Woodford is a district in the London Borough of Redbridge, in East London. It is divided into the neighbourhoods of Woodford Green, Woodford Bridge, Woodford Wells and South Woodford; the town is situated 9.5 miles northeast of Charing Cross. The area is served by two stations on the Central line of the London Underground: Woodford and South Woodford. In the Middle Ages, it was a string of agrarian villages surrounded by what is now known as Epping Forest but was called Waltham Forest. From about 1700 onwards, however, it became a place of residence for moneyed people who had business in London; as part of the suburban growth of London at the turn of the 20th century, Woodford increased in population, becoming a municipal borough with neighbouring Wanstead in 1937 and forming part of Greater London since 1965. Woodford appears in the 1086 Domesday Book as Wdefort, although its earliest recorded use is earlier in 1062 as Wudeford; the name is Old English and means'ford in or by the wood'. The ford refers to a crossing of the River Roding, replaced with a bridge by 1238.
The old Saxon road, that followed the valley at this point. And utilised this ford, skirted the forest; the Saxon Road reached north of the Forest and branched East and West at that point. Woodford by this chance was on the trade route to the further parts of Essex. Part of the district, in a similar fashion, gained the contemporary name of Woodford Green by 1883. An earlier name which has acted as an alternative to this was Woodford Row; the beginnings of Woodford can be traced to a medieval settlement. Woodford was never a single village, rather it was a collection of hamlets, has retained to some extent its portmanteau nature. London has been central to Woodford's development; the easy access to Epping Forest, a large forest near London where members of the royal family traditionally hunted has made it attractive to Londoners since the Fifteenth Century, when wealthy Londoners started to build mansions there. As a consequence, many of the recorded inhabitants would have been servants, there is evidence of Africans living in Woodford in the eighteenth century.
In fact the domestic servants and wealthy Londoners may have outnumbered the remnant of the local, original rural folk. An example of the kind of grand house typical of pre-19th century Woodford is Hurst House known as'The Naked Beauty', which stands on Salway Hill, now part of Woodford High Road, its central block was completed in the early 18th century, its side wings were added on in the same century. It was restored in the 1930s; the central block was again restored, with the minor wings you can still see added on. Historians have pointed out Woodford's historic roads as evidence of its'residential nature', as these roads provided reasonably easy access to Woodford, but no further on. There were two roads to Woodford, the'lower road' and the'upper road'. The'lower road' was beset by flooding from the Roding, as it still is today, was continually considered to be in need of repair. In fact one of the illustrious persons to be inconvenienced by the road was King James I. The'upper road', being less used than the'lower road' was in a worse condition, the Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust undertook its repair and overhaul in 1721, extended it to Whitechapel.
The Trust did such a fine job. In 1828, the Trust built the'Woodford New Road' from Walthamstow to Woodford Wells, was soon after connected to the newly built Epping New Road; the ancient parish of Woodford known as Woodford St Mary after its parish church of St Mary's, formed part of the Becontree hundred of Essex. It was suburban to London and formed part of the Metropolitan Police District from 1840. For administration of the Poor Law it was grouped into the West Ham Union in 1835; the parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 in 1873. The Local Government Act 1894 reconstituted its area as Woodford Urban District, governed by Woodford Urban District Council. In 1934 the urban district was abolished under a county review order and its former area became part of the Wanstead and Woodford Urban District. Wanstead and Woodford was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1937; the population of the Woodford parish was 2,774 in 1851, had grown to 37,702 in 1951. In 1965 Wanstead and Woodford, together with Ilford, were grouped together to become the London Borough of Redbridge.
The beginnings of the actual modern suburbanisation of Woodford, can be traced to the opening of the Great Eastern Railway Line from Stratford to Loughton, on which Woodford became accessible by two stations, at Snakes Lane and George Lane. The new convenience of transportation encouraged the growth in number of the daily commuter, typical of the Woodford resident today. Woodford soon became the residence of the well-to-do city worker, as attested by John Marius Wilson in his Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, written between 1870 and 1872 The increase of pop. Arose from erection of houses consequent upon railway communication with London....here are many fine mansions, numerous good villas. In fact Woodford doubled its population in the middle and decades of the 19th century due to the arrival of the railway. A good barometer of Woodford's rapid growth in this period is the erection of three churches in the area, a Congregational and Church of All Saints, all built in 1874. Woodford completed its
The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations, including in Europe, Brazil, Mexico, India and South Africa. It has been manufactured in many countries. In 2008, the seventh generation Fiesta was introduced worldwide, making it the first Fiesta model to be sold in North America since the Fiesta Mark I was discontinued at the end of 1980. Ford has sold over 16 million Fiestas since 1976, making it one of the best selling Ford marques behind the Escort and the F-Series; the Fiesta was developed under the project name "Bobcat" and approved for development by Henry Ford II in September 1972, just after the launch of two comparable cars – the Fiat 127 and Renault 5. More than a decade earlier, Ford had decided against producing a new small car to rival BMC's Mini as the production cost was deemed too high, but the 1973 oil crisis saw a rise in the growing demand for smaller cars; the Fiesta was an all new car in the supermini segment, was the smallest car yet made by Ford.
Development targets indicated a production cost US$100 less than the current Escort. The car was to have a wheelbase longer than that of the Fiat 127, but with overall length shorter than that of Ford's Escort; the final proposal was developed by Tom Tjaarda at Ghia. The project was approved for production in late 1973, with Ford's engineering centres in Cologne and Dunton collaborating. Ford estimated that 500,000 Fiestas a year would be produced, built an all-new factory near Valencia, Spain. Final assembly took place in Valencia; the name Fiesta belonged to General Motors, used as a trim level on Oldsmobile station wagons, when the car was designed and was given for Ford to use on their new B-class car. After years of speculation by the motoring press about Ford's new car, it was subject to a succession of crafted press leaks from the end of 1975. A Fiesta was on display at the Le Mans 24 Hour Race in June 1976, the car went on sale in France and Germany in September 1976, its initial competitors in Europe, apart from the Fiat 127 and Renault 5, included the Volkswagen Polo and Vauxhall Chevette.
Chrysler UK were about to launch the Sunbeam by this stage, British Leyland was working on a new supermini, launched as the Austin Metro in 1980. The Fiesta was available in Europe with the Valencia 957 cc I4, 1,117 cc engines and in Base, Popular Plus, L, GL, Ghia and S trim, as well as a van; the US Mark I Fiesta was built in Cologne, West Germany, but to different specifications. These trim levels changed little in the Fiesta's three-year run in the US, from 1978 to 1980. All US models featured the more powerful 1,596 cc engine, fitted with a catalytic converter and air pump to satisfy strict Californian emission regulations), energy-absorbing bumpers, side-marker lamps, round sealed-beam headlamps, improved crash dynamics and fuel system integrity as well as optional air conditioning. In the US market, the Ford Escort replaced both the Fiesta and the compact Pinto in 1981, competing with the Chevrolet Chevette and Chevrolet Cavalier. A sporting derivative was offered in Europe for the 1980 model year, using the 1.3 L Kent Crossflow engine to test the market for the similar XR2 introduced a year which featured a 1.6 L version of the same engine.
Black plastic trim was added to the interior. The small square headlights were replaced with larger circular ones, with the front indicators being moved into the bumper to accommodate the change. For the 1979 auto show season, Ford in conjunction with its Ghia Operations in Turin, produced the Ford Fiesta Tuareg off-road car, it was touted in press materials as "a concept vehicle designed and equipped for practical, off-road recreational use."Minor revisions appeared across the range in late 1981, with larger bumpers to meet crash worthiness regulations and other small improvements in a bid to maintain showroom appeal ahead of the forthcoming second generation. The Fiesta Mark II appeared in August 1983 with a revised front end and interior, a bootlid mirroring the swage lines from the sides of the car; the 1.3 L OHV engine was dropped, being replaced in 1984 by a CVH powerplant of similar capacity, itself superseded by the lean burn 1.4 L two years later. The 957 and 1,117 cc Kent/Valencia engines continued with only slight alterations and for the first time a Fiesta diesel was produced with a 1,600 cc engine adapted from the Escort.
The new CTX continuously variable transmission fitted in the Fiat Uno appeared early in 1987 on 1.1 L models only. The Mk2 Fiesta core range was made up of the following model variants; the second generation Fiesta featured a different dashboard on the lower-series trim levels compared to the more expensive variants. The XR2 model was updated with a larger bodykit, it featured a 96 bhp 1.6 L CVH engine as seen in the Ford Escort XR3, five-speed gearbox, rather than t
A11 road (England)
The A11 is a major trunk road in England. It runs north east from London to Norwich, although after the M11 opened in the 1970s and the A12 extension in 1999, a lengthy section has been downgraded between the suburbs of east London and the north-west corner of the county of Essex, it multiplexes/overlaps with the A14 on the Newmarket bypass. All this part is now a minor road, thus the A11 now starts at Aldgate, just inside the eastern boundary of the City of London. The first stretch is Whitechapel High Street, east of the junction with Mansell Street. In a complex reworking of the roads since the days of the Aldgate gyratory system, it is two-way, but the east-bound section is part of the ring-road that retained a one-way system south of this junction, but the west-bound section is for local access and you have to U-turn to avoid entering the congestion charging zone. East of Aldgate station, the A11 enters the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and the East End of London, it becomes Whitechapel High Street, again part of the Aldgate one-way system.
The A11 passes through past Whitechapel station and the Royal London Hospital. It becomes Mile End Road at the eastern end of Whitechapel Road, at Mile End Gate, the former toll gate for the turnpike, passing Stepney Green Underground station, with Stepney to the south, Mile End Underground station. Next, it becomes Bow Road. There is a dual carriageway flyover over the Bow Interchange roundabout, a junction with the A12. However, at the end of the flyover, the A11 crosses into the London Borough of Newham and becomes a western extension to the A118. Following the opening of the A12 extension in 1999, the A11 was re-numbered to make it seem a less important road and encourage traffic to use the new dual carriageway between there and Leytonstone; this is the western limit of the downgraded section. The A11 number won't reappear until Stump Cross in deepest Essex; the road enters Cambridgeshire, with the road number A11 re-appearing at M11 Junction 9A, the A11 is now a trunk road. It follows the route of a Roman road for the remainder of its length.
The A11 went through Newmarket. The Newmarket bypass, opened to traffic in July 1975, is a dual carriageway; the western end is the A11, but most of its length is a multiplex/overlap with the A14. The A11 re-appears north-east of Newmarket, remained a dual carriageway until Barton Mills, Suffolk; the road bypasses Barton Mills before entering Norfolk in the Thetford Forest, passing the 113-foot-tall Elveden War Memorial. This section of the road opened as a dual carriageway on 12 December 2014; this completes the dualling of the trunk road between London. The upgrading of the final section of single carriageway between Barton Mills and Thetford means the road is dual carriageway all the way to Norwich; the road continues northeast bypassing Thetford and Wymondham. The A11 ran through the centre of all three towns giving rise to congestion which became the focus of delays on the route, it passes the Snetterton Circuit motor racing venue. On entering Norwich, it is called Newmarket Road, it terminates at the St Stephens Street roundabout near the city centre.
Various sections of the A11 between the junction the M11 in Cambridgeshire and Norwich have been upgraded to dual carriageway. The Roudham Heath to Attleborough section was dualled in 2003 and the Attleborough bypass was dualed in 2007; the single carriageway road between Thetford and the Fiveways roundabout is now dual carriageway and opened in December 2014. Proposals to dual 14.8 km of the road between the Fiveways Roundabout at Barton Mills, bypassing Elveden to the North and joining the western end of the Thetford Bypass had been discussed for many years without any developments being made. Draft Orders together with an Environmental Statement were published in Autumn 2008; the Labour government's Secretary of State for Transport announced the scheme would be brought forward by 18 months to 2010 with an open date of 2013 in November 2008 in response to the Financial crisis of 2007-2008. Supporters expressed concern in September 2010 that the scheme would be cancelled as part of the coalition government's comprehensive spending review noting that the report from the public inquiry had not yet been signed off by the Department for Transport.
The Highways Agency has published an official map of the proposed scheme and a Google overlay map is available. The original cost estimate was £30 million rising to £60 million in March 2007 and to £113-£157 million by August 2008; the project received strong support from local business groups and local government and was expected to reduce journey times by 3 minutes off-peak and up to 25 minutes at peak times. Environmental campaign groups believed that in a time of economic downturn it would be better to invest in local public transport rather than on costly road schemes. On 20 October 2010, the government approved the scheme; the Elveden Bypass opened during Easter 2014 with one lane in use each way. The full dual carriageway between Barton Mills and Thetford was opened on 12 December 2014 by transport secretary Patrick McLoughlin; the A11 started at the Bank of England in the City of London, next to Bank Underground station, went eastwards along Cornhill and Leadenhall Street, past Aldgate Pump and along Aldgate.
Hence leading to the current A11 starting point at Aldgate. From Bow Interchange, A118 becomes a dual carr
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, she grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne; as Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas.
She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989, she raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, mental illness. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk, she was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, his first wife, Frances. The Spencer family has been allied with the British royal family for several generations; the Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt, a prospective Princess of Wales.
On 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at Sandringham. She grew up with three siblings: Sarah and Charles, her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, Lady Althorp was sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem"; the experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and the root of their divorce because I don't think they got over it." Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate. The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II; the royal family holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Diana was seven years old, her mother began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969. Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp.
Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy. In 1976, Lord Althorp married Countess of Dartmouth. Diana's relationship with her stepmother was bad, she resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing". Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire. Diana was home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen, she began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine. She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973, she did not shine academically. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.
She left West Heath. Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time, she showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana excelled in swimming and diving, studied ballet and tap dance. After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends. In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but cooked for her roommates, she took a series of low-paying jobs. She found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London, worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico. In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh