Aston Francis Barrett called "Family Man" or "Fams" for short, is a Jamaican musician and Rastafarian. Born in Kingston, Aston "Family Man" Barrett was one of the Barrett brothers who played with Bob Marley and The Wailers, The Hippy Boys, Lee Perry's The Upsetters, he was the bandleader of Marley's backing band, as well as co-producer of the albums, the man in charge of the overall song arrangements. Barrett continues to lead The Wailers Band, he has great support from Marley's fan base to this day, despite his legal wrangling with the Marley family. Barrett was the teacher of Robbie Shakespeare of the duo Sly & Robbie. In 2012 he received a Lifetime Achievement award from Bass Player magazine. Barrett plays Acoustic 370 bass amplifier. In 2006 Barrett filed a lawsuit against Island Records, the Wailers' label, seeking £60 million in unpaid royalties due him and his now deceased brother; the lawsuit was dismissed. Barrett's "Family Man" nickname came about. Aston foresaw his role as a band leader and started to call himself "Family Man".
He has fathered 41 children since. Robbie Shakespeare: "Well…what can I say? He is the man. Just the way the man plays the bass, you know. There are gun fighters and there are gun fighters, seen? I can't tell you nothing more, he is a master for me. I have had help and influences from other people, but I have to give it to Family Man."Ali Campbell: "There was bluebeat and ska. That all happened before reggae, which kind of happened in about'69, you know, when reggae as we know it was invented by the Barrett brothers, I'd say."Keith Richards: "The first time the Wailers went to England, soon after this, I caught them by chance up in Tottenham Court Road. I thought, but they got their act together real quick. Family Man joined in on the bass, Bob had all of the stuff required."Ziggy Marley: "I think the drum and bass, they are a important part in Bob music. It was, you know, two brothers, they have their own style."John Lennon: "In fact, if they wanted the right sound, they should go to Jamaica! Go to the same studio that Bob Marley used!
Get down with the Rasta men and smoke ganja in big spliffs or hash in chillums. They could get that deep-down, super funky, bass-box sound that comes from Trenchtown. You couldn't get that sound in New York. No way!" The Sound of Macka Dub Familyman in Dub Aston Barrett – Familyman in Dub Burning Spear – Hail H. I. M. Radic Horace Andy & Winston Jarrett & Wailers – The Kingston Rock Keith Hudson – Pick A Dub Various Artists – Cobra Style Various Artists – Juvenile Delinquent Iya Karna with the Wailers – Inkarnation Bob Marley and the Wailers – Confrontation Bob Marley and the Wailers – Exodus Judy Mowatt- Black Woman" Various Artists – Juvenile Delinquent Various artists – Juvenile Delinquent Aston Barrett – Familyman n Dub Bob Marley and the Wailers – Catch a Fire Bass African Brothers – Want Some Freedom African Brothers & King Tubby – The African Brothers Meets King Tubby in Dub Aggrovators – Dub Justice Aggrovators – Kaya Dub Aggrovators – Reggae Stones Dub Aggrovators & King Tubby's – Dub Jackpot Aggrovators & Revolutionaries – Rockers Almighty Dub Al Campbell – Gee Baby Al Campbell – Loving Moods of Al Campbell Alpha Blondy & Wailers – Jerusalem Aston Barrett – Familyman in Dub Augustus Pablo – Dubbing with the Don Augustus Pablo – King Tubbys Meets Rockers Uptown Augustus Pablo – Original Rockers Augustus Pablo – Original Rockers Vol. 2 Augustus Pablo – The Definitive Augustus Pablo Box Set Augustus Pablo Meets Lee Perry and The Wailers Band – Rare Dubs Augustus Pablo & Various Artists – Augustus Pablo Presents DJs From 70s to 80s Big Joe – African Princess Bob Marley and the Wailers –'Soul Rebels Bob Marley and the Wailers –'Soul Revolution Bob Marley and the Wailers – The Best of The Wailers Bob Marley and the Wailers – Catch a Fire Bob Marley and the Wailers – Burnin' Bob Marley and the Wailers – Natty Dread Bob Marley and the Wailers – Live!
Bob Marley and the Wailers – Rastaman Vibration Bob Marley and the Wailers – Exodus Bob Marley and the Wailers – Kaya Bob Marley and the Wailers – Babylon By Bus Bob Marley and the Wailers – Survival Bob Marley and the Wailers – Uprising Bob Marley and the Wailers – Live Forever Bob Marley and the Wailers – Confrontation Bunny Wailer – Blackheart Man Burning Spear – Marcus Garvey Burning Spear – Garvey's Ghost Burning Spear – Man in the Hills Burning Spear – Dry & Heavy Burning Spear – Marcus' Children – released as Social Living Burning Spear – Living Dub Vol. 1 Burning Spear – Living Dub Vol. 2 Burning Spear – Hail H. I. M. Burning Spear – Farover Burning Spear – The Fittest of the Fittest Carlton Barrett & Family Man – The Sound of Macka Dub Delano Tucker – Gather Israelites Delroy Wilson – True Believer in Love Dillinger – 24 Karat Gold
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Pinkie is the traditional title for a portrait made in 1794 by Thomas Lawrence in the permanent collection of the Huntington Library at San Marino, California where it hangs opposite The Blue Boy by Thomas Gainsborough. The title now given it by the museum is Sarah Barrett Moulton: Pinkie; these two works are the centerpieces of the institute's art collection, which specialises in eighteenth-century English portraiture. The painting is an elegant depiction of Sarah Barrett Moulton, about eleven years old when painted, her direct gaze and the loose, energetic brushwork give the portrait a lively immediacy. Sarah Goodin Barrett Moulton was born on 22 March 1783, in St. James, Jamaica, she was the only daughter and eldest of the four children of Charles Moulton, a merchant from Madeira, his wife Elizabeth. Sarah was baptised on 29 May 1783, bearing the names Sarah Goodin Barrett in honour of her aunt named Sarah Goodin Barrett, who had died as an infant in 1781, she was a descendant of Hersey Barrett, who had arrived in Jamaica in 1655 with Sir William Penn and by 1783, the Barretts were wealthy landowners, slave owners, exporters of sugar cane and rum.
Inside her family, she was called Pinkey. By the time Sarah was six, her father had left the family and her mother was left to raise the children and her brothers Edward and Samuel, with the help of her relatives. In September 1792, Sarah and her brothers sailed to England to get a better education. Sarah was sent to Mrs Fenwick's school at Flint House, along with other children from Jamaican colonial families. On 16 November 1793 Sarah's grandmother, Judith Barrett, wrote from Jamaica to her niece Elizabeth Barrett Williams living on Richmond Hill in Surrey, asking her to commission a portrait of ‘my dear little Pinkey … as I cannot gratify my self with the Original, I must beg the favour of You to have her picture drawn at full Length by one of the best Masters, in an easy Careless attitude’. Sarah began sitting for Lawrence, painter-in-ordinary to George III, at his studio in Old Bond Street soon after the receipt of this letter on 11 February 1794. One year on 23 April 1795, Sarah died at Greenwich, aged 12.
A letter from her grandmother, dated 6 November 1794, mentions her recent recovery from a cough, which may have contributed to her death. She was buried on 30 April 1795 in the doctor's vault under the parish church of St Alfege, Greenwich, she was the only Moulton child to die in childhood. Her portrait by Lawrence was placed on display in the Royal Academy exhibition of 1795, which opened the day after her burial; the picture remained in the family's possession until 1910, passing at one point to Sarah's brother, Edward. Sarah's niece was the poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Pinkie was first displayed at the 1795 Royal Academy summer exhibition. According to an official Huntington Library publication: Many of the finest works by the most gifted English artists of the period were large formal portraits. Although most of the pictures were commissioned by the sitter, many were intended for public display, they made their first appearances at the annual Royal Academy exhibition, the principal artistic event of the year.
A somewhat grand and rhetorical air was considered appropriate for this type of painting, this artistic intention should be kept in mind when looking at the portraits in the Huntington collection. The painting was one of the last acquisitions of California land developer Henry E. Huntington in 1927. In 1934 the Huntington foundation constructed a new main gallery as an addition to the former residence for the collection's major portraits. Except for brief intervals during travelling exhibitions, Pinkie has hung there since that time. Pinkie owes part of its notability to its association with the Gainsborough portrait The Blue Boy. According to Patricia Failing, author of Best-Loved Art from American Museums, “no other work by a British artist enjoys the fame of The Blue Boy.” Pinkie and The Blue Boy are paired in popular esteem. The two were created by different painters a quarter century apart and the dress styles of the subjects are separated by more than one hundred and fifty years. Jonathan Buttall, who posed for Gainsborough's portrait, wears a period costume of the early seventeenth century as an homage to Flemish Baroque painter Anthony van Dyck, whom Gainsborough held in particular esteem.
Sarah Moulton wears the contemporary fashion of 1794. The two works had no association. Nonetheless, the two are so well matched that William Wilson, author of The Los Angeles Times Book of California Museums, calls them "the Romeo and Juliet of Rococo portraiture" and notes that their association borders on cliché: They have decorated cocktail coasters, appeared in advertisements, stopped the show as the tableaux vivants at the Laguna Beach ‘Pageant of the Masters.’ For all that, they remain intrinsically lovely… The continuing popularity of both pictures is based on more than the obvious. The subjects are in the springtime of life, but their freshness is lent a certain poignancy by the rather grown-up garb that suggests both the transience of youth and the attempt to cling to it. Besides, both are extraordinarily fine pictures and dramatic at once. Pinkie is used as a set decoration in the 1946 American film and can be seen in the residence of Margie and her grandmother, located on the wall in the sitting room.
Pinkie and The Blue Boy can be seen in the pilot episode of Indiana. The paintings are used as set decorations for many episodes of the American television show, Leave It to Beaver; the two painti
A plantation is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, tea, sugar cane, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, fruits. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located. A plantation house is the main house of a plantation a substantial farmhouse, which serves as a symbol for the plantation as a whole. Plantation houses in the Southern United States and in other areas are known as quite grand and expensive architectural works today, though most were more utilitarian, working farmhouses. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time.
Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners. Christmas trees are grown on plantations as well. In southern and southeastern Asia, teak plantations have replaced the natural forest. Industrial plantations are managed for the commercial production of forest products. Industrial plantations are large-scale. Individual blocks are even-aged and consist of just one or two species; these species can be indigenous. The plants used for the plantation are genetically altered for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pests and diseases in general and specific traits, for example in the case of timber species, volumic wood production and stem straightness. Forest genetic resources are the basis for genetic alteration. Selected individuals grown in seed orchards are a good source for seeds to develop adequate planting material. Wood production on a tree plantation is higher than that of natural forests.
While forests managed for wood production yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of fast-growing species yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually. In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the world's roundwood. In the first year, the ground is prepared by the combination of burning, herbicide spraying, and/or cultivation and saplings are planted by human crew or by machine; the saplings are obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries, which may specialize in selective breeding in order to produce fast growing disease- and pest-resistant strains. In the first few years until the canopy closes, the saplings are looked after, may be dusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides until established. After the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, tree growth is slowing due to competition; this stage is termed'pole stage'.
When competition becomes too intense, it is time to thin out the section. There are several methods for thinning, but where topography permits, the most popular is'row-thinning', where every third or fourth or fifth row of trees is removed with a harvester. Many trees are removed, leaving regular clear lanes through the section so that the remaining trees have room to expand again; the removed trees are delimbed, forwarded to the forest road, loaded onto trucks, sent to a mill. A typical pole stage plantation tree is 7–30 cm in diameter at breast height; such trees are sometimes not suitable for timber, but are used as pulp for paper and particleboard, as chips for oriented strand board. As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the thinning process is repeated. Depending on growth rate and species, trees at this age may be large enough for timber milling. Around year 10-60 the plantation is falling off the back side of its growth curve; that is to say, it is passing the point of maximum wood growth per hectare per year, so is ready for the final harvest.
All remaining trees are felled and taken to be processed. The ground is cleared, the cycle can be restarted; some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage because their leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not harm the mature trees. Many forestry experts claim that the establishment of plantations will reduce or eliminate the need to exploit natural forest for wood production. In principle this is true. Many point to the example of New Zealand, where 19% of the forest area provides 99% of the supply of industrial round wood, it has been estimated that the world's demand for fiber could be met by just 5% of the world fores
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning was an English poet of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime. Born in County Durham, the eldest of 12 children, Elizabeth Barrett wrote poetry from about the age of six, her mother's collection of her poems forms one of the largest extant collections of juvenilia by any English writer. At 15 she became ill, suffering intense spinal pain for the rest of her life. In life she developed lung problems tuberculosis, she took laudanum for the pain from an early age, to have contributed to her frail health. In the 1840s Elizabeth was introduced to literary society through John Kenyon, her first adult collection of poems was published in 1838 and she wrote prolifically between 1841 and 1844, producing poetry and prose. She campaigned for the abolition of slavery and her work helped influence reform in the child labour legislation, her prolific output made her a rival to Tennyson as a candidate for poet laureate on the death of Wordsworth.
Elizabeth's volume Poems brought her great success, attracting the admiration of the writer Robert Browning. Their correspondence and marriage were carried out in secret, for fear of her father's disapproval. Following the wedding she was indeed disinherited by her father; the couple moved to Italy in 1846. They had Robert Wiedeman Barrett Browning, whom they called Pen, she died in Florence in 1861. A collection of her last poems was published by her husband shortly after her death. Elizabeth's work had a major influence on prominent writers of the day, including the American poets Edgar Allan Poe and Emily Dickinson, she is remembered for such poems as "How Do I Love Thee?" and Aurora Leigh. Some of Elizabeth Barrett's family had lived in Jamaica since 1655, their wealth derived from Edward Barrett, owner of 10,000 acres in the estates of Cinnamon Hill, Cornwall and Oxford in northern Jamaica. Elizabeth's maternal grandfather owned sugar plantations, mills and ships that traded between Jamaica and Newcastle.
Biographer Julia Markus states the poet "believed that she had African blood through her grandfather Charles Moulton", but there is no evidence of this – although other branches of her family had African blood through relationships between plantation owners and slaves. What the family believed to be their genealogy in relation to Jamaica is unclear; the family wished to hand down their name, stipulating that Barrett should always be held as a surname. In some cases inheritance was given on condition. Given this strong tradition, Elizabeth used "Elizabeth Barrett Moulton Barrett" on legal documents and before she was married signed herself "Elizabeth Barrett Barrett" or "EBB". Elizabeth's father chose to raise his family in England while his business enterprises remained in Jamaica; the fortune of Elizabeth's mother's line, the Graham Clarke family derived in part from slave labour, was considerable. Elizabeth Barrett Moulton-Barrett was born on 6 March 1806, in Coxhoe Hall, between the villages of Coxhoe and Kelloe in County Durham, England.
Her parents were Mary Graham Clarke. All lived to adulthood except for one girl; the children all had nicknames: Elizabeth was "Ba". She rode her pony, went for family walks and picnics, socialised with other county families, participated in home theatrical productions, but unlike her siblings, she immersed herself in books as as she could get away from the social rituals of her family. She was baptized in 1809 at Kelloe parish church, although she had been baptised by a family friend in her first week of life. In 1809, the family moved to Hope End, a 500-acre estate near the Malvern Hills in Ledbury, Herefordshire, her father converted the Georgian house into stables and built a new mansion of opulent Turkish design, which his wife described as something from the Arabian Nights Entertainments. The interior's brass balustrades, mahogany doors inlaid with mother-of-pearl, finely carved fireplaces were complemented by lavish landscaping: ponds, kiosks, an ice house, a hothouse, a subterranean passage from house to gardens.
Her time at Hope End would inspire her in life to write her most ambitious work, Aurora Leigh, which went through more than 20 editions by 1900, but none between 1905 and 1978. She was tutored by Daniel McSwiney with her oldest brother, she began writing verses at the age of four. During the Hope End period, she was an intensely studious, precocious child, she claimed that at the age of six she was reading novels, at eight entranced by Pope's translations of Homer, studying Greek at ten, at twelve writing her own Homeric epic, The Battle of Marathon: A Poem. In 1820 Mr Barrett published The Battle of Marathon, an epic-style poem, though all copies remained within the family, her mother compiled the child's poetry into collections of "Poems by Elizabeth B. Barrett", her father called her the "Poet Laureate of Hope End" and encouraged her work. The result is one of the largest collections of juvenilia of any English writer. Mary Russell Mitford described the young Elizabeth at this time, as having "a slight, delicate figure, with a shower of dark curls falling on each side of a most expressive face.