Aillas is a commune of the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
Arcins is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles. France is one of the largest wine producers in the world. French wine traces its history to the 6th century BC, with many of France's regions dating their wine-making history to Roman times; the wines produced range from expensive wines sold internationally to modest wines only seen within France such as the Margnat wines were during the post war period. Two concepts central to the better French wines are the notion of terroir, which links the style of the wines to the locations where the grapes are grown and the wine is made and the Appellation d'origine contrôlée system, replaced by the Appellation d'Origin Protégée system in 2012. Appellation rules define which grape varieties and winemaking practices are approved for classification in each of France's several hundred geographically defined appellations, which can cover regions, villages or vineyards. France is the source of many grape varieties that are now planted throughout the world, as well as wine-making practices and styles of wine that have been adopted in other producing countries.
Although some producers have benefited in recent years from rising prices and increased demand for some of the prestige wines from Burgundy and Bordeaux, the French wine industry has seen a decline in domestic consumption and internationally, it has had to compete with many new world wines. French wine originated in the 6th century BC, with the colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers. Viticulture soon flourished with the founding of the Greek colony of Marseille. Wine has been around for thousands of years in the countries on the Mediterranean but France has made it a part of their civilization and has considered wine-making as an art for over two thousand years; the Gauls knew how to prune it. Pruning creates an important distinction in the difference between wild vines and wine producing grapes. Before long, the wines produced in Gaul were popular all around the world; the Roman Empire licensed regions in the south to produce wines. St. Martin of Tours spread planting vineyards. During the Middle Ages, monks maintained vineyards and, more conserved wine-making knowledge and skills during that turbulent period.
Monasteries had the resources and inventiveness to produce a steady supply of wine for Mass and profit. The best vineyards were owned by the monasteries and their wine was considered to be superior; the nobility developed extensive vineyards but the French Revolution led to the confiscation of many vineyards. The advance of the French wine industry stopped abruptly as first Mildew and Phylloxera spread throughout the country and the rest of Europe, leaving vineyards desolate. Came an economic downturn in Europe followed by two world wars and the French wine industry was depressed for decades. Competition threatened French brands such as Bordeaux; this resulted in the establishment in 1935 of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée to protect French interests. Large investments, the economic revival after World War II and a new generation of Vignerons yielded results in the 1970s and the following decades, creating the modern French wine industry. In 1935, laws were passed to control the quality of French wine.
The Appellation d'origine contrôlée system was established, governed by a powerful oversight board. France has one of the oldest systems for protected designation of origin for wine in the world and strict laws concerning winemaking and production and many European systems are modelled after it; the word "appellation" has been put to use by other countries, sometimes in a much looser meaning. As European Union wine laws have been modelled after those of the French, this trend is to continue with further EU expansion. French law divides wine into four categories, two falling under the European Union Table Wine category and two the Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions designation; the categories and their shares of the total French production for the 2005 vintage, excluding wine destined for Cognac and other brandies, were Table wine: Vin de Table – Carries with it only the producer and the designation that it is from France. Vin de Pays – Carries with it a specific region within France, subject to less restrictive regulations than AOC wines.
For instance, it allows producers to distinguish wines that are made using grape varieties or procedures other than those required by the AOC rules, without having to use the simple and commercially non-viable table wine classification. In order to maintain a distinction from Vin de Table, the producers have to submit the wine for analysis and tasting, the wines have to be made from certain varieties or blends. QWPSR: Vin délimité de qualité supérieure – Less strict than AOC used for smaller areas or as a "waiting room" for potential AOCs; this category was abolished at the end of 2011. Appellation d'origine contrôlée – Wine from a particular area with many other restrictions, including grape varieties and winemaking methods; the total French production for the 2005 vintage was 43.9 million hl of which 28.3% was white and 71.7% was red or rosé. The proportion of white wine is higher for the higher categories, with 34.3% of the AOC wine being white. In years with less favourable vintage conditions than 2005, the proportion of A
Arcachon is a commune in the southwestern French department of Gironde. It is a popular swimming destination on the Atlantic coast 55 kilometres southwest of Bordeaux, in the Landes forest, it has a sandy beach and a mild climate said to be favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints. Arcachon is twinned with:* Aveiro, Portugal In 1857, Emperor Napoleon III signed an imperial decree declaring that Arcachon was now an autonomous municipality, the railway line extension from Bordeaux to Arcachon had been completed that same year. At that time, Arcachon was scarcely more than a forest of pine trees and strawberry trees, with no road links and few real houses, with a population fewer than 400 people fishermen and peasants. In earlier years, when some hygienists began to recommend sea bathing, three sea establishments were laid out by investors to attract the Bordeaux bourgeoisie and other wealthy people; this was the beginning of a new lifestyle, some of the locals got the opportunity to claim their independence from La Teste-de-Buch, which owned their properties, in order to found a "free" new town, Arcachon.
Arcachon is known for the "Arcachonnaise", the local name for an Arcachon villa, the architectural style of many of the older houses built there. It is a Victorian style, criticized for generations, but is now considered to be charming; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 8 June 1918 to operate seaplanes during World War I. The base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne. At its southern entrance from the Atlantic Ocean, Arcachon Bay is crowned by Europe's largest sand dune, the Dune du Pilat, nearly 3 kilometres long, 500 metres wide, reaching 110 metres in height, moving inland at rate of 5 metres a year; the area is served by the TGV Atlantique. Humbert Balsan - Film producer, was born in Arcachon in 1954. Carmen Bernos de Gasztold - Poet, was born in Arcachon in 1919. Sylvie Caster Writer and journalist, was born in Arcachon in 1952. Alexandre Dumas - Writer, once lived in Arcachon's Ville d'Hiver. Ramón Emeterio Betances - Puerto Rican politician, spent close to six months at Arcachon shortly before his death in 1898.
Jean Périsson - composer, was born here in 1924 Louise Talma - Composer, was born here in 1906. Charles Tournemire - Composer-organist, died here in 1939. On the other side of the Bassin d'Arcachon is Cap Ferret, a popular resort for celebrities including Zinedine Zidane and Jean Pierre Pernaut, who have holiday homes. Dune du Pilat Communes of the Gironde department Château Deganne Our Lady of Arcachon INSEE This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Official web site Dune du Pyla site Arcachon web site Aerial view of the Dune du Pilat Air photography of Arcachon Live Camera Arcachon
Arès is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department Pilgrims of Arès INSEE
Château Climens is a Premier Cru Classé Sauternes wine producer from the Barsac appellation. The estate is located in the southern part of France’s Bordeaux wine region in the district of Graves, an eighth of a mile away from Barsac's other most rated vineyard, Château Coutet, it is a wine characteristically known as better when young, though in its greatest years at the height of finesse. The vintages 1929, 1947 and 1949 were described by Alexis Lichine to surpass Château d'Yquem as "lighter, with less vinosity and body, yet miraculously subtle."Château Climens produces a second wine named Cypres de Climens. The name Climens, appeared for the first time on a contract dated 1547, the name in the local dialect meaning "unfertile, poor land"; the Roborel family were responsible for expanding the estate, initiating viticulture in the 17th century, oversaw the production of both white and red wine. In 1855, Monsieur Henri Gounouilhou bought the property, in the year Climens was classified a Premier Cru.
It remained the property of the Gounouilhou family until Lucien Lurton of Château Brane-Cantenac bought the estate in 1971, along with Château Doisy-Dubroca. It has been run by his daughter, Bérénice Lurton, since 1992; the grape variety is 100% Sémillon, said to suit the vineyard's chalky soil. The vineyard area extends 29 hectares or 70 acres, with an average production of 3,000 cases per year. Château Climens official site