Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary
The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary is the provincial police service for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The primary function of the RNC is to enforce provincial laws, the Criminal Code, provide security details for VIPs and the Premier of Newfoundland; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary is responsible for providing metropolitan police services to the northeast Avalon Peninsula. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, the Ontario Provincial Police and the Sûreté du Québec are the only provincial police forces in Canada; the RNC dates back with the appointment of the first police constables. In the 19th century, the RNC was modelled after the Royal Irish Constabulary with the secondment in 1844 of Timothy Mitchell of the Royal Irish Constabulary to be Inspector General, making it the oldest civil police force in North America. Mitchell served as Inspector General and Superintendent of Police until 1871, when the Newfoundland Constabulary was reorganized with a new Police Act. Other officers recruited from the RIC to take command of the Newfoundland force included Thomas J. Foley, who served from 1871 to 1873, Paul Carty, who headed the RNC from 1873–1895, John Roche McGowen, who served as constabulary Inspector General from 1895-1908.
In January 1909, John J. Sullivan became the first Newfoundland-born police chief of the RNC, he held that post until September, 1917. During World War II, the RNC pursued spies and criminal elements in the foreign military stationed at St. John's, their investigation into the 1942 Knights of Columbus Hostel fire has become popular knowledge. In 1979, Queen Elizabeth II of Canada conferred the designation Royal on the Newfoundland Constabulary, in recognition of its long history of service to Newfoundland and Labrador. On May 3, 2005, the RNC made a formal exchange of colours with An Garda Síochána na hÉireann, one of the two successor forces to the old RIC; the exchange of colours was to mark the historic links between policing in Ireland. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary serves alongside the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, contracted by the provincial government to provide provincial and community policing services; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary services major metropolitan areas while the RCMP serves smaller and remote rural areas.
The RNC polices the following areas: St. John's Metropolitan Area Corner Brook Labrador West Operating stations include: St. John's - 3 locations: Headquarters, Patrol Services Division and Criminal Investigation Division Mount Pearl - Satellite Office Labrador City - Detachment Corner Brook - Regional Office Churchill Falls - Regional Office The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary maintains a fleet of vehicles of models from several major automakers, such as models including but not limited to the following: Other Vehicles are commissioned for special purposes, such as the Tactics and Rescue Unit, Dog Services, Mounted Unit Transport, Evidence Collection. 29 foot Mercury Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat with twin 200HP engines As a result of the recommendations of the Select Committee on the Arming Policy of the RNC, members on operational duty were permitted to wear sidearms starting 14 June 1998. Members were required to keep all firearms secured in the trunk of the police cruiser and were only deployed with permission from the Chief.
The RNC has operated a mounted unit since 1873. The unit was created in 2003 replacing a voluntary unit; the unit's history can be traced back to three earlier units, the Newfoundland Constabulary Mounted Force 1873-1894, New Fire Brigade Mounted Force 1895-1922 and Newfoundland Constabulary 1922-1951. The unit has four Percheron horses: Dr. Rich Townshend Fraize Dobbin RNC Marine unit dates back to the 1880s using the steam cruiser Fiona and now has 8 crew members patrolling the Newfoundland and Labrador coastline with the Canadian Coast Guard with 5 vessels; the current RNC Marine Unit RHIB is housed at the Rovers Search and Rescue Regional Training and Response Facility Custodian helmet Integrated Security Unit List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage Monarchy of Canada Royal Canadian Mounted Police Royal Irish Constabulary Newfoundland Ranger Force—police force that patrolled the country from 1935 until 1949 Official website Oral history collection related to Ferryland Constabulary officers
Chief of police
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department in North America. A chief of police may be known as a police chief or sometimes just a chief, while some countries favour other titles such as commissioner or chief constable. A police chief is appointed by and answerable to a national or local government, with the main exception being elected sheriffs in the United States. In the United Kingdom, the chief police officer for 43 of the 45 territorial police forces and the 3 special police forces holds the rank of Chief Constable; the exceptions are the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police, where the chief police officer instead holds the rank of Commissioner. The umbrella term for the chief constables and commissioners is chief police officer; the term "chief officer", by contrast, includes the chief police officers and their deputies and assistants. The National Police Chiefs Council is the association for chief officers.
The rank of Commissioner should not be confused with the Crime Commissioners. They are elected officials who oversee a police force and how its funds are spent, rather than being police officers; the precise role a chief of police has sometimes within a country. The larger a police force or department, the more that some duties will be delegated to mid-ranked officers; the following list is a general sense of the actions and responsibilities held by any chief of police. Oversight of a department's operations and budgeting. Oversight of officers. Limited disciplinary actions to be addressed on infractions of policy, regulations, laws or ordinances. Full dismissal or heavy sanctioning of officer duty. Promotion and rank placement of officers. Production and development of department policies and regulations. Liaison with the governments that oversee and fund the department. In small police departments and updating of department equipment such as police vehicles, communications equipment and uniforms.
In the smallest police departments, the chief may carry out the same duties as regular officers. Police chiefs are sworn police officers, therefore wear police uniform and have the power of arrest, though there are exceptions. In practice, their work is administrative in all but the smallest police departments; the rare occasions when police chiefs make arrests have drawn media coverage. In 2014, Bernard Hogan-Howe made an arrest. A taxi driver had approached Hogan-Howe for help, unaware that he was the city's police commissioner. In 2017, Los Angeles Police Department Chief Charlie Beck arrested a police officer on suspicion of a sexual offence. "Chief of police" is the most common title for the highest-ranked officer in a Canadian police service. The exceptions are: the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ontario Provincial Police, South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service, Vancouver Police Department, West Vancouver Police Department, the Sûreté du Québec. In the province of Ontario, Canada, a chief of police must be a sworn police officer and therefore have completed training at the Ontario Police College or have served a probationary period with another recognized police force.
This requirement is legislated in the Police Services Act of Ontario. The legislation states in Section 2. Section 44.2 of the PSA defines the training requirements. There was a case in the police department of Guelph, where a human resource manager was promoted to the position of deputy chief but was required to complete training at the OPC; the candidate is selected by a police services board. In Indonesia, the Chief of the National Police of Indonesia is colloquially dubbed: "Kapolri", an acronym of "Kepala Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia" meaning "Head of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia", he is a four-star ranking officer in the National Police. Candidates who are chosen by the parliament originate from the best chosen three-star ranking officers of the Indonesian National Police, with the president, using his prerogative right, picks one to be the chief; because Indonesia adopts the system of a unified "national police", the chief of the Indonesian national police holds strong responsibility in policing authorities nationally across Indonesia.
The police chief conducts strong relations and work together with the Panglima/Commander of the Indonesian Military. In line with the general features of unified structure of local governments, all chiefs of the Indonesian police, in district level, municipal level, provincial level in Indonesia, are subordinates of Kapolri, the Indonesian National Police Chief. Chief of police is the most common title for the head of a local police department. Alternate titles for a chief of police include police commissioner, police superintendent, police president or police director. In large urban areas, some departments are led by a civilian overseer referred to as a commissioner; the New York City Police Department is one such case, where the police chief is the most senior sworn officer. A sheriff is the chief of a county law enforcement agency. Although sheriffs are not counted as police chiefs, their agencies have the powers and role of a police department; some sheriffs' agencie
Correctional Service of Canada
The Correctional Service of Canada known as Correctional Service Canada or Corrections Canada, is the Canadian federal government agency responsible for the incarceration and rehabilitation of convicted criminal offenders sentenced to two years or more. The agency has its headquarters in Ontario; the CSC came into being on April 10, 1979, when Queen Elizabeth II signed authorization for the newly commissioned agency and presented it with its armorial bearings. The Commissioner of the CSC is recommended for appointment by the Prime Minister and approved by an Order in Council; this appointed position reports directly to the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness and is accountable to the public via the Parliament. The current Commissioner of the CSC is Anne Kelly, who served as the senior deputy commissioner prior to the retirement of Don Head in February 2018. In addition to using generic identifiers imposed by the Federal Identity Program, CSC is one of several federal departments, granted heraldic symbols.
The badge was granted by the Canadian Heraldic Authority on October 15, 2009. The torch symbolizes learning and hope, while the key represents the eventual unlocking of the door upon completion of a prison sentence; the motto means "to grasp the future". The CSC was granted a flag in 2009. Senior officials have been granted distinctive badges by the Canadian Heraldic Authority. Following the development of the penitentiary by the Philadelphia Quakers in the 1780s, the concept of penitence—isolation and religious contemplation—influenced the design and operation of prisons, not only in North America, but in Europe, South America and Asia; the "Auburn System" developed at the Auburn Penitentiary in New York adopted the penitentiary sentence of the Philadelphia model, but added prisoners' labour, in the belief that work and training would assist in reforming criminals. The Kingston Penitentiary, based on the Auburn System, was built in 1835. Operated as a provincial jail, the penitentiary came under federal jurisdiction following the passage of the British North America Act in 1867.
In 1868, the first Penitentiary Act brought prisons in Saint John, New Brunswick and Halifax, along with Kingston, under federal jurisdiction. Over the next twelve years, the federal government built Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Penitentiary in Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Manitoba Penitentiary, in Stoney Mountain, British Columbia Penitentiary, in New Westminster, British Columbia and Dorchester Penitentiary, in Dorchester, New Brunswick; the regime of these prisons included productive labour during the day, solitary confinement during leisure hours and the rule of silence at all times. While there was no parole, prisoners with good conduct could have three days per month remitted from their sentence; the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada was formed in response to a series of riots and strikes in the 1930s. The Archambault report, published in 1938, proposed sweeping changes for Canadian penitentiaries, with emphasis on crime prevention and the rehabilitation of prisoners; the Commission recommended a complete revision of penitentiary regulations to provide "strict but humane discipline and the reformation and rehabilitation of prisoners."
While the commission's recommendations were not implemented due to the advent of World War II, much of the report's philosophy remains influential. After the Second World War, prison populations dropped, causing undercrowding and prison disturbances; this led to the creation of the Fauteaux Committee in 1953. The Committee saw prisons not as fulfilling a custodial role, but to provide programs that would promote "worthwhile and creative activity" and address the basic behaviour and patterns of inmates; this meant prisons had to change to support such programs and provide opportunities for vocational training, pre-release and after-care programs. The Fauteux Report recommended hiring more, better-trained, including those with professional qualifications in social work, psychiatry and law. An important legacy of the Committee was the creation of the National Parole Board in 1959 and the development of a system of parole to replace the former ticket of leave system. While stating that parole was not to be a reduction, or undermining, of the sentence, the committee emphasized its strong support for parole: Parole is a well-recognized procedure, designed to be a logical step in the reformation and rehabilitation of a person, convicted of an offence and, as a result, is undergoing imprisonment...
It is a transitional step between close confinement in an institution and absolute freedom in society.'" The Penitentiary Act was amended in 1961 and a plan enacted to build ten new penitentiaries across Canada to implement the Fauteaux Committee's recommendations. In the 1970s, there was a movement to combine the Penitentiary Service and the National Parole Service; this resulted in a Report to Parliament by the Sub-Committee on the Penitentiary System in Canada, chaired by Mark MacGuigan. The move toward consolidation was recognized by Commissioner Donald Yeomans, who referred to "... our efforts to come up with a title for our Service which will give us a proper identity and project the image of the merger of the Penitentiary Service and the National Parole Service." And announced that the name would be "The Correctional Service of Canada." (Y
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act, is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, soil and fauna, its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Quebec. Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required; the department is responsible for international environmental issues. CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill entered into effect in June 2012.
Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges; the federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country. Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of Global Ecolabelling Network. Environment Canada continues to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, to standardize policy implementation. Minister Deputy Minister Associate Deputy Minister Assistant Deputy Minister Associate Assistant Deputy Minister Director General Director Managers Supervisors Staff Environment Canada is divided into several geographic regions: National Capital Atlantic and Quebec Region Ontario West and North The department has several organizations which carry out specific tasks: Enforcement Branch Environmental Enforcement Wildlife Enforcement Environmental Protection Branch Canadian Wildlife Service Chemical Sectors Energy and Transportation Environmental Protection Operations Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Strategic Priorities Meteorological Service of Canada Weather and environmental monitoring Weather and Environmental Operations Weather and Environmental Prediction and Services Canadian Hurricane Centre Science and Technology Branch Atmospheric and Climate Science Water Science and Technology Directorate National Pollutant Release Inventory Wildlife and Landscape Science Air Quality Mobile Source Emissions Measurement and ResearchThe Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency is an arms-length agency that reports to the Minister of EnvironmentParks Canada, which manages the Canadian National Parks system, was removed from Environment Canada and became an agency reporting to the Minister of Heritage in 1998.
In 2003, responsibility for Parks Canada was returned to the Minister of the Environment. Environment Canada Enforcement Branch is responsible for ensuring compliance with several federal statues; the Governor-in-Council appoints enforcement officers and pursuant to section 217 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, enforcement officers have all the powers of peace officers. There are two designations of enforcement officers: Environmental Enforcement and Wildlife Enforcement; the former administers the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and pollution provisions of the Fisheries Act and corresponding regulations. The latter enforces Migratory Birds Convention Act, Canada Wildlife Act, Species at Risk Act and The Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act. All officers wear dark green uniform with a badge. Environmental Enforcement Officers only carry baton and OC spray whereas Wildlife Enforcement Officers are equipped with firearm.
The Minister may appoint members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, fishery officers, parks officers, customs officers and conservation officers of provincial and territorial governments as enforcement officers and to allow them to exercise the powers and privilege of Environment Canada officers. On March 4, 2009, a bill to increase the enforcement capabilities of Environment Canada was introduced into the House of Commons; the Environmental Enforcement Bill would increase the fines for individuals and corporations for ser
Halifax Regional Police
The Halifax Regional Police is one of a number of law enforcement agencies operating in the Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia. The city is home to a small detachment of the Canadian National Railway Police; the force has a total strength of 531 sworn officers, 151 civilian staff, 170 crossing guards, nine K-9 dogs and two horses. It is headed by chief of police. HRP is responsible for armed security and response at Halifax Stanfield International Airport. A household in the Halifax Regional Municipality pays around C$28.39 per month for police protection. The Halifax Police Department was formed on October 28, 1864, although a system of constables had been operated in an unofficial manner since the first days of settlement, on July 18, 1749; each ship arriving in the port city of Halifax would appoint one member of the crew to act as a constable responsible for the actions of the crew and passengers on board. In January 1799, the "night patrol" was formed to address a number of break and enters that hit the area in the previous year.
July 1813, was marked by widespread rioting and the militia were called up to take over policing duties. They were discharged in February 1814, but re-instated less than a month when rioting resumed. In October 1864 the day watch and night watch merged to form the Halifax Police Department under City Marshall Garrett Cotter. Six divisions were formed with five men assigned to each sergeant. Halifax got its first detective in 1873; the Dartmouth Police Department was established in 1874 following the City of Dartmouth's incorporation the previous year. The Dartmouth Police Department worked out of the Dartmouth Town Hall until the 1940s where it was moved to Wentworth Street. In the early 1990s, the Dartmouth force moved to a new headquarters at 21 Mount Hope Avenue; the Dartmouth Police Department had a number of "firsts" for Nova Scotia. Those include, first with winter and summer issued clothing, air conditioned cars, dress uniforms; the force was the first to have a K9 unit in the province as well as outfit its members with bullet proof vests.
The town of Bedford did not have its own police force until 1982. The Bedford Police Station was located in the current day Cascade Spa building on the Bedford Highway and relocated to Sunnyside Mall. With the April 1, 1996, creation of the Halifax Regional Municipality, the police forces of Halifax and Bedford were dissolved and merged into the new Halifax Regional Police. Policing in the new municipality was split between HRP covering the boundaries of the former cities of Halifax and Dartmouth and town of Bedford, while the RCMP covered Sackville and rural areas in the rest of the municipality; the patrol division is divided up into three divisional areas: West - Bedford to Sambro Loop Central - Peninsular Halifax East - DartmouthThe patrol division has a special eight-car traffic unit, a park patrol unit, a mounted unit. In addition to the visible patrol officers, the patrol division has several specialized units: Bike unit Emergency response team K-9 unit Mounted unit Public safety unit Quick response unit Traffic services unit Violent crime linkage analysis system The criminal investigation division is made up of four main sections: special investigations, criminal operations, general investigations and special enforcement.
The special investigation section is an integrated unit staffed by HRP officers as well as RCMP officers. This section is responsible for investigating sexual assault, proceeds of crime, financial crime, homicide; the section investigates cold cases, has a high risk enforcement team which monitors high risk offenders in HRM. Within the criminal operations section is a team of quality assurance readers; the quality assurance readers determine which section should handle the investigation, if a follow up is necessary. The investigative call back unit is responsible for contacting people involved in a police incident to ensure that all necessary information has been obtained or given out; the crime analysis team monitors crime trends in the HRM, allowing police to have a better understanding of crime in the community. The Crime Stoppers unit is responsible for obtaining information about a crime from the public. Anyone with information about a crime can call anonymously to give police tips that may help with their investigation.
The polygraph unit is responsible for conducting polygraphs during the course of a police investigation, during the hiring process. The forensic identification unit is responsible for collecting and analyzing evidence for police investigations; the national weapons enforcement support team is a joint unit shared between the RCMP and other police forces throughout the country, including the HRP. They focus on the illegal movement of weapons within Canada; the general investigations section is an integrated unit of RCMP officers. They are responsible for investigating all cases of robbery and enter and auto theft; this unit investigates cases of arson, serious assault, firearms complaints. The special enforcement section is an integrated unit of RCMP officers; the drug section is in charge of enforcing the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Primary focus is on street and mid-level drug trafficking, help with federal drug investigations. Drug awareness is a priority for this section; the combined forces intelligence unit is responsible for investigating organized crime.
In addition to HRP
Sûreté du Québec
The Sûreté du Québec, abbreviated SQ, is the provincial police force for the Canadian province of Quebec. No official English name exists, but the agency's name is sometimes translated to Quebec Provincial Police in English-language sources; the headquarters of the Sûreté du Québec are located on Parthenais street in Montreal and the force employs 5,200 officers. SQ is the second largest provincial force and fourth largest force in Canada; the primary function of the Sûreté du Québec is to enforce provincial laws, some municipal bylaws, the Criminal Code, many other laws throughout Quebec and to assist municipal police forces when needed. At the local scale, the SQ is responsible for providing local police services to municipalities that chose not to have their own, in exchange of payment relative to their size. In other cities, the Sûreté du Québec can take over crime investigations from their municipal forces, when required by the Police Act of the province – according to the severity of the crime and the size of the population As such, the SQ is present in smaller, rural or suburban communities, is not visible in the streets of urban centres such as Montreal and Quebec City, whose police forces must provide a wide range of services and operations, as per law.
In those cities however, the Sûreté still has large offices where various investigations are conducted. At the provincial scale, it is responsible, among others, for patrolling highways of Quebec, preserving the integrity of governmental institutions, coordinating large scale investigations and sharing with others forces the criminal intelligence database of Quebec, etc. In addition, the SQ can provide technical assistance to Quebec's independent investigation unit in any incident involving possible wrongdoing by another police department, such as death and serious injuries. Should the SQ be involved in such an incident, assistance will be provided either by the police services of Montreal or of Quebec City. On February 1, 1870, the Quebec provincial government created the Police provinciale du Québec under the direction of its first commissioner, Judge Pierre-Antoine Doucet; this new force took over the headquarters of the Quebec City municipal police, which were disbanded, although the city relaunched a municipal force in 1877.
In 1900, two distinct provincial police forces were created: the Office of Provincial Detectives of Montreal, in response to a crime wave in that city, the Revenue Police, whose mission was to collect taxes. In 1902, the government decided that the provincial police should no longer be directed by a judge but by an officer of the police themselves. Augustin McCarthy was chosen as the first chief drawn from the ranks of the police. In 1922, two headquarters were established, one in Quebec City, headed by McCarthy, one in Montreal, headed by Dieudonné Daniel Lorrain; the Office of Provincial Detectives of Montreal became part of the general provincial police in that year. The Quebec division included two detectives. In 1925, police officers started patrolling on motorcycles. In 1929 and 1930, the structure of the force was reformed and the agency adopted a new name as Sûreté provinciale du Québec, shortened to its present name; the Sûreté du Québec admitted in August 2007 that they had used undercover police posing as protestors at the 2007 Montebello Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America meetings.
This admission was made after a video captured by protestors was circulated in the Canadian media and made available on YouTube. It is not uncommon to make use of undercover agents at protests of this kind, but the video was controversial because it appeared to show one of the officers carrying a rock, suggesting to some viewers that the police may have been acting as agents provocateurs by inciting violence. Bas-Saint-Laurent-Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean Capitale-Nationale-Chaudière-Appalaches Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec Estrie Montréal-Laval-Laurentides-Lanaudière Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue-Nord-du-Québec Côte-Nord Montérégie Rank insignia of the Sûreté du Québec are on contained on "slip on" sleeves worn on the epaulettes of uniform jacket or shirt shoulders. Constables do not have any insignia on their uniform. SQ had the rank of Corporal above Constable rank. Team leaders have epaulette with the words Chef d'équipe. Early uniforms were British in origins including the use of the Custodian helmet, with the Kepi added as well.
The force adopted a uniform with a more distinct green tone, as well as a peaked cap, in the 1960s. The emblem of the force changed in the 1970s when the old provincial coat of arms gave way to the fleur-de-lis. In late 2016, Martin Prud'Homme, Director General of the SQ, announced the uniforms would be changed. Shirts and coats will be of a darker shade of olive green, the patches, the caps and the bulletproof vests will become black, the pants blue-black. One of the justification was. Progressively starting in 2017, the marked patrol cars are set to become black with white doors, on which the word "POLICE" will be more in evidence. Cars: Ford Taurus Chevrolet Impala Chevrolet Tahoe Dodge Charger Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor - retired Chevrole