Cassander was king of the Hellenic kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, de facto ruler of southern Greece from 317 BC until his death. Eldest son of Antipater and a contemporary of Alexander the Great, Cassander was one of the Diadochi who warred over Alexander's empire following the latter's death in 323 BC. Cassander seized the crown by having Alexander's son and heir Alexander IV murdered. In governing Macedonia from 317 BC until 297 BC, Cassander restored peace and prosperity to the kingdom, while founding or restoring numerous cities. In his youth, Cassander was taught by the philosopher Aristotle at the Lyceum in Macedonia, he was educated alongside Alexander the Great in a group that included Hephaestion and Lysimachus. His family were distant collateral relatives to the Argead dynasty. Cassander is first recorded as arriving at Alexander the Great's court in Babylon in 323 BC, where he had been sent by his father, most to help uphold Antipater's regency in Macedon, although a contemporary, hostile to the Antipatrids suggested that Cassander had journeyed to the court to poison the King.
Whatever the truth of this suggestion, Cassander stood out amongst the Diadochi in his hostility to Alexander's memory. As Cassander and the other diadochi struggled for power, Alexander IV, Alexander's supposed illegitimate son Heracles were all executed on Cassander's orders, a guarantee to Olympias to spare her life was not respected. Cassander's decision to restore Thebes, destroyed under Alexander, was perceived at the time to be a snub to the deceased King, it was even said that he could not pass a statue of Alexander without feeling faint. Cassander has been perceived to be ambitious and unscrupulous, members of his own family were estranged from him; as Antipater grew close to death in 319 BC, he transferred the regency of Macedon not to Cassander, but to Polyperchon so as not to alarm the other Diadochi through an apparent move towards dynastic ambition, but also because of Cassander's own ambitions. Cassander rejected his father's decision, went to seek the support of Antigonus and Lysimachus as his allies.
Waging war on Polyperchon, Cassander destroyed his fleet, put Athens under the control of Demetrius of Phaleron, declared himself Regent in 317 BC. After Olympias’ successful move against Philip III in the year, Cassander besieged her in Pydna; when the city fell two years Olympias was killed, Cassander had Alexander IV and Roxanne confined at Amphipolis. Cassander associated himself with the Argead dynasty by marrying Alexander's half-sister, he had Alexander IV and Roxanne poisoned in either 310 BC or the following year. By 309 BC, Polyperchon began to claim that Heracles was the true heir to the Macedonian inheritance, at which point Cassander bribed him to have the boy killed. After this, Cassander's position in Greece and Macedonia was reasonably secure, he proclaimed himself king in 305 BC. After the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, in which Antigonus was killed, he was undisputed in his control of Macedonia. Cassander's dynasty did not live much beyond his death, with his son Philip dying of natural causes, his other sons Alexander and Antipater becoming involved in a destructive dynastic struggle along with their mother.
When Alexander was ousted as joint king by his brother, Demetrius I took up Alexander's appeal for aid and ousted Antipater II, killed Alexander V and established the Antigonid dynasty. The remaining Antipatrids, such as Antipater Etesias, were unable to re-establish the Antipatrids on the throne. Of more lasting significance was Cassander's refoundation of Therma into Thessalonica, naming the city after his wife. Cassander founded Cassandreia upon the ruins of Potidaea. In the Oliver Stone film Alexander, he is portrayed by Jonathan Rhys Meyers. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca chapters xviii, xix, xx Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2007. ISBN 9780297852940 Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Demetrius", 18, 31. Vita e opere di Cassandro di Macedonia. Stuttgart 2003. ISBN 3-515-08381-2 A genealogical tree of Cassander
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
Artabazos II was a Persian general and satrap. He was the son of the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, Pharnabazus II, younger kinsman of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 356 BC, his first wife was an unnamed Greek woman from Rhodes, sister of the two mercenaries Mentor of Rhodes and Memnon of Rhodes. In 362 BC, Artabazos was sent by Artaxerxes II to capture Datames, the satrap of Cappadocia, who had joined in the Satraps' revolt to which participated Artabazus' brother, Ariobarzanes. However, Artabazos was defeated by Datames. Artaxerxes II prevailed, Ariobarzanes was crucified and Datames assassinated. Following the capture and death of his brother, Artabazos was made satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, but in 356 BC he refused obedience to the new Persian king, Artaxerxes III. Artaxerxes had ordered the disbanding of all the satrapal armies of Asia Minor, as he felt that they could no longer guarantee peace in the west and was concerned that these armies equipped the western satraps with the means to revolt.
The order was ignored by Artabazus, who asked for the help of Athens in a rebellion against the king. Artabazos became involved in a revolt against the king and against other satraps who acknowledged the authority of Artaxerxes III. Artabazos was at first supported by Chares, an Athenian general, his mercenaries, whom he rewarded generously; the gold coinage of Artabazos is thought to have been issued to reward the troops of Chares. The Satrap of Mysia, Orontes I, was on his side. Artabazos was supported by the Thebans, who sent him 5,000 men under Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazos defeated the King in two great battles. However, Artaxerxes III was able to deprive Artabazos of his Athenian and Boeotian allies by counter-bribing them, whereupon Artabazos was defeated by the king's general and was taken prisoner. Mentor and Memnon, two brothers-in-law of Artabazos, who had supported him, still continued the revolt, as they were aided by the Athenian mercenary leader, Charidemus.
Together they were able to free Artabazos. After this, Artabazos seems either to have continued his rebellious operations or at least started a fresh revolt; however he had no choice but to flee with Memnon and his family. They took refuge with Philip II of Macedonia. Artabazos, 37, his family were exiled at the court of Philip II for about ten years, from 352 to 342, during that time Artabazos became acquainted with the future Alexander the Great. Barsine, daughter of Artabazos, future wife of Alexander, grew up at the Macedonian court. During the absence of Artabazos, Mentor of Rhodes, his brother-in-law, was of great service to the king of Persia in his war against Nectanebo II of Egypt. After the close of this war, in the summer of 342 BC, Artaxerxes gave Mentor the command against the rebellious satraps of western Asia. Mentor took advantage of this opportunity to ask the king to grant a pardon to Memnon; the king agreed and both men and their families were able to return to Persia. In the subsequent reign of Darius III Codomannus, Artabazos distinguished himself by his loyalty and commitment to the new Persian king.
He took part in the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC, afterwards accompanied Darius on his flight from Alexander's Macedonian armies. After the final defeat and death of Darius III in 330 BC, Alexander recognised and rewarded Artabazos for his loyalty to the Persian king by giving him the satrapy of Bactria, a post he held until his death in 328 BC. Artabazos' daughter, may have married Alexander and may have been the mother of Heracles. Another daughter, was given in marriage to Ptolemy. For Barsine, the daughter of Artabazus, the first lady Alexander took to his bed in Asia, who brought him a son named Heracles, had two sisters. In 328 BC, Artabazos resigned his satrapy, given to Cleitus the Black. Artabazos had a son named Pharnabazus. Smith, William.
Justin was a Latin writer who lived under the Roman Empire. Nothing is known of Justin's personal history, his name appearing only in the title of his work, he must have lived after Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, whose work he excerpted, his references to the Romans and Parthians' having divided the world between themselves would have been anachronistic after the rise of the Sassanians in the third century. His Latin appears to be consistent with the style of the second century. Ronald Syme, argues for a date around AD 390 before the compilation of the Augustan History, dismisses anachronisms and the archaic style as unimportant, as he asserts readers would have understood Justin's phrasing to represent Trogus' time, not his own. Justin was the author of an epitome of Trogus' expansive Liber Historiarum Philippicarum, or Philippic Histories, a history of the kings of Macedonia, compiled in the time of Augustus. Due to its numerous digressions, this work was retitled by one of its editors, Historia Philippicae et Totius Mundi Origines et Terrae Situs, or Philippic History and Origins of the Entire World and All of its Lands.
Justin's preface explains that he aimed to collect the most important and interesting passages of that work, which has since been lost. Some of Trogus' original arguments are preserved in various other authors, such as Pliny the Elder. Trogus' main theme was the rise and history of the Macedonian Empire, like him, Justin permitted himself considerable freedom of digression, producing an idiosyncratic anthology rather than a strict epitome. Justin's history was much used in the Middle Ages, when its author was sometimes mistakenly conflated with Justin Martyr; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Justin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Syme, Ronald, "The Date of Justin and the Discovery of Trogus", Historia, No. 37, pp. 358–371. An early edition of the Epitome from the Bavarian State Library Justin's Epitome at The Latin Library, Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum, & Itinera Electronica Watson's 1853 translation at CSL, the Tertullian Project, & Attalus Arnaud-Lindet's 2003 translation at CSL Correa's 2003 partial translation at CSL Prologi of Pompeius Trogus's work at the Tertullian Project
Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. It is colloquially known in Syria as aš-Šām and titled the "City of Jasmine". In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural center of the Levant and the Arab world; the city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.7 million people. Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres above sea level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate because of the rain shadow effect; the Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods.
Today, it is all of the government ministries. As of 2018, Damascus has witnessed repeated conflicts and has been considered by Mercer as one of the most unfavorable places to live; the name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as / T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC. The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, it is attested as Imerišú in Akkadian, T-m-ś-q in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic and Dammeśeq in Biblical Hebrew. A number of Akkadian spellings are found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC: Dimasqa, Dimàsqì, Dimàsqa. Aramaic spellings of the name include an intrusive resh influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling". Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is "Damascus", imported from originated from "the Qumranic Darmeśeq, Darmsûq in Syriac", meaning "a well-watered land". In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbors and Turkey.
Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for "Levant" and for "Syria". Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem, was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra. Hence, Sham refers to. Damascus was built in a strategic site on a plateau 680 m above sea level and about 80 km inland from the Mediterranean, sheltered by the Anti-Lebanon mountains, supplied with water by the Barada River, at a crossroads between trade routes: the north-south route connecting Egypt with Asia Minor, the east-west cross-desert route connecting Lebanon with the Euphrates river valley; the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, so that the region of Damascus is sometimes subject to droughts. However, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables and fruits have been farmed since ancient times.
Maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus. Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not exist; the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, lies on the south bank of the river Barada, dry. To the south-east and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages: Midan in the south-west and Imara in the north and north-west; these neighborhoods arose on roads leading out of the city, near the tombs of religious figures. In the 19th century outlying villages developed on the slopes of Jabal Qasioun, overlooking the city the site of the al-Salihiyah neighborhood centered on the important shrine of medieval Andalusian Sheikh and philosopher Ibn Arabi; these new neighborhoods were settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule.
Thus they were known as al-Muhajirin. They lay 2–3 km north of the old city. From the late 19th century on, a modern administrative and commercial center began to spring up to the west of the old city, around the Barada, centered on the area known as al-Marjeh or the meadow. Al-Marjeh soon became the name of what was the central square of modern Damascus, with the city hall in it; the courts of justice, post office and railway station stood on higher ground to the south. A Europeanized residential quarter soon began to be built on the road leading between al-Marjeh and al-Salihiyah; the commercial and administrative center of the new city shifted northwards towards this area. In the 20th century, newer suburbs developed north of the Barada, to some extent to the south, invading the Ghouta oasis. In 1956–1957 the new neighborhood of Yarmouk bec
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as related languages; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed to various forms of art and science, own one of the world's most prominent literatures. In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the eastern Caucasus, albeit assimilated, are referred to as Tats; however the terms Tajik and Persian were synonymous and were used interchangeably, many of the most influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran's present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.
In historical contexts in English, "Persians" may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. In the Bible, it is given as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. A Greek folk etymology connected the name to a legendary character in Greek mythology. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians themselves knew the story, as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Although Persis was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources and used as an official name for all of Iran for many years. Thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country; some medieval and early modern Islamic sources used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples, including the speakers of the Khwarezmian language, the Mazanderani language, the Old Azeri language.
