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Bart Kosko

Bart Andrew Kosko is a writer and professor of electrical engineering and law at the University of Southern California. He is notable as a researcher and popularizer of fuzzy logic, neural networks, noise, author of several trade books and textbooks on these and related subjects of machine intelligence. Kosko holds bachelor's degrees in philosophy and in economics from USC, a master's degree in applied mathematics from UC San Diego, a PhD in electrical engineering from UC Irvine, a J. D. in law from Concord Law School. He is an attorney licensed in California and federal court, worked part-time as a law clerk for the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office. Kosko is a religious skeptic, he is a contributing editor of the libertarian periodical Liberty, where he has published essays on "Palestinian vouchers". Kosko's most popular book to date was the international best-seller Fuzzy Thinking, about man and machines thinking in shades of gray, his most recent book was Noise, he has published short fiction and the cyber-thriller novel Nanotime, about a possible World War III that takes place in two days of the year 2030.

The novel's title coins the term "nanotime" to describe the time speed-up that occurs when fast computer chips, rather than slow brains, house minds. Kosko has a minimalist prose style, not using commas in his several books. Kosko's technical contributions have been in three main areas: fuzzy logic, neural networks, noise. In fuzzy logic, he introduced fuzzy cognitive maps, fuzzy subsethood, additive fuzzy systems, fuzzy approximation theorems, optimal fuzzy rules, fuzzy associative memories, various neural-based adaptive fuzzy systems, ratio measures of fuzziness, the shape of fuzzy sets, the conditional variance of fuzzy systems, the geometric view of fuzzy sets as points in hypercubes and its relationship to the ongoing debate of fuzziness versus probability. In neural networks, Kosko introduced the unsupervised technique of differential Hebbian learning, sometimes called the "differential synapse," and most famously the BAM or bidirectional associative memory family of feedback neural architectures, with corresponding global stability theorems.

In noise, Kosko introduced the concept of adaptive stochastic resonance, using neural-like learning algorithms to find the optimal level of noise to add to many nonlinear systems to improve their performance. He proved many versions of the so-called "forbidden interval theorem," which guarantees that noise will benefit a system if the average level of noise does not fall in an interval of values, he showed that noise can speed up the convergence of Markov chains to equilibrium. NonfictionNoise. Viking Press. 2006. ISBN 0-670-03495-9. Intelligent Signal Processing. IEEE Press. 2001. ISBN 0-7803-6010-9. Heaven in a Chip: Fuzzy Visions of Society and Science in the Digital Age. Random House / Three Rivers Press. 2000. ISBN 0-609-80567-3; the Fuzzy Future: From Society and Science to Heaven in a Chip. Random House / Harmony Books. 1999. ISBN 0-609-60446-5. Fuzzy Engineering. Prentice Hall. 1996. ISBN 0-13-124991-6. Fuzzy Thinking: The New Science of Fuzzy Logic. Hyperion. 1993. ISBN 0-7868-8021-X. Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems: A Dynamical Systems Approach to Machine Intelligence.

Prentice Hall. 1991. ISBN 0-13-611435-0. Neural Networks for Signal Processing. Prentice Hall. 1991. ISBN 0-13-617390-X; the Fuzzy Future: From society and science to heaven in a chip. Harmony. 1999. ISBN 978-0-609-60446-5. FictionNanotime. Avon Books. 1998. ISBN 0-380-79147-1. Official site Appearances on C-SPAN Bart Kosko publications indexed by Google Scholar

Tutu (plant)

Tutu is a common name of Māori origin for plants in the genus Coriaria found in New Zealand. Six New Zealand native species are known by the name: Coriaria angustissima Coriaria arborea Coriaria lurida Coriaria plumosa Coriaria pteridoides Coriaria sarmentosaThey are shrubs or trees. Most of the plant parts are poisonous, containing the neurotoxin tutin and its derivative hyenanchin; the widespread species Coriaria arborea is most linked to cases of poisoning. Honey containing tutin can be produced by honey bees feeding on honeydew produced by sap-sucking vine hopper insects feeding on tutu; the last recorded deaths from eating honey containing tutin were in the 1890s, although sporadic outbreaks of toxic honey poisoning continue to occur. Poisoning symptoms include delirium and coma. In the series 4 episode 3 of "The Brokenwood Mysteries", "The Scarecrow", the murder victim was killed by honey contaminated with tutin. Tutu, 1966 Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Human Relief Foundation

Human Relief Foundation is a charity set up by the United Kingdom in 1991. Since the last war on Iraq, HRF paid attention for the training courses for doctors, it sent a considerable number of medical staff from the UK to help train the Iraqi doctors on various subjects. HRF thinks that the need for qualified doctors in Iraq is increasing as a result of the deteriorating situation. So it is aiming to train 5,000 doctors during the coming years, hoping that they will keep them updated with the latest knowledge of Medicine available in the world. HRF responds to the emergency situations by providing aid to the damaged areas in different parts of the world, it tries to reduce the major losses caused by these disasters. HRF was one of the charities in the UK which participated to raise up to £500,000 as response to the earthquake happened in Sri Lanka in 2004. HRF working to improve the living standards of the people who are in need through preparing a number of development programmes, According to The Times the director of Human Relief Foundation Nabeel Ramadhani said, HRF has helped the Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and Jordan, although there is no office in Palestine. Human Relief Foundation WorldWide Charity Commission. Human Relief Foundation, registered charity no. 1126281

List of wars involving the United Kingdom

This is a list of wars involving the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its predecessor states. Notable militarised. For a list of wars that have been fought on the United Kingdom mainland, see the list of wars in Great Britain; the United Kingdom relied most on the Royal Navy and maintained small land forces. Most of the episodes listed here deal with insurgencies and revolts in the various colonies of the British Empire. During its history, the United Kingdom's forces have invaded, had some control over or fought conflicts in 171 of the world's 193 countries that are UN member states, or nine out of ten of all countries. British victory British defeat Another result Ongoing conflict List of battles between Scotland and England Anglo-Scottish Wars Anglo-Welsh Wars Tudor conquest of Ireland Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1639–1789 List of wars involving England List of wars in Great Britain Military history of the United Kingdom Declaration of war by the United Kingdom Barnett, Correlli.

Britain and her army, 1509–1970: a military and social survey. Black, Jeremy. A military history of Britain: from 1775 to the present. Bradford, James C. ed. International Encyclopedia of Military History. Brownstone and Irene Franck. Timelines of War: A Chronology of Warfare from 100,000 BC to the Present, Global coverage. Cannon, John, ed; the Oxford Companion to British History Carlton, Charles. This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles, 1485–1746 332 pages. Chandler, David G. and Ian Frederick William Beckett, eds. The Oxford history of the British army. Cole, D. H and E. C Priestley. An outline of British military history, 1660–1936. Online Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy; the Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B. C. to the Present. Fortescue, John William. History of the British Army from the Norman Conquest to the First World War, in 13 volumes with six separate map volumes. Available online for downloading. Haswell and John Lewis-Stempel. A Brief History of the British Army. Higham, John, ed.

A Guide to the Sources of British Military History 654 pages excerpt. James, Lawrence. Warrior Race: A History of the British at War. Excerpt Johnson, Douglas, et al. Britain and France: Ten Centuries Mulligan and Brendan Simms, eds; the Primacy of Foreign Policy in British History, 1660–2000 345 pages Neville, Peter. Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Scarecrow Press. Pp. xix–xxxi. Timeline pp xix to xxxi Otte, T. G; the Makers of British Foreign Policy: From Pitt to Thatcher Ranft, Bryan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy. Rodger, N. A. M; the safeguard of the sea: A naval history of Britain, 660–1649. Excerpt Rodger, N. A. M; the Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 excerpt Sheppard, Eric William. A short history of the British army. Online Ward, A. W. and G. P. Gooch, eds; the Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783–1919, old detailed classic. 1866–1919 Messenger, Charles, ed. Reader's Guide to Military History pp 55–74 etc.. Schroeder, Paul W. "Old Wine in Old Bottles: Recent Contributions to British Foreign Policy and European International Politics, 1789–1848."

Journal of British Studies 26.01: 1–25

Lower Class Brats

Lower Class Brats are a street punk band founded in Austin, Texas in January 1995. Formed in 1995 in Austin TX, Lower Class Brats set out to create music unlike anything else in their city. A mixture of Punk, Oi!, 70's Glam and straight ahead rock and roll merged with the theatric imagery of “A Clockwork Orange”. After six months of writing and rehearsals the band released a demo cassette. A year the band's first full length “Rather Be Hated Than Ignored” was released on GMM records and became the soundtrack for a fanbase now known as the “LCB Army”; the recorded history of five full-length LP's, thirteen 7” ep's and three different compilation LP's under their belts. Provides testament to the band's reputation. All while performing worldwide across the US, Canada, UK, Europe and Asia. LCB members- Bones, Marty Volume, Ron Conflict and Nick Brat continue to record and perform after a 20+ year history. Taking great care that every live show is more than "just another gig" and a night for those in attendance to cut loose, forget their daily woes and sing and shout along.

Bones: vocals/founding member Marty Volume: guitar/founding member Zed: guitar Ron Conflict: Bass Nick Brat: Drums Rick Brat: Bass/founding member Houston Richieson: Bass Ryland Meyer: Bass Johnny O. Negative: Bass EVO: Bass Rob Brat: Drums/founding member Brad Teeter: Drums Mike Brat: Drums Clay Aloy: Drums J. T. K.: Drums Punt: R. T.: Piano Tony Scalzo: Piano Working Class Punk Approx. 200 copies made. Who Writes Your Rules English Import. 1,500 pressed. Black vinyl. Lower Class Brats / Reducers SF Split 1,000 pressed. 800 black vinyl. 200 white vinyl. With insert. A Wrench In The Gear English Import. 1,500 pressed. Black vinyl. Lower Class Brats / Dead End Cruisers Split 500 pressed. Blue vinyl. Lower Class Brats / Templars Split 1,500 pressed. 800 black vinyl. 200 orange vinyl. With insert. 500 picture disc. Psycho French Import. 1,500 pressed. Black vinyl. First 100 copies come with a hand #'d insert with lyrics in French. Glam Bastard 2,000 pressed. 1,800 black vinyl. With insert. 200 orange vinyl with a hand #'d full-color fold-out poster.

Deface The Music 1,000 pressed. 800 black vinyl. 100 purple vinyl. 100 clear vinyl. With insert; the Worst French Import. 500 pressed. Green / white splatter vinyl. With insert. I'm A Mess Swiss Import. 500 pressed. Black vinyl. With insert. Lower Class Brats / Chelsea Split 500 pressed. Green / clear / yellow splatter vinyl. Labels are switched on wrong sides. With insert. Thoughts About You French Import. 500 pressed. Black vinyl. Punks, Herberts And Hooligans 1,000 pressed. Approx. 200 copies were defective and returned to the pressing plant. 200 of the approx. 800 copies left come with a #'d full-color insert. Black vinyl.'Rock'N' Roll Street Noize 500 pressed. Clear orange vinyl w/ red and black splatter. Includes poster, lyric sheet and download card. Rather Be Hated Than Ignored CD Picture Disc LP 1,000 pressed. #'d sticker on clear plastic cover. With color insert; the Plot Sickens CD LP 1,000 pressed. 800 black vinyl. 200 grey / green splatter vinyl. With full-color dust sleeve insert. A Class Of Our Own CD LP 1,000 pressed.

800 black vinyl. 100 half white / half orange vinyl. 100 clear / red splatter vinyl. With full-color dust sleeve insert; the New Seditionaires CD LP French Import. 1,000 pressed. Black vinyl. With insert. Primary Reinforcement LP French Import. 500 pressed. Contains the first three 7"s. First pressing with black and white cover. Black vinyl. Second pressing with blue and white cover and pink and white FOR EXPORT ONLY sticker on the cover. Black vinyl. Real Punk Is An Endangered Species: The Clockwork Singles Collection CD Contains the first eight 7"s and 12" EP. Primary Reinforcement Plus LP 1,000 pressed. Contains the first six 7"s. 800 black vinyl, 100 yellow vinyl and 100 Moloko Splatter vinyl. With insert and poster. Loud And Out Of Tune: Lower Class Brats Live!!! CD This Is Real! Music of Austin Lower Class Brats on Myspace The Authorized Fansite

2003 Subway 400

The 2003 Subway 400 was the second stock car race of the 2003 NASCAR Winston Cup Series. It was held on February 23, in Rockingham, North Carolina at North Carolina Speedway. 40,000 spectators attended the event. Robert Yates Racing driver Dale Jarrett won the 393-lap race after he started from the ninth position. Kurt Busch of Roush Racing finished in second, his teammate Matt Kenseth third. Dave Blaney won the first pole position of his career by posting the fastest lap in qualifying, he led the first eight laps. Ricky Craven took the lead eight laps which he lost to Rusty Wallace on lap 27. Wallace led four times for a total of 182 laps, more than any other driver. On lap 220, Busch became the leader, he was passed by Jarrett on the 384th lap. Busch retook the position five laps before Jarrett reclaimed first place on lap 390, he maintained it for the rest of the race to win. There were twenty lead changes among eleven different drivers, it was Jarrett's second victory at North Carolina Speedway, the 31st of his career.

The result advanced him from tenth 31 points behind Busch. The latter took; the lead of the Manufacturers' Championship changed from Chevrolet to Ford. Pontiac passed Dodge for third with 34 races left in the season; the 2003 Subway 400 was the second of thirty-six scheduled stock car races of the 2003 NASCAR Winston Cup Series. It was held on February 23, in North Carolina, at North Carolina Speedway; the Winston Cup Series first came to North Carolina Speedway late in the 1965 season and it hosted two events on the series calendar. The track at North Carolina Speedway is a 1.017 mi four-turn D-shaped oval. Its turns are banked between 25 degrees. Before the race, Michael Waltrip led the Drivers' Championship with 185 points, with Kurt Busch in second place with 170 points. Jimmie Johnson and Kevin Harvick were fourth with 170 and 160 points respectively. Mark Martin in fifth had 155 points. Rounding out the top ten were Tony Stewart, Robby Gordon, Jeremy Mayfield, Mike Wallace, Dale Jarrett. In the Manufacturers' Championship, Chevrolet led with nine points, three points ahead of Ford in the second position.

Third-placed Dodge, with four points, was one point ahead of Pontiac in fourth. Matt Kenseth was the race's defending champion; the Subway 400 was the first round of the 2003 season to be held without the use of restrictor plates. NASCAR retained a regulation. A race slowed by a yellow caution flag with five or fewer laps to run would not recommence. Three practice sessions were scheduled before two on Saturday; the first session lasted 120 minutes, the final two sessions were due to run for 45 and 40 minutes, respectively. Wind, rain and a tornado alert cancelled the Saturday morning practice sessions. In the first practice session, Ryan Newman was the fastest driver with a lap of 23.525 seconds. Ken Schrader, Joe Nemechek, Busch, Jerry Nadeau, Mike Skinner, Ward Burton and Jamie McMurray were in positions two to ten. A forecast of rain on Friday caused teams to concentrate on race setup during practice.43 drivers entered the qualifying session on Friday afternoon. Each driver ran two timed laps to determine pole position to 36th.

The remainder of the field qualified through the use of provisionals. Rain delayed qualifying for 15 minutes. In his 113th race, Dave Blaney took his first career pole position, with a time of 23.669 seconds, Jasper Motorsports' first since the 1994 season. He was joined on the grid's front row by Johnny Benson Jr., two-hundredths of a second slower. Martin qualified third, Sterling Marlin fourth, Bill Elliott fifth. Ricky Craven, McMurray, Dale Jarrett and Bobby Labonte rounded out the top ten qualifiers. During the session, a fuel line detached from Newman's carburetor on his first lap. Nadeau lost control of his car during his second lap. Jeff Burton set no qualifying lap due to a pirouette after he spun his rear tires, had an accident against a barrier. Once qualifying had concluded, Blaney said, "This was a new type of car and we hadn't done any testing with it. We didn't know, but it was good from the start. Winning the pole only made it better." The 393-lap race commenced at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, was televised live in the United States on Fox.

Around the start of the race, weather conditions were cold with blustery winds. Members of the ECU and the Carolina Marching Band performed the national anthem, the race's sponsor spokesperson Clay Henry commanded the drivers to start their engines. Jet dryers were deployed to remove paper debris. NASCAR announced a competition caution would occur on lap 45 due to the previous day's rainfall, meaning drivers would be required to make mandatory pit stops to evaluate their car's performance. Blaney led the opening eight laps. Jeff Gordon made contact with Dale Earnhardt Jr.'s car on the 12th lap, pushing a chunk of sheet metal into Earnhardt's front-left tire, causing it to rub onto it