Marvin Miller (actor)
Marvin Elliott Miller was an American radio and voice-over actor. Possessing a deep, baritone voice, he began his career in radio in St. Louis, before becoming a Hollywood actor, he is best remembered for voicing Robby the Robot in the science fiction film Forbidden Planet, a role he reprised in the lesser-known The Invisible Boy. Miller's next most notable role is that of Michael Anthony, the loyal assistant of Paul Frees' generous billionaire J. B. Tipton Jr. on the TV series The Millionaire. Born Marvin Mueller in St. Louis, Miller graduated from Washington University before commencing his career in radio; when a singer named Marvin Miller debuted on another St. Louis radio station, he began using his middle initial to distinguish himself from the newcomer. For the Mutual Broadcasting System, he narrated a daily 15-minute radio show entitled The Story Behind the Story, which offered historical vignettes, he served as announcer on several Old Time Radio shows of the 1940s and 1950s, including The Jo Stafford Show and the long-running mystery series The Whistler.
Mueller played Dr. Lee Markham on The Woman in White on NBC radio and Howard Andrews on Midstream on the Blue Network and appeared as "The voice of the Past" on the May 21, 1942 broadcast of The Right to Happiness. In 1945–47, he was the announcer for Songs by Sinatra, he was the announcer on The Billie Burke Show. In 1952, Miller had a one-man program, Armchair Adventures, on CBS, he did "all narration" in the 15-minute dramatic anthology. He recorded 260 episodes of a program described in a 1950 trade publication as "Marvin Miller: Famous radio voice in series of five minute vignettes about famous people." The program was syndicated via electrical transcription by The Cardinal Company. He won Grammy Awards in 1965 and 1966 for his recordings of Dr. Seuss stories: in 1967 for Dr Seuss Presents – If I Ran the Zoo and Sleep Book and 1966 for Dr Seuss Presents Fox in Socks and Green Eggs and Ham, he read Horton Hatches the Egg, The Sneetches and Other Stories and Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories.
In the mid-1970s, Miller lent his voice to sports films, narrating the official Indianapolis 500 films in 1975 and 1976. In films, the heavyset Miller was cast as a villain, many times playing Asian roles, he portrayed a sadistic henchman in the 1947 Humphrey Bogart film Dead Reckoning and was Yamada in the 1945 James Cagney effort Blood on the Sun. In 1946's film noir Deadline at Dawn he plays a blind pianist. Miller played George "Gusty" Gustafson in the George Raft film noir classic Johnny Angel. Miller did a great deal of voice work in animation from the 1950s to 1970s, from the narration on the 1950 Academy Award-winning United Productions of America cartoon Gerald McBoing Boing to the 1970 The Ant and the Aardvark cartoon Scratch a Tiger. From 1949 to 1950 he starred as Dr. Yat Fu on the short-lived ABC series Mysteries of Chinatown, with Gloria Saunders cast as his niece. In 1961, Miller guest-starred as Johnny Kelso, with Erin O'Brien, in "The Marble Slab" episode of the Frederick Ziv-, United Artists-, MGM-produced Bat Masterson, starring Gene Barry.
Original air date was May 11, 1961. Miller voiced "Mr. Sun" in the AT&T educational film Our Mr. Sun, "Hemo" in the AT&T educational film Hemo the Magnificent, parts of a series featuring Dr. Frank C. Baxter and directed by Frank Capra, shown on American network television in 1956 and 1957. Miller crossed paths with other prolific voice-over artists many times in his career including June Foray, playing "Deer" in Hemo the Magnificent and in the TV series Rocky and Bullwinkle along with Paul Frees, who voiced "Boris Badenov" in that program. Miller and Frees performed in separate segments on the audio recording Stan Freberg Presents The United States of America Volume One The Early Years. Miller made a guest appearance in 1963 on Perry Mason as unscrupulous attorney F. J. Weatherby in "The Case of the Lover's Leap." Miller voiced Aquaman for the Filmation studio for their 1967 series The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure. He was the voice of pilot/scientist Busby Birdwell in the company's animated series Fantastic Voyage.
He was the voice of the arrogant alien "Zarn" in three episodes of the second season of Land of the Lost. Miller lent his distinct voice to The Pink Panther Show talking with the feline offscreen and asking questions, while voicing The Inspector, his second Deux Deux and their boss The Commissioner. On The Millionaire, Miller played Michael Anthony in over 200 episodes, conveying the wishes of the "fabulously wealthy" John Beresford Tipton, voiced by Paul Frees. Miller died in 1985 at the age of 71 from a heart attack, he is entombed at Mortuary in Los Angeles. For his contribution to the television industry, Marvin Miller has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6101 Hollywood Boulevard. Marvin Miller on IMDb Marvin Miller at Find a Grave
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator; the strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell. Bells are cast from bell metal for its resonant properties, but can be made from other hard materials; some small bells such as ornamental bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or ceramic, but large bells such as church and tower bells are cast from bell metal. Bells intended to be heard over a wide area can range from a single bell hung in a turret or bell-gable, to a musical ensemble such as an English ring of bells, a carillon or a Russian zvon which are tuned to a common scale and installed in a bell tower. Many public or institutional buildings house bells, most as clock bells to sound the hours and quarters.
Bells have been associated with religious rites, are still used to call communities together for religious services. Bells were made to commemorate important events or people and have been associated with the concepts of peace and freedom; the study of bells is called campanology. Bell is a word common to the Low German dialects, cognate with Middle Low German belle and Dutch bel but not appearing among the other Germanic languages except the Icelandic bjalla, a loanword from Old English, it is popularly but not related to the former sense of to bell which gave rise to bellow. The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates from the 3rd millennium BC, is traced to the Yangshao culture of Neolithic China. Clapper-bells made of pottery have been found in several archaeological sites; the pottery bells developed into metal bells. In West Asia, the first bells appear in 1000 BC; the earliest metal bells, with one found in the Taosi site and four in the Erlitou site, are dated to about 2000 BC. Early bells not only have an important role in generating metal sound, but arguably played a prominent cultural role.
With the emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty, they were relegated to subservient functions. The book of Exodus in the Bible notes that small gold bells were worn as ornaments on the hem of the robe of the high priest in Jerusalem. Among the ancient Greeks, hand bells were used in camps and garrisons and by patrols that went around to visit sentinals. Among the Romans, the hour of bathing was announced by a bell, they used them in the home, as an ornament and emblem, bells were placed around the necks of cattle and sheep so they could be found if they strayed. See Klang Bell of the British Museum collection. In the western world, the common form of bell is a church bell or town bell, hung within a tower or bell cote; such bells are either mounted on a beam so they can swing to and fro. Bells that are hung dead are sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or by pulling an internal clapper against the bell. Where a bell is swung it can either be swung over a small arc by a rope and lever or by using a rope on a wheel to swing the bell higher.
As the bell swings higher the sound is projected outwards rather than downwards. Larger bells may be swung using electric motors. In some places, such as Salzburg Cathedral the clappers are held against the sound bow whilst the bells are raised released sequentially to give a clean start to the ringing. At the end they are successively caught again by the mechanism to silence the bells. Bells hung for full circle ringing are swung through just over a complete circle from mouth uppermost. A stay engages a mechanism to allow the bell to rest just past its balance point; the rope is attached to one side of a wheel so that a different amount of rope is wound on and off as it swings to and fro. The bells are controlled by ringers in a chamber below, who rotate the bell to through a full circle and back, control the speed of oscillation when the bell is mouth upwards at the balance-point, when little effort is required. Swinging bells are sounded by an internal clapper; the clapper may have a longer period of swing than the bell.
In this case the bell will catch up with the clapper and if rung to or near full circle will carry the clapper up on the bell's trailing side. Alternatively, the clapper may have a shorter period and catch up with the bell's leading side, travel up with the bell coming to rest on the downhill side; this latter method is used in English style full circle ringing. The clappers have leather pads strapped around them to quieten the bells when practice ringing to avoid annoying the neighbourhood. At funerals, half-muffles are used to give a full open sound on one round, a muffled sound on the alternate round – a distinctive, mournful effect; this was done at the Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997. A carillon, a musical instrument consisting of at least 23 cast bronze cup-shaped bells, is tuned so that the bells can be played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to play a chord. A traditional carillon is played by striking a baton keyboard with the fists, by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet.
The keys mechanically activate levers and wires that connect to meta
Horton Hatches the Egg
Horton Hatches the Egg is a children's book written and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and published in 1940 by Random House; the book tells the story of Horton the Elephant, tricked into sitting on a bird's egg while its mother, takes a permanent vacation to Palm Beach. Horton endures a number of hardships but persists stating, "I meant what I said, I said what I meant. An elephant's faithful, one hundred percent!" The egg hatches, revealing an elephant-bird, a creature with a blend of Mayzie's and Horton's features. According to Geisel's biographers Judith and Neil Morgan, Geisel claimed the story was born in early 1940, when he left a window open in his studio, the wind fortuitously blew a sketch of an elephant on top of a sketch of a tree. However, according to biographer Charles Cohen, this account is apocryphal, he found elements of Horton in earlier Dr. Seuss works, most notably the 1938 short story "Matilda, the Elephant with a Mother Complex". Horton Hatches the Egg was published to immediate critical acclaim and financial success and has remained popular with the general public.
The book has been used as the basis for academic articles on a variety of topics, including economics, Christianity and adoption. Horton appeared again in the 1954 Dr. Seuss book Horton Hears a Who! These two books provided the thrust of the plot for the 2000 Broadway musical Seussical; the book centers on Horton, a genial elephant, convinced by Mayzie, a lazy, irresponsible bird, to sit on her egg while she takes a short "break", which turns into her permanent relocation to Palm Beach. As Horton sits in the nest on top of a tree, he is exposed to the elements, laughed at by his jungle friends, captured by hunters, forced to endure a terrible sea voyage, placed in a traveling circus. However, despite his hardships and Mayzie's clear intent not to return, Horton refuses to leave the nest because he insists on keeping his word repeating, "I meant what I said, I said what I meant. An elephant's faithful, one hundred per cent!" The traveling circus ends up visiting near Mayzie's new Palm Beach residence.
She visits the circus just as the egg is due to hatch and demands that Horton should return it, without offering him a reward. However, when the egg hatches, the creature that emerges is an "elephant-bird", a cross between Horton and Mayzie, Horton and the baby are returned to the jungle. According to Geisel's biographers Judith and Neil Morgan, Horton Hatches the Egg was born in 1940, the day after New Year's, when he took a break from drawing in his Park Avenue apartment and went for a walk; when he returned, he noticed that he had left a window open in his studio and that the wind had blown one sketch on transparent paper on top of another, making it look like an elephant was sitting in a tree. This account was based on interviews with Geisel, who had told similar stories about the book's creation to reporters asking about his creative process since as early as 1957; the story had changed with each telling but always involved the fortuitous juxtaposition of drawings of an elephant and a tree.
Charles Cohen, on the other hand, found traces of Horton Hatches the Egg in early Dr. Seuss works. In an early installment of Geisel's cartoon feature "Boids and the Beasties", which began in Judge magazine in 1927, he juxtaposed a bird and an elephant. A few weeks he drew a story in which a whale ends up passed out in a catalpa tree. In a 1959 cartoon for Life magazine, he depicted a dachshund. In 1961, he drew an illustration for Judge that showed a walrus sitting in a tree, trying to hatch the eggs in a bird nest; some of his earlier work featured elephant-bird hybrids, which prefigured the elephant-bird that hatches at the end of Horton Hatches the Egg. In 1938, two years before Horton Hatches the Egg, Judge published the most obvious precursor to Horton, "Matilda, the Elephant with a Mother Complex", a short story by Geisel about an "old maid elephant" who sits on a chickadee egg until it hatches, only to have the newborn chickadee fly away from her. In 1939, Geisel created an advertisement for NBC featuring a sympathetic-looking elephant lashed with ropes and contained in a cage made of sticks, similar to Horton's situation when the hunters capture him in Horton Hatches the Egg.
In early drafts, the elephant's name changed from Osmer to Bosco to Humphrey. The final choice, was after Horton Conrad, one of Geisel's classmates at Dartmouth College; the bird's name changed from Bessie to Saidie and Mayzie. In the first draft, the elephant character volunteered to sit on the eggs for the bird, reluctant. Horton Hatches the Egg was published by Random House in fall 1940 to immediate success, it received positive notice from critics. Kirkus Reviews called it "sheer nonsense, but good fun." The reviewer for The New York Times Book Review wrote, "A moral is a new thing to find in a Dr. Seuss book, but it doesn't much interfere with the hilarity with which he juggles an elephant up a tree. To an adult the tale seems a little forced compared to his first grand yarns, less inevitable in its nonsense, but neither young nor old are going to quibble with the fantastic comedy of his pictures."The book found early success with book buyers and the general public. It sold 6,000 copies in 1,600 in its second.
Frances Chrystie, the juvenile buyer for FAO Schwarz, wrote to Bennett Cerf, Geisel's publisher, "I've been sitting alone in my apartment reading Horton aloud to myself over and over again... It's the funniest book I've seen... merchandise manager thinks he can find an elephant in the store, we can make a tree and l
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
A bubble is a globule of one substance in another gas in a liquid. Due to the Marangoni effect, bubbles may remain intact when they reach the surface of the immersive substance. Bubbles are seen in many places in everyday life, for example: As spontaneous nucleation of supersaturated carbon dioxide in soft drinks As water vapor in boiling water As air mixed into agitated water, such as below a waterfall As sea foam As a soap bubble As given off in chemical reactions, e.g. baking soda + vinegar As a gas trapped in glass during its manufacture An air bubble in a solution of fluorescein and water is the essential part of a spirit level Bubbles form, coalesce, into globular shapes, because those shapes are at a lower energy state. For the physics and chemistry behind it, see nucleation. Bubbles are visible. For example, the RI of air is 1.0003 and the RI of water is 1.333. Snell's Law describes how electromagnetic waves change direction at the interface between two mediums with different IR; the above explanation only holds for bubbles of one medium submerged in another medium.
Nucleation can be intentionally induced, for example to create a bubblegram in a solid. In medical ultrasound imaging, small encapsulated bubbles called contrast agent are used to enhance the contrast. In thermal inkjet printing, vapor bubbles are used as actuators, they are used in other microfluidics applications as actuators. The violent collapse of bubbles near solid surfaces and the resulting impinging jet constitute the mechanism used in ultrasonic cleaning; the same effect, but on a larger scale, is used in focused energy weapons such as the bazooka and the torpedo. Pistol shrimp use a collapsing cavitation bubble as a weapon; the same effect is used to treat kidney stones in a lithotripter. Marine mammals such as dolphins and whales use bubbles as hunting tools. Aerators cause dissolution of gas in the liquid by injecting bubbles. Chemical and metallurgic engineers rely on bubbles for operations such as distillation, absorption and spray drying; the complex processes involved require consideration for mass and heat transfer, are modelled using fluid dynamics.
The star-nosed mole and the American water shrew can smell underwater by breathing through their nostrils and creating a bubble. When bubbles are disturbed, they pulsate at their natural frequency. Large bubbles undergo adiabatic pulsations, which means that no heat is transferred either from the liquid to the gas or vice versa; the natural frequency of such bubbles is determined by the equation: f 0 = 1 2 π R 0 3 γ p 0 ρ where: γ is the specific heat ratio of the gas R 0 is the steady state radius p 0 is the steady state pressure ρ is the mass density of the surrounding liquidSmaller bubbles undergo isothermal pulsations. The corresponding equation for small bubbles of surface tension σ is f 0 = 1 2 π R 0 3 p 0 ρ + 4 σ ρ R 0 Excited bubbles trapped underwater are the major source of liquid sounds, such as inside our knuckles during knuckle cracking, when a rain droplet impacts a surface of water. Injury by bubble formation and growth in body tissues is the mechanism of decompression sickness, which occurs when supersaturated dissolved inert gases leave solution as bubbles during decompression.
The damage can be due to mechanical deformation of tissues due to bubble growth in situ, or by blocking blood vessels where the bubble has lodged. Arterial gas embolism can occur when a gas bubble is introduced to the circulatory system and it lodges in a blood vessel, too small for it to pass through under the available pressure difference; this can occur as a result of decompression after hyperbaric exposure, a lung overexpansion injury, during intravenous fluid administration, or during surgery. Sonoluminescence Bubble fusion Underwater acoustics Minnaert resonance Antibubble
Corn starch or maize starch is the starch derived from the corn grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, in making corn syrup and other sugars, it is versatile modified, finds many uses in industry as adhesives, in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, textile manufacturing. It has medical uses, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease. Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability; when mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid. For example, adding water transforms cornstarch into a material known as Oobleck while adding oil transforms cornstarch into an electrorheological fluid; the concept can be explained through the mixture termed "cornflour slime". Cornstarch was discovered in 1840 by Thomas Kingsford, superintendent of a wheat starch factory in Jersey City, New Jersey; until 1851, corn starch was used for starching laundry and other industrial uses.
Although used for cooking and as a household item, cornstarch is used for many purposes in several industries, ranging from its use as a chemical additive for certain products, to medical therapy for certain illnesses. Cornstarch is used as a thickening agent in liquid-based foods by mixing it with a lower-temperature liquid to form a paste or slurry, it is sometimes preferred over flour alone because it forms a translucent, rather than opaque mixture. As the starch is heated, the molecular chains unravel, allowing them to collide with other starch chains to form a mesh, thickening the liquid, it is included as an anticaking agent in powdered sugar. A common substitute is arrowroot. Food producers reduce production costs by adding varying amounts of cornstarch to foods, for example to cheese and yogurt. Chicken nuggets with a thin outer layer of cornstarch allows increased oil absorption and crispness after the latter stages of frying. Baby powder may include cornstarch among its ingredients. Cornstarch may be used in the manufacture of airbags.
Cornstarch is the preferred anti-stick agent on medical products made from natural latex, including condoms and medical gloves. Cornstarch has properties enabling supply of glucose to maintain blood sugar levels for people with glycogen storage disease. Cornstarch can be used starting at age 6–12 months allowing glucose fluctuations to be deterred; the corn is steeped for 30 to 48 hours. The germ is separated from the endosperm and those two components are ground separately. Next the starch is removed from each by washing; the starch is separated from the corn steep liquor, the cereal germ, the fibers and the corn gluten in hydrocyclones and centrifuges, dried. This process is called wet milling; the starch may be modified for specific purposes. Like many other powders, cornstarch is susceptible to dust explosions, it is believed that overheating of a cornstarch-based powder on June 27, 2015, initiated the Formosa Fun Coast explosion in Taiwan, despite warnings on the packaging indicating that the material is flammable.
Called cornstarch in the United States and Canada. The term corn flour refers to cornmeal, finely milled. Although not a flour as such, called cornflour in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries. Distinct in these countries from cornmeal. Amylomaize, high amylose starch Bird's Custard, the English custard based on cornflour, invented in 1837 Waxy corn, waxy maize starch Corn sauce Corn syrup Corn ethanol Modified starch Potato starch Tapioca starch American Corn Refiners Association
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with day length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice; the date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, vice versa. From an astronomical view, the equinoxes and solstices would be the middle of the respective seasons, but sometimes astronomical summer is defined as starting at the solstice, the time of maximal insolation identified with the 21st day of June or December. A variable seasonal lag means that the meteorological center of the season, based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks after the time of maximal insolation; the meteorological convention is to define summer as comprising the months of June and August in the northern hemisphere and the months of December and February in the southern hemisphere.
Under meteorological definitions, all seasons are arbitrarily set to start at the beginning of a calendar month and end at the end of a month. This meteorological definition of summer aligns with the viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest days of the year, in which daylight predominates; the meteorological reckoning of seasons is used in Australia, Denmark and Japan. It is used by many in the United Kingdom. In Ireland, the summer months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are June and August. However, according to the Irish Calendar, summer ends on 1 August. School textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural norm of summer commencing on 1 May rather than the meteorological definition of 1 June. Days continue to lengthen from equinox to solstice and summer days progressively shorten after the solstice, so meteorological summer encompasses the build-up to the longest day and a diminishing thereafter, with summer having many more hours of daylight than spring.
Reckoning by hours of daylight alone, summer solstice marks the midpoint, not the beginning, of the seasons. Midsummer takes place over the shortest night of the year, the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with tradition. Where a seasonal lag of half a season or more is common, reckoning based on astronomical markers is shifted half a season. By this method, in North America, summer is the period from the summer solstice to the autumn equinox. Reckoning by cultural festivals, the summer season in the United States is traditionally regarded as beginning on Memorial Day weekend and ending on Labor Day, more in line with the meteorological definition for the parts of the country that have four-season weather; the similar Canadian tradition starts summer on Victoria Day one week prior and ends, as in the United States, on Labour Day. In Chinese astronomy, summer starts on or around 5 May, with the jiéqì known as lìxià, i.e. "establishment of summer", it ends on or around 6 August.
In southern and southeast Asia, where the monsoon occurs, summer is more defined as lasting from March, April and June, the warmest time of the year, ending with the onset of the monsoon rains. Because the temperature lag is shorter in the oceanic temperate southern hemisphere, most countries in this region use the meteorological definition with summer starting on 1 December and ending on the last day of February. Summer is traditionally associated with warm weather. In the Mediterranean regions, it is associated with dry weather, while in other places it is associated with rainy weather; the wet season is the main period of vegetation growth within the savanna climate regime. Where the wet season is associated with a seasonal shift in the prevailing winds, it is known as a monsoon. In the northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct tropical cyclone season occurs from 1 June to 30 November; the statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane season is 10 September. The Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic.
The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March and a peak in early September. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November. In the Southern Hemisphere, the tropical cyclone season runs from 1 November until the end of April with peaks in mid-February to early March. Thunderstorm season in the United States and Canada runs in the spring through summer; these storms can produce hail, strong winds and tornadoes during the afternoon and evening. Schools and universities have a summer break to take advantage of the warmer weather and longer days. In all countries, children are out of school during this time of year for summer break, although dates vary. In the United States, public schools end in late May in Memorial Day weekend, while colleges finish in early May, although some schools get out on the last or second last Thursday in May. In England and Wales, school resumes again in early September.
In Canada the summer holiday starts on the last or second-last Friday in June and ends in late August or on the first Monday of September, with the exception of when that date falls before Labour Day, in which case, ends on the second Monday of the month. In Russia the summer