Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains are used for different varieties, including barley, corn and wheat. Whisky is aged in wooden casks made of charred white oak. Whisky is a regulated spirit worldwide with many classes and types; the typical unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains and aging in wooden barrels. The word whisky is an anglicisation of the Classical Gaelic word uisce meaning "water". Distilled alcohol was known in Latin as aqua vitae; this was translated into Old Irish as uisce beatha, which became uisce beatha in Irish and uisge beatha in Scottish Gaelic. Early forms of the word in English included uskebeaghe, usquebaugh and usquebae. Much is made of the word's two spellings: whiskey. There are two schools of thought on the issue. One is that the spelling difference is a matter of regional language convention for the spelling of a word, indicating that the spelling varies depending on the intended audience or the background or personal preferences of the writer, the other is that the spelling should depend on the style or origin of the spirit being described.
There is general agreement that when quoting the proper name printed on a label, the spelling on the label should not be altered. The spelling whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, while whisky is used in all other whisky producing countries. In the US, the usage has not always been consistent. From the late eighteenth century to the mid twentieth century, American writers used both spellings interchangeably until the introduction of newspaper style guides. Since the 1960s, American writers have used whiskey as the accepted spelling for aged grain spirits made in the US and whisky for aged grain spirits made outside the US. However, some prominent American brands, such as George Dickel, Maker's Mark, Old Forester, use the whisky spelling on their labels, the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, the legal regulations for spirit in the US use the whisky spelling throughout. Whisky made in Scotland is known as Scotch whisky, or as "Scotch", it is possible that distillation was practised by the Babylonians in Mesopotamia in the 2nd millennium BC, with perfumes and aromatics being distilled, but this is subject to uncertain and disputed interpretations of evidence.
The earliest certain chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in the 1st century AD, but these were not distillations of alcohol. The medieval Arabs adopted the distillation technique of the Alexandrian Greeks, written records in Arabic begin in the 9th century, but again these were not distillations of alcohol. Distilling technology passed from the medieval Arabs to the medieval Latins, with the earliest records in Latin in the early 12th century; the earliest records of the distillation of alcohol are in Italy in the 13th century, where alcohol was distilled from wine. An early description of the technique was given by Ramon Llull, its use spread through medieval monasteries for medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of colic and smallpox. The art of distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland no than the 15th century, as did the common European practice of distilling "aqua vitae", spirit alcohol for medicinal purposes; the practice of medicinal distillation passed from a monastic setting to the secular via professional medical practitioners of the time, The Guild of Barber Surgeons.
The earliest mention of whisky in Ireland comes from the seventeenth-century Annals of Clonmacnoise, which attributes the death of a chieftain in 1405 to "taking a surfeit of aqua vitae" at Christmas. In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls for 1494 where malt is sent "To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae", enough to make about 500 bottles. James IV of Scotland had a great liking for Scotch whisky, in 1506 the town of Dundee purchased a large amount of whisky from the Guild of Barber Surgeons, which held the monopoly on production at the time. Between 1536 and 1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, sending their monks out into the general public. Whisky production moved out of a monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as newly independent monks needed to find a way to earn money for themselves; the distillation process was still in its infancy. Renaissance-era whisky was very potent and not diluted.
Over time whisky evolved into a much smoother drink. With a license to distill Irish whiskey from 1608, the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland is the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world. In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically. After the English Malt Tax of 1725, most of Scotland's distillation was either shut down or forced underground. Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, in any available space to avoid the governmental excisemen or revenuers. Scottish distillers, operating out of homemade stills, took to distilling whisky at night when the darkness hid the smoke from the stills. For this reason, the drink became known as moonshine. At one point, it was estimated that over half of Scotland'
Tequila is a regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara, in the Jaliscan Highlands of the central western Mexican state of Jalisco. Aside from differences in region of origin, tequila is a type of mezcal; the distinction is. Tequila is served neat in Mexico and as a shot with salt and lime across the rest of the world; the red volcanic soil in the region around the city of Tequila is well suited to the growing of the blue agave, more than 300 million of the plants are harvested there each year. Agave grows differently depending on the region. Blue agaves grown in the highlands Los Altos region are larger in size and sweeter in aroma and taste. Agaves harvested in the lowlands, on the other hand, have a more herbaceous flavor. Mexican laws state that tequila can only be produced in the state of Jalisco and limited municipalities in the states of Guanajuato, Michoacán, Tamaulipas.
Tequila is recognized as a Mexican designation of origin product in more than 40 countries. It is protected through NAFTA in Canada and the United States, through bilateral agreements with individual countries such as Japan and Israel, has been a protected designation of origin product in the constituent countries of the European Union since 1997. Tequila can be produced between 55 % alcohol content. Per U. S. law, tequila must contain at least 40% alcohol to be sold in the United States. Tequila was first produced in the 16th century near the location of the city of Tequila, not established until 1666. A fermented beverage from the agave plant known as pulque was consumed in pre-Columbian central Mexico before European contact; when the Spanish conquistadors ran out of their own brandy, they began to distill agave to produce one of North America's first indigenous distilled spirits. Some 80 years around 1600, Don Pedro Sánchez de Tagle, the Marquis of Altamira, began mass-producing tequila at the first factory in the territory of modern-day Jalisco.
By 1608, the colonial governor of Nueva Galicia had begun to tax his products. Spain's King Carlos IV granted the Cuervo family the first license to commercially make tequila. Don Cenobio Sauza, founder of Sauza Tequila and Municipal President of the Village of Tequila from 1884–1885, was the first to export tequila to the United States, shortened the name from "Tequila Extract" to just "Tequila" for the American markets. Don Cenobio's grandson Don Francisco Javier gained international attention for insisting that "there cannot be tequila where there are no agaves!" His efforts led to the practice. Although some tequilas have remained as family-owned brands, most well-known tequila brands are owned by large multinational corporations. However, over 100 distilleries make over 900 brands of tequila in Mexico and over 2,000 brand names have been registered. Due to this, each bottle of tequila contains a serial number depicting in which distillery the tequila was produced; because only so many distilleries are used, multiple brands of tequila come from the same location.
In 2003, Mexico issued a proposal that would require all Mexican-made tequila be bottled in Mexico before being exported to other countries. The Mexican government said. Liquor companies in the United States said Mexico just wanted to create bottling jobs in their own country, claimed this rule would violate international trade agreements and was in discord with usual exporting practices worldwide; the proposal might have resulted in the loss of jobs at plants in California, Arkansas and Kentucky, because Mexican tequila exported in bulk to the United States is bottled in those plants. On January 17, 2006, the United States and Mexico signed an agreement allowing the continued bulk import of tequila into the United States; the agreement created a "tequila bottlers registry" to identify approved bottlers of tequila and created an agency to monitor the registry. The Tequila Regulatory Council of Mexico did not permit flavored tequila to carry the tequila name. In 2004, the Council decided to allow flavored tequila to be called tequila, with the exception of 100% agave tequila, which still cannot be flavored.
A new Norma Oficial Mexicana for tequila was issued in 2006, among other changes, introduced a class of tequila called extra añejo or "ultra-aged" which must be aged a minimum of three years. A one-liter bottle of limited-edition premium tequila was sold for $225,000 in July 2006 in Tequila, Jalisco, by the company Tequila Ley.925. The bottle which contained the tequila was a two-kilo display of gold; the manufacturer received a certificate from The Guinness World Records for the most expensive bottle of tequila spirit sold. In June 2013, the ban on importation of premium tequila into China was lifted following a state visit to Mexico by President Xi Jinping; the entry of premium tequila into the country is expected to increase tequila exports by 20 percent within a decade. Ramon Gonzalez, director of the Consejo Regulador del Tequila, estimates that each of the top 16 producers of tequila had invested up to $3 million to enter the Chinese market. On 30 August 2013, the first 70,380 bottles of premium tequila from ten brands arrived in Shangh
A bartender is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic or soft drink beverages behind the bar in a licensed establishment. Bartenders usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar. A bartender can mix classic cocktails such as a Cosmopolitan, Old Fashioned, Mojito. Bartenders are usually responsible for confirming that customers meet the legal drinking age requirements before serving them alcoholic beverages. In certain countries, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, bartenders are required to refuse more alcohol to drunk customers. Bartending was a profession with a low reputation, it was perceived through the lens of ethical issues and various legal constraints related to the serving of alcohol. The pioneers of bartending as a serious profession appeared in the 19th century. "Professor" Jerry Thomas established the image of the bartender as a creative professional. Harry Johnson established the first bar management consulting agency. At the turn of the 20th century less than half the bartenders in London were women, such as Ada Coleman.
"Barmaids", as they were called, were the daughters of tradesmen or mechanics or young women from the "better-born" classes, "thrown upon their own resources" and needed an income. The bartending profession was a second occupation, used as transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; the reason for this is because bartenders in tipping countries such as Canada and the United States, can make significant money from their tips. This view of bartending as a career is changing around the world and bartending has become a profession by choice rather than necessity, it includes specialized education — European Bartender School operates in 23 countries. Cocktail competitions such as World Class and Bacardi Legacy have recognised talented bartenders in the past decade and these bartenders, others, spread the love of cocktails and hospitality throughout the world. Kathy Sullivan owner of Sidecar Bartending expressed the difficulties with becoming a prolific bartender, comparing you to the drink you make: “In drinks you want balance.
And you have to be balanced physically and mentally.”. In the United Kingdom, bar work is not regarded as a long-term profession, but more as a second occupation, or transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; as such, it therefore has a high turnover. The high turnover of staff due to low wages and poor employee benefits results in a shortage of skilled bartenders. Whereas a career bartender would know drink recipes, serving techniques, alcohol contents, correct gas mixes and licensing law and would have cordial relations with regular customers, short-term staff may lack these skills; some pubs prefer experienced staff, although pub chains tend to accept inexperienced staff and provide training. Tipping bartenders in the United Kingdom is uncommon, not considered mandatory but is appreciated by the bartender; the appropriate way to tip a bartender in the UK is to say'have one for yourself', encouraging the bartender to buy themselves a drink with one's money, where a bartender may instead opt to add a modest amount to a bill to take in cash at the end of their shift.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics data on occupations in the United States, including that of bartender, publishes a detailed description of the bartender's typical duties and employment and earning statistics by those so employed, with 55% of a bartender's take-home pay coming in the form of tips. Bartenders may learn while on the job. Bartenders in the United States may work in a large variety of bars; these include hotel bars, restaurant bars, sports bars, gay bars, piano bars, dive bars. Growing in popularity is the portable bar, which can be moved to different venues and special events. Bar-back, a bartender's assistant Hospitality List of bartenders List of public house topics List of restaurant terminology Tavern Media related to Bartenders at Wikimedia Commons
Cocktail garnishes are decorative ornaments that add character or style to a mixed drink, most notably to cocktails. They are used to complement and enhance the flavors in a drink by stimulating the special nerve cells in the nose and mouthA large variety of cocktail garnishes are used. Many rum-based cocktails those with fruit flavors, tend to be decorated with tropical-themed garnishes or slices of fruit. Tequila-based drinks favor other citrus fruits. Gin- and vodka-based drinks tend toward garnishes with a more dignified flair, unless they are variations of a fruity rum-based drink. Whiskey - and brandy-based drinks tend toward minimal garnishment. Restaurant chains and hotel bars tend to use larger and more ostentatious garnishes, neighborhood bars tend to go the other extreme. Among common edible garnishes are the following: Carrot sticks Celery stalks Cherries Cinnamon, grated Cocktail olives Cocktail onions Lemon slice, twist, or wedge Lime slice, twist, or wedge Mint sprigs or leaves Nutmeg, grated Orange slice, twist, or wedge Pineapple slice or wedge Pepper Salt, coarse Sugar, granulated or powdered Shrimp Strawberries Watermelon wedge These garnishes are purely for decoration or dramatic flare.
Plastic animals Bead necklaces Candles Cocktail umbrellas Drinking straws Fire Flags Plastic swords Sparklers Swizzle sticks Garnish List of cocktails Tiki bar Harry Yee Bartending at Wikibooks Media related to Cocktail garnishes at Wikimedia Commons
A shot glass is a small glass designed to hold or measure spirits or liquor, either imbibed straight from the glass or poured into a cocktail. An alcoholic beverage served in a shot glass and consumed in one gulp, may be known as a "shooter". Shot glasses decorated with a wide variety of toasts, humorous pictures, or other decorations and words are popular souvenirs and collectibles as merchandise of a brewery; the word "shot", meaning a drink of alcohol, has been used since at least the 17th century, while reference to a shot as a small drink of spirits is known in the U. S. since at least the 1920s. The phrase "shot glass" has been in use since at least 1940; some of the earliest small whiskey glasses in America from the late 1700s to early 1800s were called "whiskey tasters" or "whiskey tumblers" and were hand blown. They are thick, similar to today's shot glasses, but will show a pontil mark or scar on the bottom, or will show a cupped area on the bottom where the pontil mark was ground and polished off.
Some of these glasses have hand-applied handles and decorations hand cut by a grinding wheel. In the early to mid-1800s, glass blowers began to use molds and several different patterns of "whiskey tasters" in several different colors were being made in molds; these glasses are thick like today's shot glass but they will have rough pontiled bottoms from being hand blown into the mold. By the 1870s to 1890s as glass making technology improved, the rough pontiled bottoms disappeared from glasses and bottles. Just before Prohibition in the U. S. in the late 1800s to early 1900s, thin-sided mass-produced whiskey glasses were common. Many of these glasses feature etched advertising on them. After Prohibition, these were replaced by shot glasses with thick sides; these glasses are for those wary of heavy drinking. Their bottoms are sturdy and thick so they give the illusion of a plain shot glass when in reality they only hold half as much liquid. A basic shot glass with fluting featured on the base of the glass.
Pony glasses can only hold about an ounce of fluid each but are used while mixing drinks into a larger glass. Tall shot glasses are narrower, they only hold a standard 1.5 ounces of liquid. In a rounded shot glasses the walls of the glass curve is down leaving a 10 centimeter difference between the lip of the glass and the bottom rim of the glass, they are popular in Europe. A jigger or measure is a bartending tool used to measure liquor, then poured into a glass or cocktail shaker; the term jigger in the sense of a small cup or measure of spirits or wine originates in the U. S. in the early 19th century. It was slang for the special cup used for it. Many references from the 1800s describe the "jigger boss" providing jiggers of whiskey to Irish immigrant workers who were digging canals in the U. S. Northeast; the style of double-ended jigger common today, made of stainless steel with two unequal sized opposing cones in an hourglass shape, was patented in 1893 by Cornelius Dungan of Chicago. One cone measures a regulation single shot, the other some fraction or multiple—with the actual sizes depending on local laws and customs.
A contemporary jigger measure in the U. S. holds 1.5 US fluid ounces, while the jiggers used in the U. K. are 25 ml or sometimes 35 ml. Jiggers may hold other amounts and ratios, can vary depending on the region and date of manufacture. In the U. S. up until Prohibition, a jigger was known to be about half a gill, or 2 US fluid ounces, but starting in the latter part of the 20th century, it is interpreted to be 1.5 US fluid ounces. A shot glass graduated in smaller units such as half-ounces, tablespoons, or millilitres, they are useful for precise measurement of cocktail ingredients, as well as in cooking recipes that call for multiples of a smaller unit, allowing the dispensing of the amount in a single measure. Alcoholic spirits measure Alcohol measurements The Shotglass collectors website
Bourbon whiskey is a type of American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made from corn. The name derives from the French Bourbon dynasty, although the precise inspiration for the whiskey's name is uncertain. Bourbon has been distilled since the 18th century; the use of the term "bourbon" for the whiskey has been traced to the 1820s, with consistent use beginning in Kentucky in the 1870s. Although bourbon may be made anywhere in the United States, it is associated with the American South and with Kentucky in particular; as of 2014, distillers' wholesale market revenue for bourbon sold within the U. S. was about $2.7 billion, bourbon made up about two-thirds of the $1.6 billion of U. S. exports of distilled spirits. It was recognized in 1964 by the United States Congress as a "distinctive product of the United States". Bourbon sold in the United States must be produced in America from at least 51% corn and stored in a new container of charred oak. Distilling was most brought to present-day Kentucky in the late 18th century by Scots, Scots-Irish, other settlers who began to farm the area in earnest.
The origin of bourbon as a distinct form of whiskey is not well documented. There are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is attributed to Elijah Craig, a Baptist minister and distiller credited with many Kentucky firsts, said to have been the first to age the product in charred oak casks, a process that gives bourbon its reddish color and distinctive taste. Across the county line in Bourbon County, an early distiller named Jacob Spears is credited with being the first to label his product as Bourbon whiskey. Although still popular and repeated, the Craig legend is apocryphal; the Spears story is a local favorite but is repeated outside the county. There was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form in the late 19th century. Any type of grain can be used to make whiskey, the practice of aging whiskey and charring the barrels for better flavor had been known in Europe for centuries; the late date of the Bourbon County etymology has led Louisville historian Michael Veach to dispute its authenticity.
He proposes the whiskey was named after Bourbon Street in New Orleans, a major port where shipments of Kentucky whiskey sold well as a cheaper alternative to French cognac. Another proposed origin of the name is the association with the geographic area known as Old Bourbon, consisting of the original Bourbon County in Virginia organized in 1785; this region included much of today's Eastern Kentucky, including 34 of the modern counties. It included the current Bourbon County in Kentucky, which became a county when Kentucky separated from Virginia as a new state in 1792; when American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal port on the Ohio River, Kentucky, from which whiskey and other products were shipped.
"Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey. Although many distilleries operated in Bourbon County no distilleries operated there between 1919, when Prohibition began in Kentucky, late 2014, when a small distillery opened – a period of 95 years. Prohibition was devastating to the bourbon industry. With the ratification of the 18th amendment in 1919, all distilleries were forced to stop operating, although a few were granted permits to bottle existing stocks of medicinal whiskey. A few were allowed to resume production when the stocks ran out. Distilleries that were granted permits to produce or bottle medicinal whiskey included Brown-Forman, Frankfort Distillery, James Thompson and Brothers, American Medical Spirits, the Schenley Distillery, the A. Ph. Stitzel Distillery. A refinement dubiously credited to James C.
Crow is the sour mash process, which conditions each new fermentation with some amount of spent mash. Spent mash is known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed; the acid introduced when using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work. A concurrent resolution adopted by the United States Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States" and asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government... take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as'Bourbon Whiskey'." Federal regulation now defines bourbon whiskey to only include bourbon produced in the United States. In recent years and Tennessee whiskey, sometimes regarded as a different type of spirit but meets the legal requirements to be called bourbon, have enjoyed significant growth in popularity; the industry trade group Distilled Spirits Council of the United States tracks sales of bourbon and Tennessee whiskey together.
According to the Distilled Spirits Counci
A cocktail is an alcoholic mixed drink, either a combination of spirits, or one or more spirits mixed with other ingredients such as fruit juice, flavored syrup, or cream. There are various types of cocktails, based on the kind of ingredients added; the origins of the cocktail are debated. The Oxford Dictionaries define cocktail as "An alcoholic drink consisting of a spirit or spirits mixed with other ingredients, such as fruit juice or cream". A cocktail can contain alcohol, a sugar, a bitter/citrus; when a mixed drink contains only a distilled spirit and a mixer, such as soda or fruit juice, it is a highball. Many of the International Bartenders Association Official Cocktails are highballs; when a mixed drink contains only a distilled spirit and a liqueur, it is a duo, when it adds a mixer, it is a trio. Additional ingredients may be sugar, milk and various herbs. Mixed drinks without alcohol that resemble cocktails are known as "mocktails" or "virgin cocktails"; the origin of the word cocktail is disputed.
The first recorded use of cocktail not referring to a horse is found in The Morning Post and Gazetteer in London, March 20, 1798: The Oxford English Dictionary cites the word as originating in the U. S; the first recorded use of cocktail as a beverage in the United States appears in The Farmer's Cabinet, April 28, 1803: Drank a glass of cocktail—excellent for the head... Call'd at the Doct's. found Burnham—he looked wise—drank another glass of cocktail. The first definition of cocktail known to be an alcoholic beverage appeared in The Balance and Columbian Repository May 13, 1806, it is said to be of great use to a democratic candidate: because a person, having swallowed a glass of it, is ready to swallow any thing else. Etymologist Anatoly Liberman endorses as "highly probable" the theory advanced by Låftman, which Liberman summarizes as follows: It was customary to dock the tails of horses that were not thoroughbred... They were called cocktailed horses simply cocktails. By extension, the word cocktail was applied to a vulgar, ill-bred person raised above his station, assuming the position of a gentleman but deficient in gentlemanly breeding....
Of importance is... the mention of water as an ingredient.... Låftman concluded that cocktail was an acceptable alcoholic drink, but diluted, not a "purebred", a thing "raised above its station". Hence the appropriate slang word used earlier about inferior horses and sham gentlemen. In his book Imbibe!, David Wondrich speculates that cocktail is a reference to a practice for perking up an old horse by means of a ginger suppository so that the animal would "cock its tail up and be frisky."Several authors have theorized that cocktail may be a corruption of cock ale. There is a lack of clarity on the origins of cocktails. Traditionally cocktails were a mixture of spirits, sugar and bitters, but by the 1860s, a cocktail included a liqueur. The first publication of a bartenders' guide which included cocktail recipes was in 1862 – How to Mix Drinks. In addition to recipes for punches, slings, shrubs, flips, a variety of other mixed drinks were 10 recipes for "cocktails". A key ingredient differentiating cocktails from other drinks in this compendium was the use of bitters.
Mixed drinks popular today that conform to this original meaning of "cocktail" include the Old Fashioned whiskey cocktail, the Sazerac cocktail, the Manhattan cocktail. The ingredients listed match the ingredients of an Old Fashioned, which originated as a term used by late 19th century bar patrons to distinguish cocktails made the "old-fashioned" way from newer, more complex cocktails. In the 1869 recipe book Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks, by William Terrington, cocktails are described as: Cocktails are compounds much used by "early birds" to fortify the inner man, by those who like their consolations hot and strong; the term highball appears during the 1890s to distinguish a drink composed only of a distilled spirit and a mixer. The first "cocktail party" thrown was by Mrs. Julius S. Walsh Jr. of St. Louis, Missouri, in May 1917. Walsh invited 50 guests to her home at noon on a Sunday; the party lasted an hour. The site of this first cocktail party still stands. In 1924, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis bought the Walsh mansion at 4510 Lindell Boulevard, it has served as the local archbishop's residence since.
During Prohibition in the United States, when alcoholic beverages were illegal, cocktails were still consumed illegally in establishments known as speakeasies. The quality of the liquor available during Prohibition was much worse than previously. There was a shift from whiskey to gin, which does not require aging and is therefore easier to produce illicitly. Honey, fruit juices, other flavorings served to mask the foul taste of the inferior liquors. Sweet cocktails were easier to drink an important consideration when the establishment might be raided at any moment. With wine and beer less available, liquor-based cocktails took their place becoming the centerpiece of the new cocktail party. Cocktails became less popular in the late 1960s and through the 1970s, until resurging in the 19