10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as "descendants of the ancient Persians". On March 21, 1935, the former king of Iran, Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran, the native name of the country, in formal correspondence. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent; the earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, an Assyrian inscription from the mid-9th century BC, found at Nimrud. The inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC, settled to the northwest of modern-day Iran.
They were dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region. However, they played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the Medes, another branch of this population, founded the unified empire of Media as the region's dominant cultural and political power in c. 625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a vassal state to the central Median power. In c. 552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c. 550 BC. They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen; the Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and the opulent city of Persepolis.
The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is a reciprocal cultural exchange. Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars; the empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. During the Achaemenid era, Persian colonists settled in Asia Minor. In Lydia, near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in
Ares is the Greek god of war. He is one of the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature, he represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship; the Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle and man-slaughtering." His sons Phobos and Deimos and his lover, or sister, Enyo accompanied him on his war chariot. In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him. An association with Ares endows objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality, his value as a war god is placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena depicted in Greek art as holding Nike in her hand, favoured the triumphant Greeks. Ares plays a limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are alluded to.
When Ares does appear in myths, he faces humiliation. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship; the most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device. The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars, who as a father of the Roman people was given a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion as a guardian deity. During the Hellenization of Latin literature, the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares, thus in the classical tradition of Western art and literature, the mythology of the two figures became indistinguishable. The etymology of the name Ares is traditionally connected with the Greek word ἀρή, the Ionic form of the Doric ἀρά, "bane, curse, imprecation". There may be a connection with the Roman god of war, via hypothetical Proto-Indo-European *M̥rēs.
Walter Burkert notes that "Ares is an ancient abstract noun meaning throng of battle, war." R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name; the earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek, a-re, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The adjectival epithet, was appended to the names of other gods when they took on a warrior aspect or became involved in warfare: Zeus Areios, Athena Areia Aphrodite Areia. In the Iliad, the word ares is used as a common noun synonymous with "battle."Inscriptions as early as Mycenaean times, continuing into the Classical period, attest to Enyalios as another name for the god of war. Ares was one of the Twelve Olympians in the archaic tradition represented by the Odyssey. Zeus expresses a recurring Greek revulsion toward the god when Ares returns wounded and complaining from the battlefield at Troy: Then looking at him darkly Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him:"Do not sit beside me and whine, you double-faced liar. To me you are the most hateful of all gods.
Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart and battles.... And yet I will not long endure to see you in pain, sinceyou are my child, it was to me that your mother bore you, but were you born of some other god and proved so ruinouslong since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky." This ambivalence is expressed in the Greeks' association of Ares with the Thracians, whom they regarded as a barbarous and warlike people. Thrace was Ares's birthplace, his true home, his refuge after the affair with Aphrodite was exposed to the general mockery of the other gods. A late-6th-century BC funerary inscription from Attica emphasizes the consequences of coming under Ares's sway:Stay and mourn at the tomb of dead KroisosWhom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks. In Sparta, Ares was viewed as a model soldier: his resilience, physical strength, military intelligence were unrivaled. An ancient statue, representing the god in chains, suggests that the martial spirit and victory were to be kept in the city of Sparta.
That the Spartans admired him is indicative of the cultural divisions that existed between themselves and other Greeks the Athenians. Ares was worshipped by the inhabitants of Tylos, it is not known if he was worshipped in the form of an Arabian god or if he was worshipped in his Greek form. According to Herodotus' Histories, the Scythians worshipped a god. While ranking beneath Tabiti and Papaios in the divine hierarchy, this god was worshipped differently from other Scythian gods, with statues and complex altars devoted to him; this type of worship is noted to be present among the Alans. Noting how Greek mythological Amazons are devotees of Ares and most based on Scythian warriors, some researchers have considered the possibility that a Scythian warrior women cult of this deity existed. Others have posited that the "Sword of Mars" alludes to the Huns having adopted this deity; the birds of Ares were a flock of feather-dart-dropping birds that guarded the Amazons' shrine of the god on a coastal island in the Black Sea.
Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult