For the river in New Zealand, see Collins River. The Collins River is a 67-mile-long stream in the east-central portion of Middle Tennessee in the United States, it is a tributary of the Caney Fork, is part of the Cumberland and Mississippi watersheds. The river drains the scenic Savage Gulf area, located just below the river's source, empties into Great Falls Lake at Rock Island State Park; the Collins River passes through Warren counties. McMinnville, Gruetli-Laager and Beersheba Springs are among the communities located within its watershed; the Savage Gulf section of the Collins River has been designated a "scenic river" by the State of Tennessee. The Collins River rises near the town of Palmer atop the Cumberland Plateau, where the Middle Prong Collins River joins Mill Creek. Flowing northwestwardly, the Collins passes under State Route 399 before entering Savage Gulf, a scenic gorge where the river descends 800 feet to the Highland Rim; the town of Beersheba Springs straddles the edge of the Plateau overlooking the river valley.
State Route 56 crosses the Collins twice. Crossing into Warren County, the river veers northward along a meandering route, passing under State Route 8 and State Route 127. Just east of McMinnville, the river absorbs its key tributary, Barren Fork, passes under U. S. Route 70S. After winding its way northward for several miles, the river turns eastward, passing under State Route 288 as it enters the slack waters of Great Falls Lake. At Rock Island State Park, the river enters an oxbow bend, nearly joining the Caney Fork before abruptly turning southward eastward northward again before emptying into the Caney Fork just upstream from Great Falls Dam; the oxbow creates a peninsula. Two bridges — an older truss bridge no longer in use, a newer bridge that carries State Route 287 — cross the mouth of the Collins River; the Collins River watershed covers 811 square miles, drains parts of Warren, Van Buren, Sequatchie and Cannon counties. The watershed contains 1,003 miles of 69 lake acres. Over half the watershed is forested, just over a third is used for either pastures or row crops.
The upper parts of the river along the Cumberland Plateau flow along Pennsylvanian-era siltstone and sandstone. Along the river's Highland Rim portion, Mississippian-era limestone is more common. Karst features such as sinkholes and caves are not uncommon in this area. One of the state's largest caves, Cumberland Caverns, is located within the Collins watershed; the 23-mile Barren Fork empties into the Collins east of McMinnville. Other tributaries include Big Creek and Savage Creek, which join the river at Savage Gulf, Hills Creek and Scott Creek, which empty into the Collins just north of the Warren-Grundy line, Charles Creek, which empties into the river downstream from McMinnville. During the late 18th century, the Old Kentucky Road, which followed an old Indian path, crossed the Collins River at Shells Ford, near modern McMinnville. A string of other used fords were located just above the mouth of the river, including Flat Shoals Ford, near modern Campaign. Reed's Ferry known as Black's Ferry, operated near the modern U.
S. Highway 70S crossing throughout much of the 19th century. In the late 19th century, businessman Asa Faulkner constructed a wooden bridge across the mouth of the river as part of his Falls City development. Around 1900, Warren County built four bridges over the river: the Hennessee Bridge, the Lusk Bridge, Martin's Ferry Bridge and Harrison's Ferry Bridge, both located on the upper part of the river. A flood in late March 1902 destroyed Faulkner's bridge and two of the county's bridges– the Hennessee and the Lusk– along with bridges over Barren Fork and Charles Creek; the Tennessee Electric Power Company built the truss bridge which still spans the mouth of the river as part of its Great Falls Dam project in 1916, rebuilt and raised the bridge in the mid-1920s. The current vehicle bridge, which runs adjacent to the truss bridge, was built by the Tennessee Department of Transportation in the 1980s. Most of the Collins River was designated a "scenic river" as part of the state's Scenic Rivers Program.
The lower 42 miles of the river were removed from this designation in 1983, the scenic designation now applies only to the upper parts of the river at Savage Gulf. A 15,590-acre scientific state natural area now protects the Savage Gulf area; this area is part of South Cumberland State Park. The Collins Gulf Trail at Savage Gulf follows a portion of the river as it descends from the Cumberland Plateau; the lower portion of the Collins River is part of Great Falls Lake, the reservoir created by Great Falls Dam near the river's confluence with the Caney Fork. The oxbow peninsula between the Collins and Caney Fork is part of Rock Island State Park. Part of the Colllins River Trail, maintained by the park, passes along the wooded embankment above the shore of the river along this peninsula; the Collins River is one of the few rivers in Tennessee with a good population of muskie. Muskie were stocked in various watersheds throughout Tennessee, including the Collins River from 1982 through 2006. Rocky River List of rivers of Tennessee
Cannon County, Tennessee
Cannon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,801, its county seat is Woodbury. Cannon County is part of the Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cannon County was established by the Tennessee state legislature on January 31, 1836, it was formed from portions of Rutherford, Smith and Warren counties and was named for Governor Newton Cannon. This was part of the Middle Tennessee region, with mixed farming and livestock raising, including of thoroughbred horses. There were more slaveholders here than in Eastern Tennessee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 266 square miles, of which 266 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. DeKalb County Warren County Coffee County Rutherford County Wilson County Headwaters Wildlife Management Area Short Mountain State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 12,826 people, 4,998 households, 3,643 families residing in the county.
The population density was 48 people per square mile. There were 5,420 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.87% White, 1.46% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. 1.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,998 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females, there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,809, the median income for a family was $38,424. Males had a median income of $28,659 versus $21,489 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,405. About 9.60% of families and 12.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over. The policy-making and legislative authority in Cannon County is vested in the Board of County Commissioners. Commissioners are elected to four-year terms by a simple majority of the residents in their district; each district has two commissioners, all ten seats are up for election at the same time. Commissioners set personnel policies for the county, appropriate funds for county departments, set the property tax rate; the county mayor serves as chair of the County Commission and breaks a tie if one occurs during voting.
Members meet in January, April and October with special call meetings taking place when necessary. County officials: County Executive: Brent Bush Sessions Court Judge: Susan Melton Circuit Court Clerk: Katina George County Clerk: Lana Jones Clerk & Master: Dana Davenport Register of Deeds: Sandy Hollandsworth Property Assessor: Angela Schwartz Trustee: Norma Knox Sheriff: Darrell Young Constable 1st District: None Constable 2nd District: Charles Nokes Constable 3rd District: None Constable 4th District: None Constable 5th District: NoneEach official is elected to a four-year term. With the exception of the tax assessor, the terms of most of the officials above will end on September 1, 2022; the tax assessor's term will end on September 1, 2020. The general sessions judge is elected to an eight-year term, the clerk and master is appointed to a six-year term by the chancellor. Board of County Commissioners. District 1: Jeannine Floyd James Russell Reed District 2: Corey Davenport Karen Ashford District 3: Jim Bush Greg Mitchell District 4: Brent Brandon Randy Gannon District 5: Kim Davenport Ronnie Mahaffey Auburntown Woodbury National Register of Historic Places listings in Cannon County, Tennessee Chamber of Commerce TNGenWeb Cannon County on FamilySearch Wiki.
Cannon County at Curlie
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky and north-central Tennessee; the river flows west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork and Red rivers. Although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the river system has been extensively developed for flood control, with major dams impounding both the main stem and many of its important tributaries, its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in Baxter, KY, located in Harlan County. Martin's Fork starts near Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, flows west in parallel with Kentucky Route 38 until it reaches Harlan.
Clover Fork once flowed through downtown Harlan and merged with Martins Fork at the intersection of Kentucky Route 38 and US Route 421 until a flood control project began in 1992 diverted it through a tunnel under Little Black Mountain from which it emerges in Baxter and converges with Martins Fork. Poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Virginia, it flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the other two forks in Baxter. From there, the wider, now named Cumberland River continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky before turning northward toward Cumberland Falls; the 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and streams, it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south.
From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam. The more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River and Caney Fork. Northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake; the river turns northwest toward Clarksville, where it is joined by the Red River, flows back into Kentucky at the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, a section of land nestled between Lake Barkley, fed by the Cumberland River, Kentucky Lake. The river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah; the explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, but whether for the Duke of Cumberland or the English county of Cumberland is not known. The Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans.
French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or "River of the Shawnee" for this association. The river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walker's trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, which traveled to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the primary transportation routes for trading and travel. In more recent history, a number of severe floods have struck various regions that the river flows through. In April 1977, Harlan and many surrounding communities were inundated with floodwaters, destroying most of the homes and businesses within the floodplain of the river; this event led to the building of the Martins Fork Dam for flood control and the diversion of the Clover Fork around the city of Harlan. In addition, the river was diverted through a mountain cut in Kentucky.
In late April and early May 2010, due to the 2010 Tennessee floods, the river overflowed its banks and flooded Nashville and Clarksville, Tennessee. The downtown area was ordered to evacuate. Quadrula tuberosa — Cumberland River endemic'Rough rockshell' freshwater mussel. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Tennessee Media related to Cumberland River at Wikimedia Commons "Cumberland River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Cumberland River". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Caney Fork River
The Caney Fork River is a river that flows through central Tennessee in the United States, draining a substantial portion of the southwestern Cumberland Plateau and southeastern Highland Rim regions. It is a major tributary of the Cumberland River, is part of the Cumberland and Mississippi basins; the river is 143 miles long, its watershed covers 1,771 square miles in eleven counties. Monterey, Sparta, Smithville, McMinnville, Altamont and Gordonsville are among the towns that are at least drained by the river; the Caney Fork flows through two impoundments— Center Hill Lake and Great Falls Lake— both of which create sizeable artificial lakes. The river's basin is home to numerous protected lands and recreational areas, including five state wilderness areas, six interpretive areas, a wildlife management area. Two state parks— Edgar Evins State Park and Rock Island State Park— are located along the river, three others— Fall Creek Falls State Park, Burgess Falls State Park and South Cumberland State Park— are located within its basin.
The river is a popular stream for kayaking. The name "Caney Fork" comes from the dense cane breaks that grew along the river's banks when European explorers first arrived in the area; the river is a major drainage feature of the Cumberland Plateau and the largest tributary of the Cumberland River. Tributaries include: Caney Creek; the Caney Fork rises in Cumberland County about 6 miles west-northwest of Crossville before flowing southwest and crossing into White County. In southeastern White County it descends off the Cumberland Plateau through a deep and steep gorge known as Scott's Gulf in a remote area west of Scott Pinnacle, a locally-known mountain. Farther downstream, near the Dodson community, the stream becomes the border between White and Van Buren County, it receives the flow of several minor tributaries. Located at the confluence of the Caney Fork, the Collins River and the Rocky River, is Great Falls Lake; this reservoir is impounded by Great Falls Dam, a project of the former Tennessee Electric Power Company, now owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
This is the only dam outside of the Tennessee River drainage system directly operated by TVA. This dam impounds a small but deep lake due to the depth of the gorges carved by the rivers it impounds; this area was something of a resort area in the early 20th century when such projects were uncommon in the southeastern United States, but other than a few cabins, there is little evidence of this today, as the area has been supplanted by larger, more modern developments. The dam is named for the Great Falls of the Caney Fork, caused by the descent of the stream off of the Highland Rim to the level of the Nashville Basin. Located on the lake is Rock Island State Park, developed on the site of former woolen mills in the 19th century predating the electrical development; this area was used for a considerable number of exterior shots and stunts in the Sylvester Stallone film, The Specialist. At the foot of Great Falls Dam the water is slack except during periods of high discharge due to the influence of the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers Center Hill Dam project in DeKalb County further downstream, developed in the late 1950s. Unlike the Great Falls Dam, this project flooded several small communities and thousands of acres of land devoted to agriculture, it is crossed by a scenic bridge on State Route 56. Along its shores is Edgar Evins State Park, named for the father of the area's former Representative, Joe L. Evins, former chairman of the House Appropriations Committee. Below Center Hill Dam, the stream crosses into Smith County and is bridged by Interstate 40 five times in under four miles; this downstream section is annually stocked with Rainbow and Brook trout by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, is considered to be one of the best trout rivers in the state. A final bridge, reconstructed in 2014, is on U. S. Route 70N near the Elmwood community; the river's mouth into the Cumberland River, considered to be a world class striper fishery, is directly opposite the Smith County seat of Carthage.
A farm belonging to former Vice President Al Gore and his late father, Senator Albert Gore Sr. is located along here. The bluegrass band Balsam Range has a song of the same name on their album "Last Train to Kitty Hawk". Canadian Folksinger, Old Man Luedecke has a song entitled "Caney Fork River" on his album "My Hands Are On Fire and Other Love Songs." Scott's Gulf Rock Island State Park Center Hill Lake List of rivers of Tennessee Caney Fork River Water Quality Management Plan Caney Fork Watershed Association
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Deer are the hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk, the fallow deer, the chital. Female reindeer, male deer of all species except the Chinese water deer and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family within the same order of even-toed ungulates; the musk deer of Asia and chevrotains of tropical African and Asian forests are separate families within the ruminant clade. They are no more related to deer than are other even-toed ungulates. Deer appear in art from Paleolithic cave paintings onwards, they have played a role in mythology and literature throughout history, as well as in heraldry, their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a popular activity since at least the Middle Ages and remains a resource for many families today.
Deer live in a variety of biomes. While associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna; the majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, savanna habitats around the world. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to thrive. Deer are distributed, with indigenous representatives in all continents except Antarctica and Australia, though Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer, confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. Small species of brocket deer and pudús of Central and South America, muntjacs of Asia occupy dense forests and are less seen in open spaces, with the possible exception of the Indian muntjac.
There are several species of deer that are specialized, live exclusively in mountains, swamps, "wet" savannas, or riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas. Huemul deer of South America's Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids; the highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species can be found. This region has several clusters of national parks including Mount Revelstoke National Park, Glacier National Park, Yoho National Park, Kootenay National Park on the British Columbia side, Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, Glacier National Park on the Alberta and Montana sides. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry subalpine/pine forests with alpine meadows higher up.
The foothills and river valleys between the mountain ranges provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands. The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at higher altitudes in the subalpine meadows and alpine tundra areas of some of the mountain ranges. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. Elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer; the White-tailed deer have expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing to conversion of land to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose; the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, pronghorn antelope. The Eurasian Continent boasts the most species of deer in the world, with most species being found in Asia.
Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in animal species. However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer; these species have long been associated with the continent of Europe, but inhabit Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, Northwestern Iran. "European" fallow deer lived over much of Europe during the Ice Ages, but afterwards became restricted to the Anatolian Peninsula, in present-day Turkey. Present-day fallow deer populations in Europe are a result of historic man-made introductions of this species, first to the Mediterranean regions of Europe eventually to the rest of Europe, they were park animals that escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild. Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan, extinct aurochs (fo
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen, O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion products carbon dioxide and water releases energy. At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced; the flame is the visible portion of the fire. Flames consist of carbon dioxide, water vapor and nitrogen. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma. Depending on the substances alight, any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fire is an important process; the positive effects of fire include maintaining various ecological systems.
The negative effects of fire include hazard to life and property, atmospheric pollution, water contamination. If fire removes protective vegetation, heavy rainfall may lead to an increase in soil erosion by water; when vegetation is burned, the nitrogen it contains is released into the atmosphere, unlike elements such as potassium and phosphorus which remain in the ash and are recycled into the soil. This loss of nitrogen caused by a fire produces a long-term reduction in the fertility of the soil, which only recovers as nitrogen is "fixed" from the atmosphere by lightning and by leguminous plants such as clover. Fire has been used by humans in rituals, in agriculture for clearing land, for cooking, generating heat and light, for signaling, propulsion purposes, forging, incineration of waste, as a weapon or mode of destruction. Fires start when a flammable or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound, is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction.
This is called the fire tetrahedron. Fire can not exist in the right proportions. For example, a flammable liquid will start burning only if the fuel and oxygen are in the right proportions; some fuel-oxygen mixes may require a catalyst, a substance, not consumed, when added, in any chemical reaction during combustion, but which enables the reactants to combust more readily. Once ignited, a chain reaction must take place whereby fires can sustain their own heat by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate, provided there is a continuous supply of an oxidizer and fuel. If the oxidizer is oxygen from the surrounding air, the presence of a force of gravity, or of some similar force caused by acceleration, is necessary to produce convection, which removes combustion products and brings a supply of oxygen to the fire. Without gravity, a fire surrounds itself with its own combustion products and non-oxidizing gases from the air, which exclude oxygen and extinguish the fire.
Because of this, the risk of fire in a spacecraft is small. This does not apply. Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements of the fire tetrahedron. Consider a natural gas flame, such as from a stove-top burner; the fire can be extinguished by any of the following: turning off the gas supply, which removes the fuel source. In contrast, fire is intensified by increasing the overall rate of combustion. Methods to do this include balancing the input of fuel and oxidizer to stoichiometric proportions, increasing fuel and oxidizer input in this balanced mix, increasing the ambient temperature so the fire's own heat is better able to sustain combustion, or providing a catalyst, a non-reactant medium in which the fuel and oxidizer can more react. A flame is a mixture of reacting gases and solids emitting visible and sometimes ultraviolet light, the frequency spectrum of which depends on the chemical composition of the burning material and intermediate reaction products. In many cases, such as the burning of organic matter, for example wood, or the incomplete combustion of gas, incandescent solid particles called soot produce the familiar red-orange glow of "fire".
This light has a continuous spectrum. Complete combustion of gas has a dim blue color due to the emission of single-wavelength radiation from various electron transitions in the excited molecules formed in the flame. Oxygen is involved, but hydrogen burning in chlorine produces a flame, producing hydrogen chloride. Other possible combinations producing flames, amongst many, are fluorine and hydrogen, hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Hydrogen and hydrazine/UDMH flames are