Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 459,300. The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England; the urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, around the beginning of the 11th century the settlement was known as Brycgstow. Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World.
On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas; the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media and aerospace industries, the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture; the city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium.
It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides; the Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, Bristol won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015. The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge, it is most stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor, the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer. Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms; the Old English form Brycgstow is used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.
Utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile; the poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, the Bristolian'L' is what changed the name to Bristol. Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000 years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury. A Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.
Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown; the Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England; the stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became manufacturing centre. By the 14th centur
John Hansard Gallery
The John Hansard Gallery is a contemporary visual art gallery and part of the University of Southampton. The John Hansard Building was located in building 50 in the University of Southampton building coding scheme, it was built in 1959 and was designed to house a tidal model of the Solent. The architect was Ronald Sims; the building was converted to gallery use in 1979-1980. In 2018 the gallery moved to a new location in the centre of Southampton, opposite Guildhall Square, as part of a new arts complex; the new gallery opened on 12 May. Previous exhibitions have included "Panacea", an artist's collaboration between Michael Pinsky and Walker & Bromwich. From 11 February to 31 March 2012, the gallery hosted an art exhibition of new cutting edge 3d technology by designer David Cotterrell. David is an installation artist and launched this new exhibition entitled'Monsters of the Id.' using a new 3d technique of creating art work. This interprets his experiences through image manipulation, staging, CGI, 3D scanning, 3D printing and new projection techniques.
The opening exhibition in the new building consisted of works by Gerhard Richter, followed by "Time after Time", curated by Stephen Foster, gallery director. John Hansard Gallery - official site John Hansard Gallery - open data service webpage John Hansard Gallery - RDF Description from the University of Southampton
Southbank Centre is a complex of artistic venues in London, England, on the South Bank of the River Thames. It comprises three main performance venues, together with the Hayward Gallery, is Europe’s largest centre for the arts, it attracted 4,451,934 visitors during 2018. Over two thousand paid performances of music and literature are staged at Southbank Centre each year, as well as over two thousand free events and an education programme, in and around the performing arts venues. In addition, three to six major art exhibitions are presented at Hayward Gallery yearly, National Touring Exhibitions reach over 100 venues across the UK. Southbank Centre's site, which extended to 21 acres from County Hall to Waterloo Bridge, is fronted by The Queen’s Walk. In 2012 management of Jubilee Gardens transferred to the Jubilee Gardens Trust and the car park on the remaining land beyond Hungerford Bridge was sold in 2013, to extend the gardens as part of the Shell Centre redevelopment; the site does not include them.
The closest Underground stations are Embankment. Susan Gilchrist became chairman of the Board of Governors of the Southbank Centre in 2016, having first joined the Board in 2008. Elaine Bedell was appointed as Chief Executive in 2017. September 2005 saw the arrival of Jude Kelly as Southbank Centre's Artistic Director. Madani Younis was appointed to the new role of Creative Director from 2019, after Kelly stepped down in order to devote herself to the Women of the World Festival, he works alongside Gillian Moore, the Director of Music, Ralph Rugoff, Director of the Hayward Gallery. The history of Southbank Centre starts with the Festival of Britain, held in 1951. In what was described as "a tonic for the nation" by Herbert Morrison, the Labour Party government minister responsible for the event, the Festival of Britain aimed to demonstrate Britain’s recovery from World War II by showcasing the best in science, technology and industrial design, it ran from May to September 1951, by June the following year most of it had been dismantled, following the victory of Winston Churchill and the Conservative Party in the general election of 1951.
The Royal Festival Hall is the only building from the Festival of Britain. From 1962 to 1965, the Royal Festival Hall was extended towards the river and Waterloo station and refurbished; the London County Council decided in 1955 to build a second concert hall and an art gallery on the eastern part of the South Bank site occupied by a lead works and shot tower. It was another 12 years before the Queen Elizabeth Hall and the linked Purcell Room opened to the public. Together, they were to be known as South Bank Concert Halls. In 1968, the Hayward opened, under direct management of the Arts Council; the new buildings had their main entrances at first floor level and were integrated into an extensive elevated concrete walkway system linked to the Royal Festival Hall and the Shell Centre. This vertical separation of pedestrian and vehicle traffic proved unpopular due to the difficulty pedestrians had in navigating through the complex, the dark and under-used spaces at ground level below the walkways.
Following abolition of the Greater London Council in 1986, the South Bank Board was formed to take over operational control of the concert halls. The following year, the South Bank Board took over the administrative running of the Hayward from the Arts Council. Collectively, the arts venues, along with Jubilee Gardens, became the South Bank Centre, responsible to Arts Council England as an independent arts institution; the walkway on the east side of the RFH, running along Belvedere Road towards the Shell Centre was removed in 1999-2000, to restore ground level circulation. The Waterloo Site has been the subject of various plans for modification or reconstruction, in particular a scheme developed by Richard Rogers in the mid-1990s which would have involved a great glass roof over the existing three buildings; this did not proceed due to the high degree of National Lottery funding required and high cost. In 2000, a masterplan for the South Bank Centre site was produced; the main features were a new administration building for members of staff the removal of access for delivery vehicles to the south of the Hungerford Bridge approach viaduct and east of the Hayward.
In line with the plans, in 2006-7 a new glass-fronted building was created to provide office space for Southbank Centre staff as well as a range of new shops and restaurants. This was inserted between the approach viaduct to Hungerford Bridge. New restaurants and shops along the low level Thames elevation of the Royal Festival Hall replaced an earlier cafeteria area and accompanied pedestrianisation of this frontage, achieved by removing the circulation road. Between 2005-7 the Festival Hall auditorium was modified, the natural acoustic enhanced to meet classical music requirements. Seating was
The Hayward Gallery is an art gallery within the Southbank Centre in central London and part of an area of major arts venues on the South Bank of the River Thames. It is sited adjacent to the other Southbank Centre buildings and the National Theatre and BFI Southbank repertory cinema. Following a rebranding of the South Bank Centre to Southbank Centre in early 2007, the Hayward Gallery was known as the Hayward until early 2011; the Hayward Gallery was built by Higgs and Hill and opened on 9 July 1968. Its massing and extensive use of exposed concrete construction are features typical of Brutalist architecture; the initial concept was designed, with the Queen Elizabeth Hall and Purcell Room, as an addition to the Southbank Centre arts complex by team leader Norman Engleback, assisted by John Attenborough, Ron Herron and Warren Chalk, two members of the founded group Archigram, of the Department of Architecture and Civic Design of the Greater London Council. Warren Chalk developed the site plan and connective first floor walkways, while Ron Herron worked on the acoustics for the Queen Elizabeth Hall.
Alan Waterhouse Dennis Crompton, worked on the designs for the Hayward. The building is named after Sir Isaac Hayward, a former leader of the London County Council, the GLC's predecessor. Joanna Drew was the founding Director; the Hayward does not house a permanent collection. Instead, it hosts three or four major temporary exhibitions of modern or contemporary artworks each year. From 1968 to 1986, the gallery was managed by the Arts Council of Great Britain, but management of the gallery passed to Southbank Centre; the gallery is the base of Arts Council England's National Touring Exhibitions programme, as it was, until 2002, of the Arts Council Collection. Unlike British galleries with permanent collections who receive local or central government funding, but in common with other temporary exhibitions at the London public galleries, the Hayward charges admission fees; the Hayward's exhibition policy embraces visual art from all periods: past shows having included the works of Leonardo da Vinci to Edvard Munch and beyond.
The programme, has tended to concentrate on surveys of contemporary art which complement the spaces and powerful concrete structure of the building, such as those of works by Dan Flavin and Antony Gormley. It has hosted two surveys of works from the Arts Council Collection: British Art 1940–1980 and How to Improve the World: 60 Years of British Art; the design brief was for five gallery spaces, two levels of indoor galleries and three outdoor sculpture courts in order to house the Arts Council collection. The intended outdoor display of sculpture against the background of the London skyline appears to have been impractical and the sculpture courts have been little used and closed to the public until the Blind Light exhibition of works by Antony Gormley in 2007; the two levels of the gallery open to the public are linked by a pair of cast concrete staircases. These staircases, lavatories at an intermediate level, are accommodated in a concrete box in between the eastern and western parts of the indoor galleries.
One of these staircases runs down to street level with access to Belvedere Road. This hidden private entrance is located below the foyer and external walkway on the north facade, above the car park and near the overhanging Purcell Room auditorium. Screens advertised the National Film Theatre and Museum of the Moving Image enclosed the car park by the central access road, they were removed in 2008 giving a more open feel to the ground level area at the western end. The building had a small main foyer area with cast aluminium doors similar to those of the Queen Elizabeth Hall. In 2003, the foyer of the building was remodelled with a larger glass-fronted foyer, designed by the Haworth Tompkins architectural practice, including a new oval shaped glass pavilion designed by Dan Graham above a new cafe in the projecting former office space at the east end. A shop had been added earlier inside the north-west end of the lower gallery; the two upper galleries can use filtered natural light from the glass pyramids on their flat roofs.
Three concrete towers run vertically through the middle of the structure and contain the passenger lift, service lift and service duct. Between 1972 and 2008 a kinetic light sculpture, which responds to wind force, stood on the roof of the passenger lift tower; this famous London landmark was designed and built by Philip Vaughan and Roger Dainton as a way to attract visitors to the gallery. It was removed in order for renovation to take place which involved replacing the original neon lighting with LEDs, but subsequently a decision has been taken not to reinstall it; the roof terrace at the south end and linking bridge to the Queen Elizabeth Hall foyer building is closed to the public, which makes impossible some of the more interesting pedestrian circulation opportunities of the original design, although these have been opened for the Summer of Fun festival in 2011. The walkway above Belvedere Road with access from Waterloo Bridge widens to the west, following the line of Belvedere Road and accommodating the stairs to the external terrace, but following a different line from the upper gallery walls.
The angled plan shape of the concrete sculpture court in the south corner reflects the change in angle of the site between Waterloo Bridge and Festival Square. In this way, despite its uncompromising form
Arnolfini is an international arts centre and gallery in Bristol, England. It has a programme of contemporary art exhibitions, artist's performance and dance events and book readings, talks and cinema. There is a specialist art bookshop and a café bar. Educational activities are undertaken and experimental digital media work supported by online resources. A number of festivals are hosted by the gallery; the gallery was founded in 1961 by Jeremy Rees, was located in Clifton. In the 1970s it moved to Queen Square, before moving to its present location, Bush House on Bristol's waterfront, in 1975; the name of the gallery is taken from Jan van Eyck's 15th-century painting The Arnolfini Portrait. Arnolfini has since been refurbished and redeveloped in 1989 and 2005. Artists whose work has been exhibited include Bridget Riley, Rachel Whiteread, Richard Long and Jack Yeats. Performers have included Goat Island Performance Group, the Philip Glass Ensemble, Shobana Jeyasingh Dance Company; the gallery reached a new audience in April 2010, when it was chosen to host one of the three 2010 general election debates.
Jeremy Rees started Arnolfini with the assistance of his wife Annabel, the painter John Orsborn in 1961. The original location was above a bookshop in the Triangle in Bristol. In 1968, Rees was able to give up his teaching job and with the aid of private funding and Arts Council funding relocated the gallery to Queen Square to E Shed, the current home of the Watershed Media Centre. In 1975, Arnolfini moved to its present home in Bush House, occupying two floors of a 19th-century Grade II* listed tea warehouse situated on the side of the Floating Harbour in Bristol city centre; the remainder of the building was office space leased out by developers JT Group. The architect of Bush House was Richard Shackleton Pope, who constructed first the south part of the warehouse extended it to the north in 1835–1836, its original use was as a warehouse for local iron foundry D. A. Acraman; the building has a Pennant Sandstone exterior with arched ground level entrances and arched windows above. This style of architecture is the first example of the Bristol Byzantine style which became popular in the 1850s.
Conversion to a tea warehouse added interstitial floors. Dedicated to exhibiting the work of artists from the West of England, under the directorship of Barry Barker the gallery moved towards a more general spread of contemporary art. Barker supervised a successful refurbishment of the gallery spaces and café bar by David Chipperfield. Before development work began, Arnolfini was attracting over 285,000 visitors per year. Subsequent Directors have been Caroline Collier and Tom Trevor; as part of a two-year development project that finished in September 2005, the old warehouse has been redeveloped, adding another attic storey. Arnolfini now occupies the lower three floors and basement, the upper floors are leased to help pay for the running costs. One tenant is the School of part of the University of the West of England. Funding for this development was received from the National Lottery and the Barker-Mill Trust, set up by long term Arnolfini patron Peter Barker-Mill; the original committee to support Arnolfini included Peter Barker-Mill, Ann Hewer, Lawrence Ogilvie.
In July 2015, Bush House was sold to the University of the West of England, with a lease-back of the artistic space. The profits from the sale replenished Arnolfini's endowment fund. Records of Arnolfini, including a collection of artist books, are held at Bristol Archives; the Arnolfini is named after Jan van Eyck's masterpiece The Arnolfini Portrait depicting the merchant and arts patron Giovanni Arnolfini. The Arnolfini Portrait is one of the earliest paintings to assert the presence of the artist within its depiction and one of Arnolfini's consistent concerns: to explore the role of artist as a witness and recorder of what is around them – contemporary society; the painting is in the National Gallery, London and it was one of the founder's favourite paintings. Arnolfini has three floors of galleries, a specialist arts bookshop, a cinema which can be used as a performance space for theatre, live art and music, a reading room that provides reference material for all past exhibitions and wide range of books and catalogues, a café bar.
Entrance to the galleries is free of charge. Notable exhibitions have included works by Bridget Riley, Richard Long, Rachel Whiteread, Paul McCartney, Angus Fairhurst and Louise Bourgeois. Regular events include poetry and film festivals, live art and dance performances and jazz and experimental music concerts, including Bodies in Flight, Goat Island Performance Group, Akram Khan, the London Sinfonietta, the Philip Glass Ensemble, Random Dance, Shobana Jeyasingh Dance Company. There is an active access and education programme, hosting visits from students, workshops with artists, presenting interpretative information and offering some work experience placements within the gallery. Project. ARNOLFINI is an online experimental web site with dumps of digital media related to Arnolfini exhibitions and events and present, which may be reorganised by any online user, utilising resources on the web site to create new works and projects under a copyleft license. Arnolfini hosts events from outside organisations, including the Encounters Short Film Festival, the first Festival of British Independent Cinema, the biennial Inbetween Time Festival of Live Art and Intrigue and the Bristol Artists Book Event
Lisson Gallery is a contemporary art gallery with locations in London and New York, founded by Nicholas Logsdail in 1967. The gallery represents over 50 artists such as Art & Language, Ryan Gander, Carmen Herrera, Richard Long, John Latham, Sol LeWitt, Robert Mangold, Jonathan Monk, Julian Opie, Richard Wentworth, Anish Kapoor, Richard Deacon and Ai Weiwei. Lisson Gallery was founded in 1967 by Fiona Hildyard; the opening exhibition in April 1967 was a group show of five young artists including Derek Jarman and Keith Milow. It was one of a small number of pioneering galleries in the UK, Europe and the United States to champion artists associated with Minimalism and Conceptual art. In the early seventies, Logsdail worked with Nicholas Serota when he was director of Modern Art Oxford. In the 1980s, Logsdail exhibited many of the artists who came to be known under the term New British Sculptors, who came to maturity in the early-1980s. Lisson artists accounted for 14 Turner Prize nominations between 1984 and 1999, five of whom—Richard Deacon, Anish Kapoor, Tony Cragg, Grenville Davey and Douglas Gordon—were winners.
He is said to have'converted' Charles Saatchi to conceptual art. In 2011, Lisson opened a branch gallery in Italy. A location in New York City opened in May 2016; the gallery, designed by StudioMDA and Studio Christian Wassmann, is a purpose-built space beneath the High Line. An exhibition by Carmen Herrera inaugurated the New York space. Ai Weiwei, Han vases redecorated with industrial paint, 2011. Richard Long, decorative walk, 2014. Carmen Herrera, 2016. Official website
In visual arts and other mediums, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II Western art, most with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, Frank Stella, it derives from the reductive aspects of modernism and is interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism and a bridge to postminimal art practices. Minimalism in music features repetition and gradual variation, such as the works of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Julius Eastman, John Adams; the term minimalist colloquially refers to anything, spare or stripped to its essentials. It has accordingly been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. Minimalism in visual art referred to as "minimal art", "literalist art" and "ABC Art" emerged in New York in the early 1960s as new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction.
Judd's sculpture was showcased in 1964 at Green Gallery in Manhattan, as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like Leo Castelli Gallery and Pace Gallery began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction. In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture shown from April 27 – June 12, 1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York, organized by the museum's Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine and Systemic Painting, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, Hard-edge painting. In the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called. In a more broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, the Russian Constructivist movement, in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși.
In France between 1947 and 1948, Yves Klein conceived his Monotone Symphony that consisted of a single 20-minute sustained chord followed by a 20-minute silence – a precedent to both La Monte Young's drone music and John Cage's 4′33″. Klein had painted monochromes as early as 1949, held the first private exhibition of this work in 1950—but his first public showing was the publication of the Artist's book Yves: Peintures in November 1954. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, others. Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. Artist and critic Thomas Lawson noted in his 1981 Artforum essay Last Exit: Painting, minimalism did not reject Clement Greenberg's claims about modernist painting's reduction to surface and materials so much as take his claims literally.
According to Lawson, minimalism was the result though the term "minimalism" was not embraced by the artists associated with it, many practitioners of art designated minimalist by critics did not identify it as a movement as such. Taking exception to this claim was Clement Greenberg himself; the philosopher or art historian who can envision me—or anyone at all—arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article. In contrast to the previous decade's more subjective Abstract Expressionists, with the exceptions of Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt, they explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, unlike the previous decade's more subjective philosophy about art making theirs was'objective'. In general, minimalism's features included geometric cubic forms purged of much metaphor, equality of parts, neutral surfaces, industrial materials. Robert Morris, a theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1–3" published across three issues of Artforum in 1966.
In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries. These essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt – "parts... bound together in such a way that they create a maximum resistance to perceptual separation." Morris described an art represented by a "marked lateral spread and no regularized units or symmetrical intervals..." in "Notes on Sculpture 4: Beyond O