Cecco del Caravaggio
Cecco del Caravaggio, is the notname given to a painter who worked in Rome in the early decades of the 17th century and was an important early follower of Caravaggio. In the past art historians have suggested he may have been a Flemish, French or Spanish Caravaggist but more some have identified the artist with Francesco Boneri, although this is not universally accepted. In his work the artist responded in a individual and original manner to Caravaggio's naturalism. Little is known about Cecco del Caravaggio, his active period appears to have been from 1610 to the mid 1620s. In his guide to contemporary artists written for fellow-collectors in about 1620 entitled Considerazioni sulla Pittura, Giulio Mancini mentions a'Francesco detto Cecco del Caravaggio' as one of the great master's more noteworthy followers. A'Cecco' is recorded among French artists working with Agostino Tassi at Bagnaia in 1613–15, hence the artist has been thought to be of French origin. Other scholars have detected a Spanish or Flemish influence.
In 2001 the scholar Gianni Papi identified this Cecco del Caravaggio as the Lombard artist Francesco Boneri, this now seems to be although not universally accepted. An identification has been made between Francesco Boneri/Cecco del Caravaggio and the boy who models for a number of paintings done by Caravaggio in the period 1600/1606, including the famous Amor Vincit and the John the Baptist in the Capitoline Museum in Rome; the identification is based on the statements found in early authors that the model for Amor Vincit was a boy named Cecco, Caravaggio's servant and pupil. None of Cecco's works are signed or dated and hence his oeuvre is difficult to identify and date, he is associated with a number of genre pieces and religious works showing a clear debt to Caravaggio. He had an interest in depictions of low life themes but painted religious compositions, his important religious works include Resurrection and Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple. The key influence on Cecco was Caravaggio, but other Caravaggisti such as Bartolomeo Manfredi formed an additional influence.
His style exhibits common traits with the works of these other Caravaggisti such as the depiction of large, solid figures, strong contrasts between light and dark and complex drapery folds. Cecco del Caravaggio Papi, Gianni. Cecco del Caravaggio. Soncino: Edizioni dei Soncino. JSTOR 889559. Media related to Cecco del Caravaggio at Wikimedia Commons
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Jan van Bijlert
Jan Hermansz van Bijlert was a Dutch painter whose style was influenced by Caravaggio. Jan van Bijlert was born in the son of the stained glass worker Herman Beernts van Bijlert, he may have had some training by his father. Subsequently he became a student of Abraham Bloemaert. Like other painters from Utrecht, he travelled in Italy. In 1621 he was, along with Cornelis van Poelenburch and Willem Molijn, a founding member of the circle of Dutch and Flemish artists in Rome known as the Bentvueghels, it was the custom among the Bentvueghels to adopt a nickname. Van Bijlert's nickname was "Aeneas". In 1625 he was back in Utrecht, where he joined the schutterij. In 1630 he became a member of the Utrecht Guild of the Reformed church. During the years 1632-1637 he was active as deacon of the guild, in 1634 he was appointed regent of the Sint-Jobsgasthuis. In 1639 he helped form the "Schilders-College", where he served as regent, he died in Utrecht. Jan van Bijlert was a prolific painter who left some 200 pictures.
Upon his return from Rome he, like other Utrecht artists who had come under the influence of Caravaggio's work, painted in a style derived from that of Caravaggio. These Utrecht artists are referred to as the Utrecht Caravaggisti; the Caravaggesque style of van Bijlert’s early paintings shows itself in the use of strong chiaroscuro, the cutting off of the picture plane to create a close-up image and the realism of the representation. Van Bijlert continued to paint in this style throughout the 1620s. Around 1630 van Bijlert turned to a more classicising style under the influence of Cornelis van Poelenburch, his colours became his subject matter became more elevated such as religious scenes. In the 1630s he painted compositions with small figures representing genre scenes of brothels or musical gatherings; these works were similar to those of the Utrecht painter Jacob Duck. Van Bijlert painted the portraits of eminent citizens of Utrecht such as burgomasters and nobles, his pupils included Bartram de Fouchier, Ludolf Leendertsz de Jongh, Johannes de Veer, Mattheus Wijtmans and Abraham Willaerts.
Joan Bylert biography in De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen by Arnold Houbraken, courtesy of the Digital library for Dutch literature Jan van Bijlert at PubHist
Matthias Stom or Matthias Stomer was a Dutch golden age painter considered one of the masters of Utrecht Caravaggism. Other variants of his name are Matheo Schem and Matteo Tomar. Stom spent most of his artistic life in Italy, 200 of his works have been preserved, it is conjectured that Stom was born at Amersfoort or in the Utrecht area, but many details of his life are vague. An early mention of Stom was around 1630, when he lived in the same location as Paulus Bor had lived a few years earlier, he was a pupil of Gerard van Honthorst in Rome after 1615. He remained in Rome until 1632, after which he traveled to Naples, where he stayed until 1640, he moved to Palermo, delivered paintings for churches in Caccamo and Monreale. He sold three paintings to duke of Messina, it is speculated that he died in Sicily, or alternatively in Northern Italy, where in 1652 he painted an altar piece for the church in Chiuduno. His son or grandson, Mattia Stomer was a painter. Stom was influenced by the Baroque painter Caravaggio and his followers, utilizing their mastery of chiaroscuro.
His work features religious scenes. He is appreciated for his psychology and noted for his "distinctive claylike treatment of flesh". Matthias Stom Works at WGA Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Stom
Georges de La Tour
Georges de La Tour was a French Baroque painter, who spent most of his working life in the Duchy of Lorraine, temporarily absorbed into France between 1641 and 1648. He painted religious chiaroscuro scenes lit by candlelight. Georges de La Tour was born in the town of Vic-sur-Seille in the Diocese of Metz, technically part of the Holy Roman Empire, but had been ruled by France since 1552. Baptism documentation revealed that he was the son of Jean de La Tour, a baker, Sybille de La Tour, née Molian, it has been suggested that Sybille came from a noble family. His parents had seven children in all, with Georges being the second-born. La Tour's educational background remains somewhat unclear, but it is assumed that he traveled either to Italy or the Netherlands early in his career, he may have trained under Jacques Bellange in Nancy, the capital of Lorraine, although their styles are different. His paintings reflect the Baroque naturalism of Caravaggio, but this reached him through the Dutch Caravaggisti of the Utrecht School and other Northern contemporaries.
In particular, La Tour is compared to the Dutch painter Hendrick Terbrugghen. In 1617 he married Diane Le Nerf, from a minor noble family, in 1620 he established his studio in her quiet provincial home-town of Lunéville, part of the independent Duchy of Lorraine, occupied by France, during his lifetime, in the period 1641–1648, he painted religious and some genre scenes. He was given the title "Painter to the King" in 1638, he worked for the Dukes of Lorraine in 1623–4, but the local bourgeoisie provided his main market, he achieved a certain affluence, he is not recorded in Lunéville between 1639 and 1642, may have traveled again. He was involved in a Franciscan-led religious revival in Lorraine, over the course of his career he moved to painting entirely religious subjects, but in treatments with influence from genre painting. Georges de La Tour and his family died in 1652 in an epidemic in Lunéville, his son Étienne was his pupil. La Tour's early work shows influences from Caravaggio via his Dutch followers, the genre scenes of cheats—as in The Fortune Teller—and fighting beggars derive from the Dutch Caravaggisti, also his fellow-Lorrainer, Jacques Bellange.
These are believed to date from early in his career. La Tour is best known for the nocturnal light effects which he developed much further than his artistic predecessors had done, transferred their use in the genre subjects in the paintings of the Dutch Caravaggisti to religious painting in his. Unlike Caravaggio his religious paintings lack dramatic effects, he painted these in a second phase of his style beginning in the 1640s, using chiaroscuro, careful geometrical compositions, simplified painting of forms. His work moves during his career towards greater simplicity and stillness—taking from Caravaggio different qualities than Jusepe de Ribera and his Tenebrist followers did, he painted several variations on the same subjects, his surviving output is small. His son Étienne was his pupil, distinguishing between their work in versions of La Tour's compositions is difficult; the version of the Education of the Virgin in the Frick Collection in New York is an example, as the Museum itself admits.
Another group of paintings, of great skill but claimed to be different in style to those of La Tour, have been attributed to an unknown "Hurdy-gurdy Master". All show older male figures solitary, either beggars or saints. After his death at Lunéville in 1652, La Tour's work was forgotten until rediscovered by Hermann Voss, a German scholar, in 1915. Director Peter Greenaway has described La Tour's work as a primary influence on his 1982 film The Draughtsman's Contract. Job Mocked by His Wife by La Tour appears in the 2003 Francis Veber film Le Dîner de Cons. A reference to a work purportedly by La Tour is featured prominently in the 2003 Merchant Ivory film Le Divorce. Magdalene with the Smoking Flame is the painting in Ariel's grotto she longingly motions toward when she yearns to know about fire while singing "Part of Your World" in Disney's 1989 film The Little Mermaid. Chiaroscuro scenes Other Canada Art Gallery of Ontario, Musée des Beaux-Arts de l'Ontario, Ontario France Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nancy in Nancy, former capital of Lorraine, has the largest collection.
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rennes Musée de Bergues Musée départemental d'Art ancien et contemporain, Épinal Musée Georges de La Tour, Vic-sur-Seille Museum of Grenoble Musée du Louvre and many provincial galleries. Musée Toulouse-Lautrec, Albi Germany Gemaldegalerie, Berlin Japan The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo Spain Museo del Prado, Madrid Sweden Nationalmuseum, Stockholm UK Preston Hall Museum in Stockton-on-Tees, has The Dice Players. Leicester's New Walk Museum holds'The Choirboy' Ukraine Lviv National Art Gallery USA Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio Chrysler Museum of Art, Virginia Seattle Art Museum, Washington De Young, San Francisco Frick, New York Getty Center, Los Angeles, California Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Ten
Wouter Crabeth II
Wouter Pietersz. Crabeth II was a Dutch Golden Age painter. Wouter Crabeth was born in the son of the writer and politician Pieter Woutersz. Crabeth, he was named after his grandfather Wouter Crabeth I, a celebrated master glassmaker. Crabeth took an apprenticeship under Cornelis Ketel, uncle of Cornelis Ketel le Jeune, well known, it is possible that he was a student of Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht. In 1613, Crabeth made his Grand Tour; such a tour, ending in Florence and Rome, was considered a necessary rite of passage for completing a Flemish artist's classical education since Karel van Mander's Schilderboeck was published in 1604. He was in Aix-en-Provence the following year, he travelled to Italy, where he studied the local masterpieces and worked at the various painting schools and workshops. In 1619, while in Rome, he became a member of the Bentvueghels, with other painters such as Cornelius van Poelenburgh, Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Wybrand de Geest and Leonard Bramer, they gave him the nickname "De Almanack".
Crabeth is represented in an anonymous drawing drawn in 1620 and saved in the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam. Crabeth was known as Wouter van der Gou. In 1626, he returned as a schutter. In 1628, he married Adriana Gerritsdr Vroesen; the same year, at the time that his own father became mayor, he was named captain of the Schutterij, a function which he continued until his death in 1644. In this role, in 1629, he took part in the Siege of's-Hertogenbosch. Before that, he received an order from curate Petrus Purmerent for two altarpieces for the Catholic Church of Saint-Jean-Baptiste and Catharinagasthuis, a religious community; these two paintings are held in the Museum Het Catharina Gasthuis in Gouda and the Rijksmuseum of Amsterdam. The two works – The Assumption of the Virgin Mary and Doubting Thomas – show a strong Italian influence, are stylistically close to Caravaggio. In 1631 and 1641, Crabeth painted another two altarpieces for the Church of Saint-Jean-Baptiste, which are at the Museum Het Catharina Gasthuis.
As well as altarpieces, Crabeth painted card players and shepherds, which are close in spirit to the works of Caravaggio. These tableaux were painted after his return to Gouda. Only a small number of these works remain. Wouter Crabeth was succeeded by his students Jan Ariens Duif, Dirk de Vrije, Jan Govertsz Verbijl, Jan Verzijl and Aert Van Waes. Crabeth was the most important Dutch Golden Age artist in the town of Gouda; the historian Walvis, of Gouda, wrote in 1713: One of the main disciples of Ketel, Wouter Crabeth, grandson of the illustrator and glass painter Wouter Pietersz Crabet. This Wouter visited France and all the painting schools of Rome, after which, a voyage of 13 years, he returned to Gouda where, in 1628, he married Adriana Vroesen, his most important works are the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, on the altar of the priory of I. W.. His last great work of portraiture, the Council of War of Gouda, in office, represented by its large size, is hung in the hall of Saint Joris Doelen.--Ignatius Walvis The Adoration of the Magi, 1631.
Amusement of the shepherds. The Assumption of the Virgin Mary, 1628; the Assumption of the Virgin Mary was conceived in 1628 by Crabeth as an altar, commissioned by the priest Petrus Purmerent for schuilkerk. Forgotten for more than three centuries, it was rediscovered in 1970 – in the attic of the rectory – by the director of the Catharina Gasthuis in Gouda, Dr. Jan Schouten; the work is now exhibited in the new museum. The Drinkers. Company of musicians.. The Conversion of Guillaume d’Aquitaine by Bernard de Clairvaux (Bernardus van Clairvaux bekeert Willem van Aquitanië, 1641. Couple playing the flute; the dying warrior. The card players; the card players. Harmanus Herberts and his officials, 1642. La Mise au tombeau destroyed in 1945. Les Noces de Cana, painted 1640. Doubting Thomas, around 1628. Les Tricheurs. J. Schouten, Wie waren zij? Een reeks van Goudse mannen en vrouwen die men niet mag vergeten, Repro-Holland, Alphen aan den Rijn, 1980. Xander Van Eck, twist en devotie, Delft, 1994 ISBN 90-5166-408-7 De Gilden in Gouda, Museum Het Catharina Gasthuis Gouda - Waanders Zwolle, Gouda, 1996,ISBN 90-400-9924-3 I.
Walvis, Beschrijving der stad Gouda door I. W. 2 dln. Gouda, 1713, éd. fac-similée 1972 Rudie Van Leeuwen, « Portretten op een contrareformatorisch altaarstuk: Wouter Pietersz. Crabeths Ten Hemelopneming van Maria uit 1628 », in Desipientia: Zin & Waan, année 14, nr. 2, p. 44-45. Benedict Nicolson, Burlington Maga
Museo del Prado
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid. It is considered to have one of the world's finest collections of European art, dating from the 12th century to the early 20th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection, the single best collection of Spanish art. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture in 1819, it contains important collections of other types of works. El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, it is considered one of the greatest art museums in the world; the numerous works by Francisco Goya, the single most extensively represented artist, as well as by Hieronymus Bosch, El Greco, Peter Paul Rubens and Diego Velázquez, are some of the highlights of the collection. The collection comprises around 8,200 drawings, 7,600 paintings, 4,800 prints, 1,000 sculptures, in addition to a large number of other works of art and historic documents; as of 2012, the museum displayed about 1,300 works in the main buildings, while around 3,100 works were on temporary loan to various museums and official institutions.
The remainder were in storage. The museum received 2.8 million visitors in 2012. It is one of the largest museums in Spain; the best-known work on display at the museum is Las Meninas by Velázquez. Velázquez and his keen eye and sensibility were responsible for bringing much of the museum's fine collection of Italian masters to Spain, now the largest outside Italy; the museum is planning a 16% extension in the nearby Salón de Reinos, to be opened in 2019. The building, now the home of the Museo Nacional del Prado was designed in 1785 by architect of the Enlightenment in Spain Juan de Villanueva on the orders of Charles III to house the Natural History Cabinet. Nonetheless, the building's final function was not decided until the monarch's grandson, Ferdinand VII, encouraged by his wife, Queen María Isabel de Braganza, decided to use it as a new Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures; the Royal Museum, which would soon become known as the National Museum of Painting and Sculpture, subsequently the Museo Nacional del Prado, opened to the public for the first time in November 1819.
It was created with the double aim of showing the works of art belonging to the Spanish Crown and to demonstrate to the rest of Europe that Spanish art was of equal merit to any other national school. The first catalogue of the Museum, published in 1819 and devoted to Spanish painting, included 311 paintings, although at that time the Museum housed 1,510 from the various royal residences, the Reales Sitios, including works from other schools; the exceptionally important royal collection, which forms the nucleus of the present-day Museo del Prado, started to increase in the 16th century during the time of Charles V and continued under the succeeding Habsburg and Bourbon monarchs. Their efforts and determination led to the Royal Collection being enriched by some of the masterpieces now to be seen in the Prado; these include The Descent from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden, The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymous Bosch, Knight with his Hand on his Breast by El Greco, The Death of the Virgin by Mantegna, The Holy Family, known as "La Perla", by Raphael, Charles V at Mülhberg by Titian, Christ Washing the Disciples’ Feet by Tintoretto, Dürer's Self-portrait, Las Meninas by Velázquez, The Three Graces by Rubens, The Family of Charles IV by Goya.
In addition to works from the Spanish royal collection, other holdings increased and enriched the Museum with further masterpieces, such as the two Majas by Goya. Among the now closed museums whose collections have been added to that of the Prado were the Museo de la Trinidad in 1872, the Museo de Arte Moderno in 1971. In addition, numerous legacies and purchases have been of crucial importance for the growth of the collection. Various works entered the Prado from the Museo de la Trinidad, including The Fountain of Grace by the School of Van Eyck, the Santo Domingo and San Pedro Martír altarpieces painted for the monastery of Santo Tomás in Ávila by Pedro Berruguete, the five canvases by El Greco executed for the Colegio de doña María de Aragón. Most of the Museum's 19th-century paintings come from the former Museo de Arte Moderno, including works by the Madrazos, José de Madrazo y Agudo and Federico de Madrazo, Vicente López, Carlos de Haes, Eduardo Rosales and Sorolla. Upon the deposition of Isabella II in 1868, the museum was nationalized and acquired the new name of "Museo del Prado".
The building housed the royal collection of arts, it proved too small. The first enlargement to the museum took place in 1918. Since the creation of the Museo del Prado more than 2,300 paintings have been incorporated into its collection, as well as a large number of sculptures, prints and works of art through bequests and purchases, which account for most of the New Acquisitions. Numerous bequests have enriched the Museum's holdings, such as the outstanding collection of medals left to the Museum by Pablo Bosch. Important donations include Barón Emile d'Erlanger's gift of Goya's Black Paintings in 1881. Among the numerous works that have entered the collection through purchase are some outstanding ones acquired in recent years including two works by El Greco, The Fable and The Flight into Egypt acquired in 1993 and 2001, Goya's Countess of Chinchón bought in 2000, Velázquez's portrait of The Pope's Barber, acquired in 2003 and Fra Angelico's Madonna of the Pomegranate purchased in 2016. Between 1873