These finishing barrels aged a different spi
A crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly a synonym for all of Corvus. The term "crow" is used as part of the common name of many species. Species with the word "crow" in their common name include: Corvus albus – pied crow Corvus bennetti – little crow Corvus brachyrhynchos – American crow Corvus capensis – Cape crow or Cape rook Corvus caurinus – northwestern crow Corvus cornix – hooded crow Corvus corone – carrion crow Corvus edithae – Somali crow Corvus enca – slender-billed crow Corvus florensis – Flores crow Corvus fuscicapillus – brown-headed crow Corvus hawaiiensis – Hawaiian crow Corvus imparatus – Tamaulipas crow Corvus insularis – Bismarck crow Corvus jamaicensis – Jamaican crow Corvus kubaryi – Mariana crow or aga Corvus leucognaphalus – white-necked crow Corvus macrorhynchos – jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos macrorhynchos – large-billed crow Corvus macrorhynchos levaillantii – eastern jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos culminatus – Indian jungle crow Corvus meeki – Bougainville crow or Solomon Islands crow Corvus moneduloides – New Caledonian crow Corvus nasicus – Cuban crow Corvus orru – Torresian crow or Australian crow Corvus ossifragus – fish crow Corvus palmarum – palm crow Corvus ruficolis edithae – Somali crow or dwarf raven Corvus sinaloae – Sinaloan crow Corvus splendens – house crow or Indian house crow Corvus torquatus – collared crow Corvus tristis – grey crow or Bare-faced crow Corvus typicus – piping crow or Celebes pied crow Corvus unicolor – Banggai crow Corvus validus – long-billed crow Corvus violaceus – violet crow – recent split from slender-billed crow Corvus woodfordi – white-billed crow or Solomon Islands crow Raven – Corvus species with the word "raven" in their common names Rook Jackdaw Eating crow Scarecrow Magpie
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, space navigation, it is the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks. All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns. Navigation, in a broader sense, can refer to any skill or study that involves the determination of position and direction. In this sense, navigation includes pedestrian navigation. In the European medieval period, navigation was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts, none of which were used for long voyages across open ocean. Polynesian navigation is the earliest form of open-ocean navigation, it was based on memory and observation recorded on scientific instruments like the Marshall Islands Stick Charts of Ocean Swells.
Early Pacific Polynesians used the motion of stars, the position of certain wildlife species, or the size of waves to find the path from one island to another. Maritime navigation using scientific instruments such as the mariner's astrolabe first occurred in the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages. Although land astrolabes were invented in the Hellenistic period and existed in classical antiquity and the Islamic Golden Age, the oldest record of a sea astrolabe is that of Majorcan astronomer Ramon Llull dating from 1295; the perfecting of this navigation instrument is attributed to Portuguese navigators during early Portuguese discoveries in the Age of Discovery. The earliest known description of how to make and use a sea astrolabe comes from Spanish cosmographer Martín Cortés de Albacar's Arte de Navegar published in 1551, based on the principle of the archipendulum used in constructing the Egyptian pyramids. Open-seas navigation using the astrolabe and the compass started during the Age of Discovery in the 15th century.
The Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Spanish monarchs funded Christopher Columbus's expedition to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, which resulted in the Discovery of the Americas. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with Asia. Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later; the first circumnavigation of the earth was completed in 1522 with the Magellan-Elcano expedition, a Spanish voyage of discovery led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and completed by Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano after the former's death in the Philippines in 1521. The fleet of seven ships sailed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Southern Spain in 1519, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America.
Some ships were lost, but the remaining fleet continued across the Pacific making a number of discoveries including Guam and the Philippines. By only two galleons were left from the original seven; the Victoria led by Elcano sailed across the Indian Ocean and north along the coast of Africa, to arrive in Spain in 1522, three years after its departure. The Trinidad sailed east from the Philippines, trying to find a maritime path back to the Americas, but was unsuccessful; the eastward route across the Pacific known as the tornaviaje was only discovered forty years when Spanish cosmographer Andrés de Urdaneta sailed from the Philippines, north to parallel 39°, hit the eastward Kuroshio Current which took its galleon across the Pacific. He arrived in Acapulco on October 8, 1565; the term stems from the 1530s, from Latin navigationem, from navigatus, pp. of navigare "to sail, sail over, go by sea, steer a ship," from navis "ship" and the root of agere "to drive". The latitude of a place on Earth is its angular distance north or south of the equator.
Latitude is expressed in degrees ranging from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the North and South poles. The latitude of the North Pole is 90° N, the latitude of the South Pole is 90° S. Mariners calculated latitude in the Northern Hemisphere by sighting the North Star Polaris with a sextant and using sight reduction tables to correct for height of eye and atmospheric refraction; the height of Polaris in degrees above the horizon is the latitude of the observer, within a degree or so. Similar to latitude, the longitude of a place on Earth is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian or Greenwich meridian. Longitude is expressed in degrees ranging from 0° at the Greenwich meridian to 180° east and west. Sydney, for example, has a longitude of about 151° east. New York City has a longitude of 74° west. For most of history, mariners struggled to determine longitude. Longitude can be calculated. Lacking that, one can use a sextant to take a lunar distance that, with a nautical almanac, can be used to calculate the time at zero longitude.
Reliable marine chronometers were unavailable until the late 18th century and not affordable until the 19th century. For about a hundred years, from about 1767 until about 1850, mariners lacking a chronometer used the method of lunar distances to determine Greenwich time to find their longitude. A mariner with a chronometer could check its reading using a lunar determination of Greenwich tim
Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi