Barnstaple (UK Parliament constituency)
Barnstaple was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Barnstaple in Devon, in the South West of England. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 1885, when its representation was reduced to a single member; the constituency was created in 1295, abolished for the 1950 general election. The town of Barnstaple is today represented by the North Devon constituency. 1885–1918: The Municipal Boroughs of Barnstaple and Bideford, the Sessional Divisions of Bideford and Braunton. 1918–1950: The Municipal Boroughs of Barnstaple and Bideford, the Urban Districts of Ilfracombe and Northam, the Rural Districts of Barnstaple and Bideford. The election was declared due to bribery, causing a by-election. Laurie's election was declared due to bribery, causing a by-election. Prinsep withdrew from the election during polling. Potts' death caused a by-election. On petition, Lloyd's election was declared void due to bribery and, on 15 April 1864, Bremridge was declared elected.
Waddy resigned in order to contest Sheffield, causing a by-election. General election 1914/15: Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. General election 1939/40: Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected.
Mary I of England
Mary I known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII; the executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood, her younger half-brother Edward VI succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign. On his death, leading politicians proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England.
In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn, at the beginning of the 45-year Elizabethan era. Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in England, she was the only child of his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth, her godparents included Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey. Henry VIII's cousin once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Mary's confirmation, held after the baptism.
The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary's governess. Sir John Hussey Lord Hussey, was her chamberlain from 1530, his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent, was one of Mary's attendants. Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals. A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives for advice and commissioned him to write De Institutione Feminae Christianae, a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could write Latin, she studied French, music and Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, "This girl never cries"; as the miniature portrait of her shows, Mary had, like both her parents, a fair complexion, pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair.
She was ruddy cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, leaving Henry without a legitimate male heir. In 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of Wales to preside in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches, she was given her own court based at Ludlow Castle and many of the royal prerogatives reserved for the Prince of Wales. Vives and others called her the Princess of Wales, although she was never technically invested with the title, she appears to have spent three years in the Welsh Marches, making regular visits to her father's court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528. Throughout Mary's childhood, Henry negotiated potential future marriages for her; when she was only two years old, she was promised to Francis, the infant son of King Francis I of France, but the contract was repudiated after three years.
In 1522, at the age of six, she was instead contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However, the engagement was broken off within a few years by Charles with Henry's agreement. Cardinal Wolsey, Henry's chief adviser resumed marriage negotiations with the French, Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I himself, eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Wolsey secured an alliance with France without the marriage. According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion. Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, but Pope Clement VII refused his request. Henry claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother Arthur.
Catherine claimed so was not a valid marriage. Her first marriage had been annulled by a previous pope, Julius II, on t
Martin Bucer was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran and Anglican doctrines and practices. Bucer was a member of the Dominican Order, but after meeting and being influenced by Martin Luther in 1518 he arranged for his monastic vows to be annulled, he began to work for the Reformation, with the support of Franz von Sickingen. Bucer's efforts to reform the church in Wissembourg resulted in his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church, he was forced to flee to Strasbourg. There he joined a team of reformers which included Matthew Zell, Wolfgang Capito, Caspar Hedio, he acted as a mediator between the two leading reformers, Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli, who differed on the doctrine of the eucharist. Bucer sought agreement on common articles of faith such as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Wittenberg Concord, working with Philipp Melanchthon on the latter. Bucer believed that the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire could be convinced to join the Reformation.
Through a series of conferences organised by Charles V, he tried to unite Protestants and Catholics to create a German national church separate from Rome. He did not achieve this, as political events led to the Schmalkaldic War and the retreat of Protestantism within the Empire. In 1548, Bucer was persuaded, under duress, to sign the Augsburg Interim, which imposed certain forms of Catholic worship. However, he continued to promote reforms until the city of Strasbourg accepted the Interim, forced him to leave. In 1549, Bucer was exiled to England, under the guidance of Thomas Cranmer, he was able to influence the second revision of the Book of Common Prayer, he died in Cambridge, England, at the age of 59. Although his ministry did not lead to the formation of a new denomination, many Protestant denominations have claimed him as one of their own, he is remembered as an early pioneer of ecumenism. In the 16th century, the Holy Roman Empire was a centralised state in name only; the Empire was divided into many princely and city states that provided a powerful check on the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor.
The division of power between the emperor and the various states made the Reformation in Germany possible, as individual states defended reformers within their territories. In the Electorate of Saxony, Martin Luther was supported by the elector Frederick III and his successors John and John Frederick. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse—whose lands lay midway between Saxony and the Rhine—also supported the Reformation, he figured prominently in the lives of both Luther and Bucer; the Emperor Charles V had to balance the demands of his imperial subjects. At the same time, he was distracted by war with France and the Ottoman Empire and in Italy; the political rivalry among all the players influenced the ecclesiastical developments within the Empire. In addition to the princely states, free imperial cities, nominally under the control of the Emperor but ruled by councils that acted like sovereign governments, were scattered throughout the Empire; as the Reformation took root, clashes broke out in many cities between local reformers and conservative city magistrates.
It was in a free imperial city, that Martin Bucer began his work. Located on the western frontier of the Empire, Strasbourg was allied with the Swiss cities that had thrown off the imperial yoke; some had adopted a reformed religion distinct from Lutheranism, in which humanist social concepts and the communal ethic played a greater role. Along with a group of free imperial cities in the south and west of the German lands, Strasbourg followed this pattern of Reformation, it was ruled by a complex local government under the control of a few powerful families and wealthy guildsmen. In Bucer's time, social unrest was growing as lower-level artisans resented their social immobility and the widening income gap; the citizens may not have planned revolution, but they were receptive to new ideas that might transform their lives. Martin Bucer was born in a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, his father and grandfather, both named Claus Butzer, were coopers by trade. Nothing is known about Bucer's mother.
Bucer attended Sélestat's prestigious Latin school, where artisans sent their children. He joined the Dominican Order as a novice. Bucer claimed his grandfather had forced him into the order. After a year, he was consecrated as an acolyte in the Strasbourg church of the Williamites, he took his vows as a full Dominican friar. In 1510, he was ordained as a deacon. By 1515, Bucer was studying theology in the Dominican monastery in Heidelberg; the following year, he took a course in dogmatics in Mainz, where he was ordained a priest, returning to Heidelberg in January 1517 to enroll in the university. Around this time, he became influenced by humanism, he started buying books published by Johannes Froben, some by the great humanist Erasmus. A 1518 inventory of Bucer's books includes the major works of Thomas Aquinas, leader of medieval scholasticism in the Dominican order. In April 1518, Johannes von Staupitz, the vicar-general of the Augustinians, invited the Wittenberg reformer Martin Luther to argue his theology at the Heidelberg Disputation.
Here Bucer met Luther for the first time. In a long letter to his mentor, Beatus Rhenanus, Bucer recounted what he learned, he commented on several of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses, he agreed with them and perceived the ideas of Luther and Erasmus to be in concordance. Because meeting Luther posed certain risks, he asked Rhenanus to ensure his letter did not
John Calvin was a French theologian and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless apologetic writer who generated much controversy, he exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to his seminal Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, confessional documents, various other theological treatises. Trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes. In that same year, Calvin was recruited by Frenchman William Farel to join the Reformation in Geneva, where he preached sermons throughout the week. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees, he continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, in 1541 he was invited back to lead the church of the city. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite opposition from several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva, he was burned at the stake for heresy by the city council. Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out.
Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both throughout Europe. John Calvin was born as Jehan Cauvin on 10 July 1509, at Noyon, a town in Picardy, a province of the Kingdom of France, he was the first of four sons. His mother, Jeanne le Franc, was the daughter of an innkeeper from Cambrai, she died of an unknown cause after having borne four more children. Calvin's father, Gérard Cauvin, had a prosperous career as the cathedral notary and registrar to the ecclesiastical court. Gérard intended his three sons — Charles and Antoine — for the priesthood. Young Calvin was precocious. By age 12, he was employed by the bishop as a clerk and received the tonsure, cutting his hair to symbolise his dedication to the Church, he won the patronage of an influential family, the Montmors. Through their assistance, Calvin was able to attend the Collège de la Marche, where he learned Latin from one of its greatest teachers, Mathurin Cordier. Once he completed the course, he entered the Collège de Montaigu as a philosophy student.
In 1525 or 1526, Gérard withdrew his son from the Collège de Montaigu and enrolled him in the University of Orléans to study law. According to contemporary biographers Theodore Beza and Nicolas Colladon, Gérard believed that Calvin would earn more money as a lawyer than as a priest. After a few years of quiet study, Calvin entered the University of Bourges in 1529, he was intrigued by a humanist lawyer. Humanism was a European intellectual movement. During his 18-month stay in Bourges, Calvin learned Koine Greek, a necessity for studying the New Testament. Alternate theories have been suggested regarding the date of Calvin's religious conversion; some have placed the date of his conversion around 1533. In this view, his resignation is the direct evidence for his conversion to the evangelical faith. However, T. H. L. Parker argues that while this date is a terminus for his conversion, the more date is in late 1529 or early 1530; the main evidence for his conversion is contained in two different accounts of his conversion.
In the first, found in his Commentary on the Book of Psalms, Calvin portrayed his conversion as a sudden change of mind, brought about by God: God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, more hardened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life. Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness, I was inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off other studies, yet I pursued them with less ardour. In the second account, Calvin wrote of a long process of inner turmoil, followed by spiritual and psychological anguish: Being exceedingly alarmed at the misery into which I had fallen, much more at that which threatened me in view of eternal death, I, duty bound, made it my first business to betake myself to your way, condemning my past life, not without groans and tears, and now, O Lord, what remains to a wretch like me, but instead of defence, earnestly to supplicate you not to judge that fearful abandonment of your Word according to its deserts, from which in your wondrous goodnes
Straßburg is a town in the district of Sankt Veit an der Glan in Carinthia, Austria. The municipality lies in Northern Carinthia in the Gurk Valley among the Nock Mountains and the Gurk. Straßburg is divided into the following boroughs: St. Georgen, Straßburg-Land, Straßburg-Stadt, it is further divided into the districts of Bachl, Buldorf, Dörfl, Dobersberg, Edling, Glabötsch, Gundersdorf, Höllein, Hausdorf, Hohenfeld, Kraßnitz, Kreuzen, Langwiesen, Lieding, Mannsdorf, Mitterdorf, Olschnögg, Olschnitz-Lind, Pöckstein-Zwischenwässern, Pölling, Ratschach, Sankt Georgen, Sankt Jakob, Sankt Johann, Sankt Magdalen, Sankt Peter, Schmaritzen, Schneßnitz, Straßburg-Stadt. Straßburg was first mentioned in 864, when King Louis the German gave the Archdiocese of Salzburg a seat there; the Straßburg Fortress was erected in 1147 under the fourth Bishop of Gurk Roman I. In the 15th century, it was expanded into a castle and it served as the seat of Prince-Bishops of Gurk until the 18th century; as the bishop's seat, Straßburg was the most important town in the Gurk Valley and was thus elevated to a market town in 1229 and to a city in 1382.
It received its city rights in 1402 from Prince-Bishop Conrad III von Helfenberg. The seat of the Gurk Bishops was moved in the 18th century to the nearby Pöckstein Castle in Zwischenwässern and later to Klagenfurt, so the city lost its importance; the castle received extensive damage from the 1767 earthquake and was not rebuilt until the late 20th century. According to the 2001 Census, Straßburg has 2,335 inhabitants. Of these, 90.8% said they were Catholic, 1.0% Protestant, 2.2% Muslim. 3.3% of the population did not declare a belief. The Straßburg Municipal Council has 19 seats and the following party mandates: 8 FPÖ 6 ÖVP 5 SPÖMayor Ferdinand Wachernig's greatest competition is Councilman Hubert PUTZ. Strasburg, Germany Treppo Grande, Italy The Folk Art Museum and the Hunting Museum in Straßburg Castle. Straßburg Castle, the former residence of the Prince-Bishops of Gurk Pöckstein Castle St. Nikolaus Church St. Margaretha zu Lieding Church: a romanesque church built around 1200 around with a quire and spire from the 14th century
John Bale was an English churchman and controversialist, Bishop of Ossory. He wrote the oldest known historical verse drama in English, developed and published a extensive list of the works of British authors down to his own time, just as the monastic libraries were being dispersed, his unhappy disposition and habit of quarrelling earned him the nickname "bilious Bale". He was born near Dunwich in Suffolk. At the age of twelve he joined the Carmelite friars at Norwich, removing to the house of "Holme", he entered Jesus College and took his degree of B. D. in 1529. He became the last Prior of the Ipswich Carmelite house, elected in 1533, he abandoned his monastic vocation, got married, saying, "that I might never more serve so execrable a beast, I took to wife the faithful Dorothy." He obtained the living of Thorndon, but in 1534 was summoned before the Archbishop of York for a sermon against the invocation of saints preached at Doncaster, afterwards before John Stokesley, Bishop of London, but he escaped through the powerful protection of Thomas Cromwell, whose notice he is said to have attracted by his miracle plays.
In these plays Bale denounced the monastic system and its supporters in unrestrained language and coarse imagery. The prayer of Infidelitas which opens the second act of his Three Laws is an example of his profane parody; these somewhat brutal productions were intended to impress popular feeling, Cromwell found in him an invaluable instrument. When Cromwell fell from favour in 1540, Bale fled with his wife and children to Antwerp, he returned on the accession of King Edward VI, received the living of Bishopstoke, being promoted in 1552 to the Irish see of Ossory. He refused to be consecrated by the Roman Catholic rites of the Irish church, won his point, though the Dean of Dublin made a protest against the revised office during the ceremony, he quarrelled bitterly with the aged and respected judge Thomas St. Lawrence, who travelled to Kilkenny to urge the people to reject his innovations; when the accession of Queen Mary inaugurated a violent reaction in matters of religion, he was forced to get out of the country again.
He tried to escape to Scotland, but on the voyage was captured by a Dutch man-of-war, driven by bad weather into St Ives, Cornwall. Bale was soon released. At Dover he had another narrow escape, but he made his way to the Netherlands and thence to Frankfurt and Basel. During his exile he devoted himself to writing. After his return, on the accession of Queen Elizabeth I, he received a prebendal stall at Canterbury, where he died and was buried in the cathedral. John Bale attacked his enemies with vehemence and scurrility, much of, directed and forcibly against the Roman Catholic Church and its writers: but this cavill does not diminish the value of his contributions to literature. Of his mysteries and miracle plays only five have been preserved, but the titles of the others, quoted by himself in his Catalogus, show that they were animated by the same political and religious aims; the Three Laws of Nature and Christ, corrupted by the Sodomytes and Papystes most wicked was a morality play. The direction for the dressing of the parts is instructive: "Let Idolatry be decked like an old witch, Sodomy like a monk of all sects, Ambition like a bishop, Covetousness like a Pharisee or spiritual lawyer, False Doctrine like a popish doctor, Hypocrisy like a gray friar."
A Tragedye. Bale is a figure of some literary-dramatic importance as the author of Kynge Johan, which marks the transition between the old morality play and the English historical drama, it does not appear to have directly influenced the creators of the chronicle histories, but it is remarkable that such a developed attempt at historical drama should have been made fourteen years before the production of Gorboduc. Kynge Johan is itself a polemic against the Roman Catholic Church. King John is represented; some view Bale's most important work as being Illustrium majoris Britanniae scriptorum, hoc est, Cambriae, ac Scotiae Summarium... published at Ipswich and Wesel for John Overton in 1548, 1549. This contained authors through five centuries: however, another edition entirely rewritten and containing fourteen centuries, was printed at Basel with the title Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae... Catalogus in 1557–1559; this chronological catalogue of British authors and their works was founded on the De uiris illustribus of John Leland.
Bale was an indefatigable collector and worker, examined many of the valuable libraries of the Augustinian and Carmelite houses before their dissolution. His work contains much information, his autograph note-book is preserved in the Selden Collection of the Bodleian Oxford. It contains the materials collected for his two published catalogues arranged alphabetically
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king. Cromwell was one of most powerful proponents of the English Reformation, he helped to engineer an annulment of the king's marriage to Queen Catherine so that Henry could lawfully marry Anne Boleyn. Henry failed to obtain the Pope's approval for the annulment in 1534, so Parliament endorsed the king's claim to be Supreme Head of the Church of England, giving him the authority to annul his own marriage. However, Cromwell subsequently charted an evangelical and reformist course for the Church of England from the unique posts of vicegerent in spirituals and vicar-general. During his rise to power, Cromwell made many enemies, including his former ally Anne Boleyn, he played a prominent role in her downfall. He fell from power, after arranging the king's marriage to German princess Anne of Cleves. Cromwell had hoped that the marriage would breathe fresh life into the Reformation in England, but Henry found his new bride unattractive and it turned into a disaster for Cromwell, ending in an annulment six months later.
Cromwell was arraigned under a bill of attainder and executed for treason and heresy on Tower Hill on 28 July 1540. The king expressed regret at the loss of his chief minister. Thomas Cromwell was born around 1485, in Putney, the son of Walter Cromwell, a blacksmith and cloth merchant, owner of both a hostelry and a brewery. Walter Cromwell is considered by some to be of Irish ancestry. Thomas's mother, was the aunt of Nicholas Glossop of Wirksworth in Derbyshire, she lived in Putney in the house of a local attorney, John Welbeck, at the time of her marriage to Walter Cromwell in 1474. Cromwell had two sisters: the elder, married Morgan Williams, a Welsh lawyer. Katherine and Morgan's son, was employed in his uncle's service and changed his name to Cromwell. Little is known about Cromwell's early life, it is believed that he was born on the edge of Putney Heath. In 1878, his birthplace was still of note: The site of Cromwell's birthplace is still pointed out by tradition and is in some measure confirmed by the survey of Wimbledon Manor, quoted above, for it describes on that spot'an ancient cottage called the smith's shop, lying west of the highway from Richmond to Wandsworth, being the sign of the Anchor'.
The plot of ground here referred to is now covered by the Green Man public house. Cromwell declared to Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer that he had been a "ruffian… in his young days"; as a youth, he left his family in Putney, crossed the Channel to the continent. Accounts of his activities in France and the Low Countries are sketchy and contradictory, it is alleged that he first became a mercenary, marched with the French army to Italy, where he fought in the Battle of Garigliano on 28 December 1503. While in Italy, he entered service in the household of the Florentine banker Francesco Frescobaldi, he visited leading mercantile centres in the Low Countries, living among the English merchants and developing a network of contacts while learning several languages. At some point he returned to Italy; the records of the English Hospital in Rome indicate that he stayed there in June 1514, while documents in the Vatican Archives suggest that he was an agent for the Archbishop of York, Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge, handled English ecclesiastical issues before the Roman Rota.
At one point during these years, Cromwell returned to England, where around 1515 he married Elizabeth Wyckes. She was the widow of Thomas Williams, a Yeoman of the Guard, the daughter of a Putney shearman, Henry Wykes, who had served as a gentleman usher to King Henry VII; the couple had three children: Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell, Elizabeth Seymour's second husband. Anne Cromwell Grace Cromwell Cromwell's wife died early in 1529 and his daughters and Grace, are believed to have died not long after their mother, their death may have been to Sweating sickness. Provisions made for Anne and Grace in Cromwell's will, dated 12 July 1529, were crossed out at some date. Gregory outlived his father by only 11 years, succumbing to sweating sickness in 1551. Thomas Cromwell had an illegitimate daughter, whose early life is a complete mystery. According to novelist Dame Hilary Mantel, "Cromwell had an illegitimate daughter, beyond the fact that she existed, we know little about her, she comes into the records, in an obscure way — she's in the archives of the county of Chester."
Jane married William Hough, of Leighton in Wirral, around 1550. William Hough was the son of Richard Hough, Cromwell's agent in Chester from 1534-40, it is unknown what role Gregory Cromwell played in her life. Jane and her husband William Hough remained staunch Roman Catholics, together with their daughter, her husband, William Whitmore, their children, all came to the attention of the authorities as recusants during the reign of Elizabeth I. In 1517, again in 1518, Cromwell led an embassy to Rome to obtain from Pope Leo X a papal bull for the reinstatement of Indulgences for the town of Boston, Lincolnshire. By 1520, Cromwell was established in London mercantile and legal circles. In 1523, he obtained a seat in the House of Commons as a Burgess, though the constituency he represented has not been identified. After Parliament had been dissolved, Cromwell wrote a letter to a friend, jesting about the session's