Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is divided into 7 provinces and 75 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises,13 sub-metropolises,246 municipal councils and 481 village and it has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China in the north and India in the south, Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between, Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the worlds ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and largest city. It is a nation with Nepali as the official language. The territory of Nepal has a history since the Neolithic age. The name Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, in the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet, the Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex urban civilization. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala, the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valleys traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture, by the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, the country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and Colonial India. In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged ties with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was suspended by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War resulted in the proclamation of a republic in 2008, modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic.
Nepal is a nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index in 2016. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic and it suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an entomopathogenic fungus found in mountainous regions of Nepal and Tibet. It parasitizes larvae of ghost moths and produces a body which used to be valued as a herbal remedy. However, it contains high amount of arsenic and other heavy metals so that it is potentially toxic and its manufacture. The fungus germinates in the larva and mummifies it. It is known in English colloquially as caterpillar fungus, or by its more prominent names Yartsa Gunbu, O. sinensis parasitizes the moths of the Thitarodes genus in the Ghost Moth family, specifically species from the Tibetan Plateau, and the Himalayas. O. sinensis is known in the West as a medicinal mushroom, evidenced-based research into its efficacy is lacking. Similar to other Cordyceps species, O. sinensis consists of two parts, a fungal endosclerotium and stroma. The stroma is the upper part and is dark brown or black. It grows singly from the head, and is clavate, sublanceolate or fusiform. The stipe is slender and longitudinally furrowed or ridged, the fertile part of the stroma is the head.
The head is granular because of the ostioles of the embedded perithecia, ascospores are hyaline, multiseptate at a length of 5-12 μm and subattenuated on both sides. Perithecial and ascospore characters in the bodies are the key identification characteristics of O. sinensis. The species was first described scientifically by Miles Berkeley in 1843 as Sphaeria sinensis, the scientific names etymology is from the Latin cord club, ceps head, and sinensis from China. As a result, C. sinensis was transferred to Ophiocordyceps, in Tibet it is known as དབྱར་རྩྭ་དགུན་འབུ་, which is the source of the Nepali यार्चागुन्बू, yarchagumba or yarsagumba. The transliteration in Bhutan is Yartsa Guenboob and it is known as keera jhar, keeda jadi, keeda ghas or ghaas fafoond in Nepali. Its name in Chinese Dōng chóng xià cǎo means winter worm, the Chinese name is a literal translation of the original Tibetan name, which was first recorded in the 15th century by the Tibetan doctor Zurkhar Namnyi Dorje. In colloquial Tibetan Yartsa gunbu is often shortened to simply bu or yartsa, in traditional Chinese medicine, its name is often abbreviated as chong cao, a name that applies to other Cordyceps species, such as C. militaris.
In Japanese, it is known by the Japanese reading of the characters for the Chinese name, sometimes in Chinese English language texts Cordyceps sinensis is referred to as aweto, which is the Māori name for Ophiocordyceps robertsii, a species from New Zealand
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
It is part of a transition zone from Indomalaya ecozone, in the south, to the Palearctic ecozone, in the north and is the last habitat below the treeline of the Himalayas. Furthermore the streams and rivers of the steep mountainsides will flood if not held in place by woodland, the Eastern Himalayas are watered by the Bay of Bengal monsoon so are wetter than in the west and have a higher treeline. These forests are found on steep, north-facing slopes. The most common trees are Abies spectabilis, Larix griffithii, Juniperus recurva, Juniperus indica, Betula utilis, Acer spp. other shrubs include Viburnum grandiflorum and Lonicera angustifolia. Tsuga dumosa occurs in areas and lower elevations. Pinus wallichiana occurs in areas around Tibet. It is particularly common in the Khumbu region, taxus baccata is important but uncommon. Juniper woodlands grow in flat, inner river valleys, mixed with various species of Salix and those in the Tsarijathang Valley in Bhutans Jigme Dorji National Park are an important summer habitat for takin.
This ecoregion is home to some species of mammals originally from both Indomalayan and Palearctic ecozones, including civets, Himalayan tahr and muntjac. There are two near-endemic squirrels, Hodgsons giant flying squirrel and the Bhutan giant flying squirrel along with an endemic rodent. The last two are limited to an area of conifer forest in Arunachal Pradesh, indeed this ecoregion forms part of two BirdLife International Endemic Bird Areas because of the number of birds for which the confifers are important for breeding. The human population of these heights is very low and most of the conifer forest remains with a considerable portion in protected areas. Damage is caused as trees are cut to provide firewood for local inhabitants and for trekking parties or to clear land for grazing
The name Limbu is an exonym of an uncertain origin. They call themselves Yakthumba (IPA, or Yakthungba, in Standard Tibetan, they are referred to as Sikkimese people and in Sikkimese as Shong or Tsong Tsang people. Portions of the Limbu population are located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. Limbu clans and tribes are divided into two gotras indicating their origin and Yunnan, the Limbu are known as Yakthung Thibong or Ten Limbu, from which thirteen Limbu subgroups have emerged. According to legend, five of the came from Yunnan. The Chinese text Po-ou-Yeo-Jing translated in 308 AD refers to the Yi-ti-Sai, accounts with Sirijunga Limbu and Newar are the only Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own pre-20th century scripts. Vowels, ʌ, ɑ, i, u, e, ɑi, o, ɑu, ɛ, ɔ Consonants k, kh, g, gh, ŋ, c/ts, ch/tsh, j/dz, jh/dz, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, m, j, r, l, w, sh, s, h, tr 1. Sleep, kiratism or Kirat Dharma Limbus practice many of their own life cycle rituals and they believe that lineage is not transmitted patrilineally.
Rather, a woman inherits her mothers gods, and when she marries and lives with her husband she brings with her the deities that will be recognized as the household deities, Limbu bury their dead and observe for two-to-three days through practiced death rituals. The length of the period varies depending on the gender of the deceased. Dancing parties are arranged for visitors to the village and these affairs give the young Limbu girls and boys a chance to meet and enjoy dancing and drinking. The traditional dress of the Limbus are mekhli and taga, while performing mangsewa IPA, Yakthung IPA, people wear mekhli and taga in white colour as it symbolizes purity. Dhaka is the fabric of the Limbus which are made by weaving it in geometric patterns in a handloom. The art of making dhaka is taught by one generation to another and you will always see a Limbu man clad in dhaka topi and scarf, and a Limbu lady in dhaka saree, mekhli and shawl. In the olden days, the Limbus were skilled in silk farming, the Kiratis were known as silk traders.
According to JB Subba and Iman Xin Chemjong, the Kirat is a form of kereta. Mekhli- Long dress worn with a strip of cloth with collars crossing over or in a Vneck style. Chunglokek/sunghamba- Blouse Chaubandi Cholo- Blouse with collars overlapping each other Sim- gunyo in Nepali, a long strip of cloth wrapped around like a skirt
Makalu Barun National Park
The Makalu Barun National Park is the eighth national park in the Himalayas of Nepal and was established in 1992 as eastern extension of the Sagarmatha National Park. The bufferzone adjacent to the southern and southeastern border covers an area of 830 km2. The rugged summits of Makalu, with 8,463 m the fifth highest mountain of the world, Baruntse, the protected area extends to about 66 km from west to east and to about 44 km from north to south. From the Arun river valley in the southeast, located at altitudes of 344–377 m, the national park shares the international border with the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the north. The protected area is part of the Sacred Himalayan Landscape, in the early- and mid-1980s, personnel of The Mountain Institute conducted surveys in the Barun Valley to study the biological richness. The results of surveys led to interest in creating a new protected area. A respective proposal was formulated in 1985, in 1988, the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area Project was initiated as a joint endeavor of the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation and TMI.
The MBNPCA was officially gazetted in 1991, an innovative community-based conservation approach emphasized management of biodiversity together with local communities. Community Forest User Groups were created with legal rights to use designated forested areas on a sustainable basis, ecotourism was promoted as a way of expanding off-farm employment opportunities for local people while at the same time minimizing negative environmental impact. Hunting and trapping of rare and endangered wild animals is prohibited in the MBNPCA. There was a provision for compensating farmers for crop and livestock depredation caused by endangered species, in 1999, the conservation area was converted into a buffer zone. The inaccessible valleys of the Barun River, the tributary to the Arun River, treasure some of the last remaining pristine forests. The park is located in the climatic zone of the Himalayas. During these months about 70% of the precipitation of 4,000 mm falls. The first monsoon clouds reach the area in April, temperatures vary greatly due to the extreme difference in altitude in the entire area.
Lower elevations are temperate throughout winter and hot during April and May, forests below 2,000 m are strongly affected by subsistence agriculture, so that only some ecologically significant stands remain there. Above 2,000 m forests are usually extensive since the cool, on alpine pastures at altitudes above 4,000 m the religiously important dwarf rhododendron and juniper, aromatic herbs and delicate wildflowers prosper. The region above 5,000 m comprises mainly rock and ice with little vegetation, the protected area is habitat for a wide diversity of faunal species
Dactylorhiza hatagirea is a species of orchid generally found growing in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to SE Tibet, at altitudes of 2, 800–4,000 metres. It is locally called Salam Panja or Hatta Haddi and it is called Panchaule in Nepali and Himalayan regions. The name Panchaule arises from its root resembling fingers of hand with around 3-5 fingers and it is an erect perennial herb with long flowering stems. The plant is known for its medicinal value. It is strictly prohibited for collection and sale, but can be found easily around Nepal,10, 000-15,000 per kilo as of late 2015. The Juice extracted from tuber is used as tonic and used for the treatment of pyorrhea, root paste is externally applied as poultice on cuts and wounds and extract is given in intestinal disorders. The term Hatta Haddi is probably coined because it is used for treating bone fractures, as it is highly traded in the name of Panchaule or Salampanja and found in wild, is being unscientifically collected for its commercial importance.
Dactylorhiza hatagirea is native of the Himalaya and it is found throughout from west to east at temperate to subalpine biocliates within 2800 –4000 m altitude. Flowers spotted rosy-purple in a spike, borne on a robust leafy stem. It has palmately lobed root tubers, grows well in moist places, open areas, shrub land, dactylorhiza hatagirea is endemic to the Hindu- Kush Himalaya. It is categorized as endangered in CAMP Pokhara conservation list, and strictly banned for collection and sale, roots are tuberous, divided into 2 or 3 lobes
Limbuwan is an area of the Himalaya historically made up of 10 Limbu kingdoms, all now part of Nepal. Limbuwan means abode of the Limbus or Land of the Limbus, Limbus themselves call Limbuwan Yakthung Laaje or the country of the Yakthungs. Today, Limbuwan comprises the districts of Taplejung, Ilam, Terhathum, Dhankuta, Limbuwan is the land east of the Arun and Koshi Rivers and west of Kanchenjunga Mountain and the Mechi River. The seat of power in Kathmandu and western Nepalese refer to Limbuwan as the Pallo Kirant region or far Kirant, the Ten Kings of Limbus came together to formally declare all the ten kingdoms between the Arun River and Teesta River to be called Yakthung Laaje. The ten rulers, their kingdoms and their forts, Samlupi Samba Hang, King of Tambar, sisiyen Shering Hang, King of Mewa and Maiwa kingdoms and his capital Meringden Yiok. Thoktokso Angbo Hang, King of Athraya and his capital Pomajong, thindolung Khokya Hang, King of Yangwarok and his capital Hastapojong Yiok Yengaso Papo Hang, King of Panthar and his capital at Yashok and Pheden.
Shengsengum Phedap Hang, King of Phedap and his capital at Poklabung, mung Tai Chi Emay Hang, King of Ilam and his capital at Phakphok. Soiyak Lado Hang, King of Bodhey and his capital at Shanguri Yiok, tappeso Perung Hang, King of Thala and his capital at Thala Yiok. Taklung Khewa Hang, King of Chethar and his capital at Chamling Chimling Yiok, after a brief period, King Mawrong Hang came to prominence and took over Terai lands of Chethar, Bodhey and Ilam. He named his Kingdom Morang after his name and rose to power and he subdued all the Ten Limbu Kings of Limbuwan and became their overlord. He died without any heir and King Uba Hang took over as supreme ruler of Limbuwan in 849 AD-865 AD. He made many religious and social reforms in Limbuwan, Uba Hangs worthy son Mabo Hang succeeded him in 865 AD and ruled till 880 AD. Uba hang kept on with the reforms his father had started, Uba Hang was succeeded by his son Muda Hang. Muda Hang was a weak ruler so the local chiefs started ruling their areas independently, Muda Hang was succeeded by his son Wedo Hang, by this time Limbuwan was in chaos and every principality was ruling independently and fighting with each other.
Wedo hang was murdered and his son Chemjonghang succeeded, during this chaos and the waning phase of King Chemjong hang, King Sirijonga of Yangwarok kingdom rose to power. He subdued all the independent rulers and took over as the new ruler of Limbuwan. He built two big forts in Phedap and Chainpur, the remains of the structure still stand today. One of legacy was that he brought all the Limbus under the writing system in Limbu script
Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres. It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km southeast of Mount Everest, one of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid. Makalu has two subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II lies about 3 km north-northwest of the main summit, rising about 5 km north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, and connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow,7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo. The first climb on Makalu was made by an American team led by William Siri in the spring of 1954, the expedition was composed of Sierra Club members including Allen Steck, and was called the California Himalayan Expedition to Makalu. They attempted the southeast ridge but were turned back at 7,100 m by a constant barrage of storms, a New Zealand team including Sir Edmund Hillary was active in the spring, but did not get very high due to injury and illness. In the fall of 1954, a French reconnaissance expedition made the first ascents of the subsidiary summits Kangchungtse, Makalu was first climbed on May 15,1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of a French expedition led by Jean Franco.
Franco, G. Magnone and Sardar Gyaltsen Norbu summitted the next day, followed by Bouvier, S. Coupe and this was an amazing achievement at the time to have the vast majority of expedition members summit, especially on such a difficult peak. Prior to this time, summits were reached by 1-2 people at most with the rest of teams providing logistical support before turning around, the French team climbed Makalu by the north face and northeast ridge, via the saddle between Makalu and Kangchungtse, establishing the standard route. 1955 North Face to Northeast Ridge FA by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of France,1970, Southeast Ridge FA of ridge attempted by the Americans in 1954, was made by Y. Ozaki and A. Tanaka from Japan on May 23,1971, The very technical West Pillar route was climbed in May by Frenchmen B. 1975, South Face - an expedition led by Aleš Kunaver reached the top of Makalu up its steep southern side, the first amongst them was Stane Belak. This was the ascent of an eight-thousand meter peak by a great mountain face.
1976 – South pillar route completed by Czechoslovak expedition, route goes via south butress to Makalu South and via southeast ridge. Makalu South was climbed by 11 expedition members, two of them - Karel Schubert and Milan Kriššák summited main summit together with Jorge Camprubi from Spanish expedition which climbed southeast ridge. Karel Schubert died after bivouac near the summit, the route wasnt repeated till today. 1980, The second ascent of the West Pillar was completed in May by John Roskelley, Chris Kopczynski, James States and Kim Momb, without Sherpa support and without bottled oxygen. 1981, On 15 October renowned Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka ascended Makalu via a new route up the north-western side, Kukuczka climbed solo, in Alpine style, without supplemental oxygen
Sankhuwasabha District is in Province No.1 in eastern Nepal. The districts area is 3,480 km² with a population of 159,203 in 2001 and 158,742 in 2011, newly registered municipalities in this district are Chainpur and Madi. Bordering districts are Bhojpur and Dhankuta in Koshi Zone, Solukhumbu in Sagarmatha Zone, tingri County of Shigatse Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China borders to the north. Indigenous janajati ethnics are Limbu, Lohorung, Kulung, Gurung, the district is known for cardamom farming. This wine has a market in the eastern cities of Biratnagar and Dharan. Arun Valley Tumlingtar Airport Districts of Nepal