Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark is a 1981 American action adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, written by Lawrence Kasdan from a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It was produced by Frank Marshall for Lucasfilm Ltd. with Lucas and Howard Kazanjian as executive producers. The first installment in the Indiana Jones film franchise, it stars Harrison Ford as archaeologist Indiana Jones, who battles a group of Nazis searching for the Ark of the Covenant, it co-stars Karen Allen as Marion Ravenwood. The film originated from Lucas' desire to create a modern version of the serials of the 1930s and 1940s. Production was based at Elstree Studios, but filming took place in La Rochelle, Tunisia and California from June to September 1980. Raiders of the Lost Ark became 1981's top-grossing film and remains one of the highest-grossing films adjusted for inflation, it was nominated for eight Academy Awards in 1982, including Best Picture, won for Best Art Direction, Film Editing and Visual Effects with a fifth Academy Award: a Special Achievement Award for Sound Effects Editing.
It is considered one of the greatest films made. In 1999, it was included in the U. S. Library of Congress' National Film Registry as "culturally or aesthetically significant"; the film began a franchise including a prequel, two sequels, a television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, numerous video games. In 1936, American archaeologist Indiana Jones braves an ancient booby-trapped temple in Peru and retrieves a golden idol, he is confronted by the indigenous Hovito people. Surrounded and outnumbered, Jones surrenders the idol to Belloq and escapes aboard a waiting floatplane, where he uncomfortably shares his seat with the pilot's pet snake. Jones returns to his teaching position at Marshall College in the fictional town of Bedford, where he is interviewed by two Army Intelligence agents, they inform Jones that the Nazis are searching for his old mentor, Abner Ravenwood, under whom Jones studied at the University of Chicago. The Nazis know that Ravenwood is the leading expert on the ancient city of Tanis in Egypt, that he possesses the headpiece of an ancient Egyptian artifact known as "the Staff of Ra".
Jones deduces that the Nazis are searching for the Ark of the Covenant — the Nazis believe that if they acquire the Ark, their armies will become invincible. The Staff of Ra is the key to finding the Well of Souls, a secret chamber in Tanis, Egypt, in which the Ark is buried; the agents authorize Jones to recover the Ark to prevent the Nazis from obtaining it. He travels to Nepal and discovers that Ravenwood has died, the headpiece is in the possession of Ravenwood's daughter Marion. Jones visits Marion at her tavern, where she reveals her bitter feelings toward him from a previous romantic affair, she physically rebuffs his offer to buy the headpiece, Jones leaves. Shortly after, a group of thugs arrive with their Nazi commander Arnold Toht, who had followed Jones on his flight leaving the United States. Toht threatens Marion to get the headpiece but Jones returns to the bar and fights the Nazis to save Marion. During the fight, the bar is set the headpiece lands in the flames. Toht burns his hand trying to take the hot headpiece and flees the tavern screaming in agony.
Jones and Marion escape with the headpiece, Marion decides to accompany Jones in his search for the Ark so he can pay the $5,000 he has promised her. The pair travels to Cairo, where they meet up with Jones' friend and skilled digger Sallah. Sallah informs them that Belloq and the Nazis are digging for the Well of Souls with a replica of the headpiece, they realize the Nazi headpiece is incomplete and that the Nazis are digging in the wrong place. The Nazis kidnap Marion and it appears to Jones that she is killed in an exploding truck. After a confrontation with Belloq in a local bar and Sallah infiltrate the Nazi dig site and use their staff to locate the Ark. Jones discovers Marion is alive when he finds her bound and gagged in a tent, he refuses to release her out of fear of alerting the Nazis. Jones, a small group of diggers unearth the snake infested Well of Souls and acquire the Ark. Belloq and Nazi officer Colonel Dietrich arrive and seize the Ark from Jones, throwing Marion into the Well of Souls with him before sealing it back up.
Jones and Marion escape to a local airstrip, where Jones has a fistfight with a Nazi mechanic and destroys the flying wing, to transport the Ark to Berlin, Germany. The panicked Nazis remove the Ark in a truck and set off for Cairo, but Jones catches them and retakes it, he makes arrangements to take the Ark to London aboard tramp steamer Bantu Wind. The next day, a Nazi U-boat intercepts the ship. Belloq and Dietrich seize the Ark and Marion but cannot locate Jones, who stows away aboard the U-boat and travels with them to an island in the Aegean Sea. Once there, Belloq plans to test the power of the Ark before presenting it to Hitler. Jones reveals himself and threatens to destroy the Ark with an anti-tank rocket, but Belloq calls his bluff and Jones surrenders rather than destroy such an important historical artifact and kill Marion in the process; the Nazis take Jones and Marion to an area where the Ark will be opened and tie them to a post to observe. Belloq, d
The Otto Show
"The Otto Show" is the 22nd episode of The Simpsons' third season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 23, 1992. In the episode, Bart decides that he wants to become a rock star after attending a Spinal Tap concert, so Homer and Marge buy him a guitar, he shows the guitar to Otto the bus driver, who plays it and makes the children late for school. Racing to Springfield Elementary, Otto crashes the school bus and is suspended until he can get his license back. Bart, who respects Otto, invites him to move in with the Simpson family; the episode was directed by Wes Archer. It was the first episode of the show to feature Otto Mann in a prominent role. "The Otto Show" features an appearance from Spinal Tap, a parody band that first appeared in the 1984 mockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap. The episode guest stars Michael McKean as David St. Christopher Guest as Nigel Tufnel. Harry Shearer, a regular Simpsons cast member starred in This Is Spinal Tap and reprises his role as Derek Smalls.
In its original airing on the Fox Network, the episode had an 11.5 Nielsen rating and finished the week ranked 41st. The episode received positive reviews and Spinal Tap was ranked as the 18th best guest appearance on the show by IGN. Bart and Milhouse attend a Spinal Tap concert, which degenerates into a riot when dangerous conditions lead the band to play for only 20 minutes. Nonetheless, Bart wants to become a rock guitarist. Homer and Marge decide to buy Bart his own electric guitar, but he struggles to learn how to play it; the next morning on the school bus, Bart tells Otto he thinks his guitar is broken, but Otto wows his passengers with an impromptu concert. The performance meant that they are now late for school, so Otto is forced to drive recklessly to get there in time; the bus causes numerous incidents before turning over onto its side in the town square, where it smashes into the statue of Jebediah Springfield. When Officer Lou asks for Otto's driver's license, Otto is forced to admit.
He is suspended without pay, Principal Skinner takes over his route. However, Principal Skinner finds driving the bus hard going, being a less aggressive driver than Otto, ends up being trapped at a busy intersection for an entire day. Otto, goes to the Springfield DMV but he fails the driver's test, administered by Marge's sister, Patty after he asks her if she was born a male, he is unable to find a new job, therefore cannot pay his rent and gets evicted from his apartment. Bart finds him living in a Trash Co. Waste Disposal Unit, agrees to let him live in the Simpsons' garage. Homer and Marge reluctantly agree to let him stay. Otto makes a nuisance of himself. Homer begins to lose patience with demands that he be sent on his way. Marge and Bart encourage him to give the driving test one last try. Otto goes to the DMV to take the test again, angry that Homer called him a "sponge". Patty isn't happy to see him but after Otto says he wants to pass the test to staple the successful results "to Homer Simpson's big bald head", she smiles and gives him all the correct answers while ignoring his driving route mistakes while he entertains her with story after story of Homer's crude behavior.
Now a properly licensed driver, Otto regains his job and Skinner is happy to return to his usual job as principal of Springfield Elementary. "The Otto Show" was directed by Wes Archer. The episode's title is a pun on auto show; the episode was the first to feature bus driver Otto Mann in a prominent role. Otto's full name is revealed for the first time. Writers Jay Kogen and Wallace Wolodarsky had wanted to name him Otto Mechanic, but the animators gave him the last name Mann."The Otto Show" features an appearance from Spinal Tap, a parody band that first appeared in the 1984 mockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap. The episode guest stars Michael McKean as David St. Christopher Guest as Nigel Tufnel. Harry Shearer, a regular Simpsons cast member starred in This Is Spinal Tap and reprises his role as Derek Smalls, the third member of the group; the episode follows the approach of the film by presenting the band. According to executive producer Al Jean, the executives at Fox were unhappy about having the band guest star because it cost a lot of money to purchase rights to play their songs.
Mike Reiss said that Fox felt that the show could have gotten a "real group" for that amount of money. The animators gave many of the members of the crowd at the Spinal Tap concert long bangs, so they would not have to animate many pairs of eyes. In the final scene to feature the band, their tour bus bursts into flames after being knocked off the road. According to the writers, the scene was not in the original script and was added because they felt the band's final scene was not interesting enough; when Homer puts on an old jacket he finds a can of Billy Beer in one of the pockets. While waiting in the car during the Spinal Tap concert, Homer sings along to the song "Spanish Flea" by Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass; the writers had a difficult time getting the rights to the song, but a writer, related to a member of the band was able to get the rights at the last minute. Homer hums along to "Summer Samba" at a segment in the car. Homer makes a comment on their situation with Otto, saying "This is not Happy Days and he is not The Fonz!"
Otto walks in and says to Homer, "Heeeeeyy, Mr. S," in reference to the long-running situation comedy; the song Otto plays on the school bus is "Free Bird" by Lynyrd Skynyrd. Otto's statement that he would pr
Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe; the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across North America, United Kingdom and Australia. The establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions; the Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to practice Catholicism in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.
This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses. Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off causing fees to rise; this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith; the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, action and social justice. Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life.
However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness; the religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically emotionally and of course, spiritually.” The education involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.” In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons. Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor. Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late early 60s; the education policy in Malaysia is centralized.
In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith; the missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country; the Catholic Church in Pakistan is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics; the Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church in Pakistan, responsible for education.
Each diocese has its own board. The Government of Pakistan nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School and St Michael's Convent School were never nationalised; the Government of Sindh oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process. In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization; the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics. The oldest existing university in Asia, University of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines, it is the largest single Catholic university in the world.
The university was established by the Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, on
French Canadians are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Today, people of French heritage make up the majority of native speakers of French in Canada, who in turn account for about 22 per cent of the country's total population; the majority of French Canadians reside in Quebec, where they constitute the majority of the province's population, although French-Canadian and francophone minority communities exist in all other Canadian provinces and territories as well. Besides the Québécois, distinct French speaking ethnic groups in Canada include the Acadians of the Maritime Provinces, the Brayons of New Brunswick, the Métis of the Prairie Provinces, among other smaller groups. During the mid-18th century, Canadian colonists born in French Canada expanded across North America and colonized various regions and towns. Today, French Canadians live across North America. Most French Canadians reside in Quebec, are more referred to as Quebecers or Québécois, although smaller communities exist throughout Canada and in the United States.
Between 1840 and 1930 900,000 French Canadians emigrated to the United States to the New England region. Acadians, who reside in the Maritimes, may be included among the French Canadian group in linguistic contexts, but are considered a separate group from the French Canadians in a cultural sense due to their distinct history, much of which predates the admission of the Maritime Provinces to Canadian Confederation in 1867. French Canadians constitute the second largest ethnic group in Canada, behind those of English ancestry, ahead of those of Scottish and Irish heritage. In total, those whose ethnic origins are French Canadian, French, Québécois and Acadian number up to 11.9 million people or comprising 33.78% of the Canadian population. Not all francophone Canadians are of French-Canadian descent or heritage, as the body of French language speakers in Canada includes significant immigrant communities from other francophone countries such as Haiti, Algeria, Tunisia or Vietnam — and not all French Canadians are francophone, as a significant number of people who have French Canadian ethnic roots are native English speakers.
The French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries. The original use of the term Canada referred to the land area along the St. Lawrence River, divided in three districts, as well as to the Pays d'en Haut, a vast and thinly settled territorial dependence north and west of Montreal which covered the whole of the Great Lakes area. From 1535 to the 1690s, the French word Canadien had referred to the First Nations the French had encountered in the St. Lawrence River valley at Stadacona and Hochelaga. At the end of the 17th century, Canadien became an ethnonym distinguishing the inhabitants of Canada from those of France. After World War I, English-Canadians appropriated the term "Canadian" and French-Canadians identified as Québécois instead. French Canadians living in Canada express their cultural identity using a number of terms; the Ethnic Diversity Survey of the 2006 Canadian census found that French-speaking Canadians identified their ethnicity most as French, French Canadians, Québécois, Acadian.
The latter three were grouped together by Jantzen as "French New World" ancestries because they originate in Canada. Jantzen distinguishes the English Canadian, meaning "someone whose family has been in Canada for multiple generations", the French Canadien, used to refer to descendants of the original settlers of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. "Canadien" was used to refer to the French-speaking residents of New France beginning in the last half of the 17th century. The English-speaking residents who arrived from Great Britain were called "Anglais"; this usage continued until Canadian Confederation in 1867. Confederation united several former British colonies into the Dominion of Canada, from that time forward, the word "Canadian" has been used to describe both English-speaking and French-speaking citizens, wherever they live in the country; those reporting "French New World" ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least four generations in Canada. Fourth generation Canadiens and Québécois showed considerable attachment to their ethno-cultural group, with 70% and 61% reporting a strong sense of belonging.
The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada. Although rooted Canadians express a deep attachment to their ethnic identity, most English-speaking Canadians of British or Canadian ancestry cannot trace their ancestry as far back in Canada as French-speakers; as a result, their identification with their ethnicity is weaker: for example, only 50% of third generation "Canadians" identify as such, bringing down the overall average. The survey report notes that 80% of Canadians whose families had been in Canada for three or more generations reported "Canadian and provincial or regional ethnic identities"; these identities include
Maggie Roswell is an American actress, voice actress, comedian and producer from Los Angeles, California. She is well known for her voice work on the Fox network's animated television series The Simpsons, in which she has played recurring characters such as Maude Flanders, Helen Lovejoy, Miss Hoover, Luann Van Houten, as well as several minor characters; this work has earned her both an Annie Award nomination. Maggie Roswell made her acting break-through in the 1980s with appearances in films such as Midnight Madness, Lost in America, Pretty in Pink, guest appearances on television shows such as Remington Steele and Happy Days, she appeared in the sketch comedy The Tim Conway Show from 1980 to 1981, did voice acting for a few animated films and television shows. Roswell performed in some theater plays, including one in 1988 directed by Julia Sweeney. In 1989, Maggie Roswell was hired for the first season of The Simpsons, she played a few minor characters until she became a regular cast member with the introduction of Maude Flanders in the second season.
In 1994, Roswell and her husband Hal Rayle moved from Los Angeles to Denver to raise their daughter. Together they established the Roswell'n' Rayle Company and voicing advertisements for companies; because of her move to Denver, Roswell had to travel to Los Angeles twice a week to tape The Simpsons. This led to her requesting a pay raise in 1999. Roswell returned to The Simpsons in 2002 after reaching a deal to record her lines from her Denver home. Maggie Roswell was raised in Los Angeles, California. After going to Catholic school and Los Angeles City College, she began a career in acting. In the 1970s she made some guest appearances on television shows such as M*A*S*H, but she did not get her first big acting roles until the 1980s. In the 1980 film Midnight Madness, she played a character that leads a group of sorority sisters who are participating in a college puzzle solving race. Roswell starred in the sketch comedy The Tim Conway Show in 1980 and 1981. In 1985 she appeared in the film Lost in America as the character Patty, she had a supporting role in the 1986 film Pretty in Pink.
She acted in the two-part television film The Deliberate Stranger. In addition, Roswell played some minor roles in television shows in the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, including guest appearances on Remington Steele, Happy Days, Murphy Brown, Quantum Leap, she was offered a chance to replace Gilda Radner on Saturday Night Live, but turned down the offer when her agent told her "the show wasn't going anywhere."Roswell did theater. In 1986 she appeared in improvisatory shows directed by Paul Sills at Lamb's Theatre, in which the actors were given characters and situations by the audience members. In 1988 she had a role in Julia Sweeney's play Mea's Big Apology at Groundling Theatre in Los Angeles, she played Eunice, a cynical woman who works at a malpractice insurance company and is a colleague to the main character. The company people do everything they can to dismiss her because they do not want to pay her retirement benefits, which are about to take effect. Roswell reprised this role in a 1992 revival of the play at Groundling Theatre.
In addition to her live action roles, Roswell did some voice acting in animated films and shows, including the voice of Teegra in Fire and Ice from 1983. This led to her being hired on the animated television series The Simpsons in 1989, her first appearance was in the season one episode "Homer's Night Out", in which she voiced the character Princess Kashmir. Out of the total thirteen episodes of the first season, Maggie Roswell appeared in four. Maggie Roswell did not become a regular cast member until the middle of the second season in the episode "Dead Putting Society", with the introduction of Maude Flanders. Maggie Roswell went on to voice other recurring characters on the show, such as Helen Lovejoy, Miss Hoover, Luann Van Houten, as well as several more one-time characters and background characters. Fellow Simpsons cast member Nancy Cartwright wrote in her autobiography that "Maggie Roswell has been blessed with a skill in creating one of the hardest things to create: the'normal sound,' whatever that is.
So she can slip into the gal next door or any number of assorted reporters, medical students, jury members, accountants and moms." Roswell was nominated for an Emmy Award for her work on The Simpsons. She received a 1997 Annie Award nomination in the category "Best Individual Achievement: Voice Acting by a Female Performer in a TV Production" for her role as Sharry Bobbins in the episode "Simpsoncalifragilisticexpialacious", but lost to June Foray. Roswell met fellow voice actor Hal Rayle in 1986, they married in 1987, he had done roles such as Predator in Predator 2, the ghoulies in Ghoulies II, Marvin the Martian in Air Jordan commercials. They moved from Los Angeles to Denver, Colorado, in June 1994 to raise their adopted daughter Spenser, born in 1993. Between March and November every year, when episodes of The Simpsons were being recorded, Roswell had to fly back to Los Angeles twice a week to attend the table reads and the recording sessions. In an article about her and her husband's move, Ricky Lopes of Rocky Mountain News wrote: "When The Simpsons is taping, she goes to Los Angeles every Friday
Saint Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians being tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows, though this did not kill him, he was, according to his legend and healed by Saint Irene of Rome, which became a popular subject in 17th-century painting. In all versions of the story, shortly after his recovery he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, as a result was clubbed to death, he is venerated in the Orthodox Church. The details of Saint Sebastian's martyrdom were first spoken of by 4th-century bishop Ambrose of Milan, in his sermon on Psalm 118. Ambrose stated that Sebastian came from Milan and that he was venerated there at that time. Saint Sebastian is a popular male saint today among athletes. In historical times he was regarded as a saint with a special ability to intercede to protect from plague, devotion to him increased when plague was active; the first surviving account giving details of Sebastian's life and death is the Passio Sancti Sebastiani, long thought to have been written by Ambrose of Milan in the 4th century, but now regarded as a 5th-century account by an unknown author.
This includes the "two martyrdoms", the care by Irene in between, other details that remained part of the story. According to Sebastian's 18th-century entry in Acta Sanctorum, still attributed to Ambrose by the 17th-century hagiographer Jean Bolland, the briefer account in the 14th-century Legenda Aurea, he was a man of Gallia Narbonensis, taught in Mediolanum. In 283, Sebastian entered the army in Rome under Emperor Carinus to assist the martyrs; because of his courage he became one of the captains of the Praetorian Guards under Diocletian and Maximian, who were unaware that he was a Christian. According to tradition and Marcellian were twin brothers from a distinguished family and were deacons. Both brothers married, they resided in Rome with their wives and children; the brothers were arrested. They were visited by their parents Tranquillinus and Martia in prison, who attempted to persuade them to renounce Christianity. Sebastian succeeded in converting Tranquillinus and Martia, as well as Saint Tiburtius, the son of Chromatius, the local prefect.
Another official and his wife Zoe were converted. It has been said; as soon as she had, her speech returned to her. Nicostratus brought the rest of the prisoners. Chromatius and Tiburtius converted. Marcus and Marcellian, after being concealed by a Christian named Castulus, were martyred, as were Nicostratus and Tiburtius. Sebastian had prudently concealed his faith. Diocletian reproached him for his supposed betrayal, he commanded him to be led to a field and there to be bound to a stake so that certain archers from Mauritania would shoot arrows at him. "And the archers shot at him till he was as full of arrows as an urchin is full of pricks, thus left him there for dead." Miraculously, the arrows did not kill him. The widow of Castulus, Irene of Rome, went to retrieve his body to bury it, she discovered he was still alive, she nursed him back to health. Sebastian stood by a staircase where the emperor was to pass and harangued Diocletian for his cruelties against Christians; this freedom of speech, from a person whom he supposed to have been dead astonished the emperor.
A pious lady, called Lucina, admonished by the martyr in a vision removed the body, buried it in the catacombs at the entrance of the cemetery of Calixtus, where now stands the Basilica of St. Sebastian. Remains reputed to be those of Sebastian are housed in Rome in the Basilica Apostolorum, built by Pope Damasus I in 367 on the site of the provisional tomb of Saints Peter and Paul; the church, today called San Sebastiano fuori le mura, was rebuilt in the 1610s under the patronage of Scipione Borghese. St. Ado, Eginard and other contemporary authors relate that, in the reign of Louis Debonnair, Pope Eugenius II gave the body of St. Sebastian to Hilduin, Abbot of St. Denys, who brought it into France, it was deposited at Saint Medard Abbey, at Soissons, on 8 December, in 826. Sebastian's cranium was brought to the town of Ebersberg in 934. A Benedictine abbey was founded there and became one of the most important pilgrimage sites in southern Germany, it is said the silver-encased cranium was used as a cup in which to present wine to the faithful during the feast of Saint Sebastian.
Reliquary of Saint Sebastian in Ebersberg The belief that Saint Sebastian was a defense against the plague was a medieval addition to his reputation, which accounts for the enormous increase in his importance in the Late Middle Ages. The connection of the martyr shot with arrows with the plague is not an intuitive one, however. In Greco-Roman myth, the archer god, at times destroys his enemies by shooting plague-arrows from the heavens, but is the deliverer from pestilence. Similar metaphors for divine displeasure occur in the Hebrew Bible; the hopeful example of Sebastian being able to recover from his "first m
John Towner Williams is an American composer and pianist. With a career spanning over six decades, he has composed some of the most popular and critically acclaimed film scores in cinematic history, including those of the Star Wars series, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, the Indiana Jones series, the first two Home Alone films, the first two Jurassic Park films, Schindler's List, the first three Harry Potter films. Williams has been associated with director Steven Spielberg since 1974, composing music for all but four of his feature films––Duel, The Color Purple, Bridge of Spies, Ready Player One. Other works by Williams include theme music for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, NBC Sunday Night Football, "The Mission" theme used by NBC News and Seven News in Australia, the television series Lost in Space and Land of the Giants, the incidental music for the first season of Gilligan's Island. Williams has composed numerous classical concertos and other works for orchestral ensembles and solo instruments.
He served as the Boston Pops's principal conductor from 1980 to 1993, is the orchestra's laureate conductor. Williams has won 24 Grammy Awards, seven British Academy Film Awards, five Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards. With 51 Academy Award nominations, Williams is the second most-nominated individual, after Walt Disney. In 2005, the American Film Institute selected Williams's score to 1977's Star Wars as the greatest American film score of all time; the soundtrack to Star Wars was additionally preserved by the Library of Congress into the National Recording Registry for being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Williams was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl's Hall of Fame in 2000, was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2016. Williams composed the score for eight of the top 20 highest-grossing films at the U. S. box office. John Towner Williams was born on February 8, 1932 in Floral Park, New York, to Esther and Johnny Williams, a jazz percussionist who played with the Raymond Scott Quintet.
Williams has said of his lineage, "My father was a Maine man—we were close. My mother was from Boston. My father's parents ran a department store in Bangor, my mother's father was a cabinetmaker. People with those roots are not inclined to be lazy."In 1948, the Williams family moved to Los Angeles where John attended North Hollywood High School, graduating in 1950. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, studied with the Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. Williams attended Los Angeles City College for one semester as the school had a Studio Jazz Band. In 1952, Williams was drafted into the U. S. Air Force, where he played the piano and conducted and arranged music for The U. S. Air Force Band as part of his assignments. In a 2016 interview with the US Air Force band, he recounted having attended basic Air Force training at Lackland base, after which he served as a pianist and brass player, with secondary duties of making arrangements for three years, he attended music courses at the University of Arizona as part of his service.
In 1955, following his Air Force service, Williams moved to New York City and entered the Juilliard School, where he studied piano with Rosina Lhévinne. During this time Williams worked as a jazz pianist in the city's many jazz clubs. After moving to Los Angeles, he began working as a session musician, most notably for composer Henry Mancini, he worked with Mancini on the Peter Gunn soundtrack, along with guitarist Bob Bain, bassist Rolly Bundock, drummer Jack Sperling, many of whom were featured on the Mr. Lucky television series. Known as "Johnny" during the 1950s and early 1960s, Williams composed the music for many television programs, served as music arranger and bandleader for a series of popular music albums with the singer Frankie Laine. While skilled in a variety of 20th-century compositional idioms, Williams's most familiar style may be described as a form of neoromanticism, inspired by the late 19th century's large-scale orchestral music—in the style of Tchaikovsky or Richard Wagner and their concept of leitmotif—that inspired his film music predecessors.
After his studies at Juilliard and the Eastman School of Music, Williams returned to Los Angeles, where he began working as an orchestrator at film studios. Among other composers, Williams worked with Franz Waxman, Bernard Herrmann, Alfred Newman, with his fellow orchestrators Conrad Salinger and Bob Franklyn. Williams was a studio pianist, performing on film scores by composers such as Jerry Goldsmith, Elmer Bernstein, Henry Mancini. With Mancini Williams recorded the scores of 1959's Peter Gunn, 1962's Days of Wine and Roses, 1963's Charade. Williams composed music for various television programs in the 1960s: the pilot episode of Gilligan's Island, Bachelor Father, the Kraft Suspense Theatre, Lost in Space, The Time Tunnel, Land of the Giants. Williams's first film composition was for the 1958 B movie Daddy-O, his first screen credit came two years in Because They're Young, he soon gained notice in Hollywood for his versatility in composing jazz and symphonic music. Williams received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for 1967's Valley of the Dolls, was nominated again for