click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Baryon

In particle physics, a baryon is a type of composite subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks. Baryons belong to the hadron family of particles, they are classified as fermions, i.e. they have half-integer spin. The name "baryon", introduced by Abraham Pais, comes from the Greek word for "heavy", because, at the time of their naming, most known elementary particles had lower masses than the baryons; each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle. For example, a proton is made of two up one down quark; as quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, mediated by particles known as gluons. The most familiar baryons are protons and neutrons, both of which contain three quarks, for this reason these particles are sometimes described as triquarks; these particles make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe, as well as forming the components of the nucleus of every atom. Electrons are members of a different family of particles, known as leptons, which do not interact via the strong force.

Exotic baryons containing five quarks have been discovered and studied. Baryons are interacting fermions; this is in contrast to the bosons. Baryons, along with mesons, are particles composed of quarks. Quarks have baryon numbers of B = 1/3 and antiquarks have baryon numbers of B = −1/3; the term "baryon" refers to triquarks—baryons made of three quarks. Other exotic baryons have been proposed, such as pentaquarks—baryons made of four quarks and one antiquark, but their existence is not accepted; the particle physics community as a whole did not view their existence as in 2006, in 2008, considered evidence to be overwhelmingly against the existence of the reported pentaquarks. However, in July 2015, the LHCb experiment observed two resonances consistent with pentaquark states in the Λ0b → J/ψK−p decay, with a combined statistical significance of 15σ. In theory, nonaquarks, etc. could exist. Nearly all matter that may be encountered or experienced in everyday life is baryonic matter, which includes atoms of any sort, provides them with the property of mass.

Non-baryonic matter, as implied by the name, is any sort of matter, not composed of baryons. This might include neutrinos and free electrons, dark matter, supersymmetric particles and black holes; the existence of baryons is a significant issue in cosmology because it is assumed that the Big Bang produced a state with equal amounts of baryons and antibaryons. The process by which baryons came to outnumber their antiparticles is called baryogenesis. Experiments are consistent with the number of quarks in the universe being a constant and, to be more specific, the number of baryons being a constant. Within the prevailing Standard Model of particle physics, the number of baryons may change in multiples of three due to the action of sphalerons, although this is rare and has not been observed under experiment; some grand unified theories of particle physics predict that a single proton can decay, changing the baryon number by one. The excess of baryons over antibaryons in the present universe is thought to be due to non-conservation of baryon number in the early universe, though this is not well understood.

The concept of isospin was first proposed by Werner Heisenberg in 1932 to explain the similarities between protons and neutrons under the strong interaction. Although they had different electric charges, their masses were so similar that physicists believed they were the same particle; the different electric charges were explained as being the result of some unknown excitation similar to spin. This unknown excitation was dubbed isospin by Eugene Wigner in 1937; this belief lasted until Murray Gell-Mann proposed the quark model in 1964. The success of the isospin model is now understood to be the result of the similar masses of u and d quarks. Since u and d quarks have similar masses, particles made of the same number also have similar masses; the exact specific u and d quark composition determines the charge, as u quarks carry charge +2/3 while d quarks carry charge −1/3. For example, the four Deltas all have different charges, but have similar masses as they are each made of a combination of three u or d quarks.

Under the isospin model, they were considered to be a single particle in different charged states. The mathematics of isospin was modeled after that of spin. Isospin projections varied in increments of 1 just like those of spin, to each projection was associated a "charged state". Since the "Delta particle" had four "charged states", it was said to be of isospin I = 3/2, its "charged states" Δ++, Δ+, Δ0, Δ−, corresponded to the isospin projections I3 = +3/2, I3 = +1/2, I3 = −1/2, I3 = −3/2, respectively. Another example is the "nucleon particle"; as there were two nucleon "charged states", it was said to be of isospin 1/2. The positive nucleon N+ was identif

Hasan Turkmani

Hasan Ali Turkmani was a prominent Syrian military commander and Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party member. He was born to a Turkish family and served as the minister of defense in Syria from 2004 to 2009, he and three other top Syrian government officials were killed on 18 July 2012 in Damascus during a bomb attack. Hasan Turkmani was born in Aleppo in 1935 into a Syrian Turkmen family, he attended different courses and a higher military education, including bachelor in military sciences: Bachelor in Military Sciences, Infantry Officer, Military Academy of Homs, graduate in 1955, Mechanized Troop and Battalion Command Course, 1963 Combined Arms field command and staff course, 1965 Higher Field Command and Staff Course, Masters in Military Sciences, 1969 Higher Staff Course, Doctor of Military Sciences, 1972 Turkmani joined the Syrian Arab Army in 1955 as an infantry officer. He was one of the first officers to graduate on the new mechanized units of the BMP-1 and BTR-60 armoured vehicles, he completed a staff course for combined arms operations from East Germany in 1965, a Command and Staff Course from Egypt in 1969.

He commanded the 9th Mechanized Infantry Brigade which fought a crucial rearguard action around Damascus in 1973. He was promoted to the rank of major general in 1975. Turkmani began to serve as a member of the central committee of the Baath Party beginning in 2000, he was the deputy chief of staff in the Syrian army until 2002. He was appointed chief of staff on 23 January 2002. Since he is a Sunni Muslim, his appointment was considered as a move to restore a touch of sectarian diversity to Syria's military-intelligence establishment, dominated by Alawite Muslims. On 12 May 2004, he became defense minister. On the other hand, Ali Habib Mahmoud succeeded Turkmani as chief of staff. In June 2006, Turkmani visited Tehran and signed a strategic alliance agreement with his Iranian counterpart Mustafa Mohammad Najjar to form a joint defense committee. Turkmani was replaced in June 2009 by the former army chief Ali Habib Mahmud as defense minister. On 3 June 2009, President Bashar Assad appointed Turkmani as assistant vice president with the rank of minister.

He was appointed chief of crisis operations and was blamed for the campaign of torture in Syria. In addition, Turkmani was a military advisor to vice president Farouk Sharaa. On 19 May 2012, the Free Syrian Army's Damascus council announced that one of their operatives from the FSA's Al Sahabeh battalion had poisoned all eight members of Bashar Assad's Crisis Cell, a group of top military officials who run the Syrian army's daily operations; the Free Syrian Army's Damascus council said they believed at least six out of the eight members, including Turkmani, Assef Shawkat, Mohammad al-Shaar, Daoud Rajha, Hisham Ikhtiyar and Mohammad Said Bakhtian, to have been killed. Mohammad al-Shaar interior minister, Hasan Turkmani assistant vice president, denied their own deaths to State TV, calling it "categorically baseless". Hasan Turkmani owns the weekly political magazine Abyad wa Aswad. Hasan Turkmani was assassinated on 18 July 2012 in a bombing by opposition militants against the national security building in Rawda Square, north-west Damascus, where the minister of defense Dawoud Rajiha, his deputy Assef Shawkat and other top officials were killed.

Turkmani died of his wounds after the attack. Dozens of civiliants were injured. A state funeral was held for him, Dawoud Rajiha and Assef Shawkat in Damascus on 20 July 2012

James Chin Moody

James Chin Moody is the CEO of Sendle, an Australian package delivery company he co-founded in 2014. Moody was Executive Director, Development at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, he was a panel member on the ABC television show The New Inventors and co-author of The Sixth Wave: How to Succeed in a Resource-Limited World with Bianca Nogrady. Moody attended high school at Brisbane Grammar School. After high school, Moody gained a Bachelor of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering and a Bachelor of Information Technology from the Queensland University of Technology. Moody completed his Doctor of Philosophy in Business Administration/Innovation in 2004 at the Australian National University for research into Complex Product Systems in the Australian National Innovation System focusing on the space industry. From 1999 to 2001 Moody was responsible for systems engineering of Fedsat, the first Australian Satellite to be launched in thirty years, funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems.

This included working with UK firm Space Innovations Ltd who were sub-contracted to build the satellite bus and assisting in transferring the technology back to Australia. From 2001 to 2003 Moody was the Managing Director of Natural Resource Intelligence, a spatial information company, part of the Natural Intelligence group. NAI was reborn in 2004 as Commoditel, again as ComTel. From 2000 to 2002 Moody was co-facilitator and Australian representative of the youth advisory council to the United Nations Environment Program, he was a founder and co-chair of the Space Generation Advisory Council in support of the UN Programme on Space Applications, a group of students and young space professionals. James was a member of the Science and Technology delegation to the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, was a member and executive secretary of the taskforce on Science and Technology for the Millennium Development Goals and was invited to attend the World Economic Forum as a Global Leader of Tomorrow in 2003 and Young Global Leader in 2005.

From 2004 to 2009, Moody held various roles at CSIRO including General Manager and International, General Manager and Director, Divisional Business Strategy for the Division of Land and Water. Moody sits on the board of the Brisbane Institute, the Advisory Council of the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is an Australian National Commissioner for UNESCO, he has sat on the boards of the National Australia Day Council, the Advisory Board of the Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Spatial Information Business Association. He was previously a member of the Federal Government's National Environmental Education Council and President of Young Engineers Australia. In 2010, The Sixth Wave, a book on how to succeed in a resource-limited world, written by Moody with Bianca Nogrady was published by Random House. In 2014, Moody co-founded Sendle with Sean Geoghegan and Craig Davis. In 2000, Moody was named Young Professional Engineer of the Year and in 2005 was named one of the 100 most influential engineers in Australia.

While holding this title he promoted the engineering profession and his particular brand of ‘socially conscious engineering’. In 2000 Moody was awarded Young Queenslander of the Year and in 2001 was a finalist in the Young Australian of the Year awards, in the Science and Technology category. Moody is married to lives in Sydney, they have two sons

Evaristo Carvalho

Evaristo do Espírito Santo Carvalho is a São Toméan politician, President of São Tomé and Príncipe since 3 September 2016. He was the Prime Minister of the country on two occasions, he was Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from 7 July 1994 to 25 October 1994 and again from 26 September 2001 to 28 March 2002. He is a member of the Independent Democratic Action party. Carvalho contested the 2011 São Toméan presidential election, while he was the speaker for the National Assembly, he had been supported in his campaign by current Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada. Carvalho finished second in the first round with 21.8 percent of the vote, behind former president, Manuel Pinto da Costa. Costa was victorious in the two person runoff election, with 52.9 percent of the vote. Carvalho subsequently became vice president of the ADI. In the July 2016 presidential election, Carvalho won the most votes but fell short of a majority with 49.8 percent, so a second round runoff was held a few weeks later. However, the incumbent president, withdrew from the 7 August runoff poll, alleging fraud in the July election.

This handed the presidency to Carvalho. He was inaugurated into the role on 3 September; the election process was well received internationally, with a United States Department of State press release stating that "This election is a yet another demonstration of Sao Tome and Principe’s long-standing commitment to democratic values. Through their exemplary conduct, the people of Sao Tome and Principe continue to serve as a beacon of democracy for other countries."

Lucy Panton

Lucy Panton is a British journalist, a former News of the World crime editor, the seventh person arrested under Operation Elveden on 15 December 2011. Panton joined the News of the World in September 2002 from the Sunday People, taking up the position of crime correspondent, she was promoted to crime editor in October 2005. On 30 October 2010, Panton was asked by News of the World news editor James Mellor to find out more from Metropolitan Police anti-terror head John Yates about the printer cartridge bomb found on a cargo plane at East Midlands Airport the previous day. Mellor wrote in an email to Panton: Panton replied: "Noted. Not got hold of him yet still trying." Panton was on maternity leave at the time of the closure of the newspaper in July 2011. Panton was arrested at her home in Surrey, where she lives with her Scotland Yard-based Metropolitan Police detective husband; the couple have two young children. She was released on police bail. During his evidence to the Leveson Inquiry in March 2012, former Metropolitan Police anti-terror head John Yates admitted that he drunk champagne with Panton and other executives from the tabloid newspaper.

Yates denied that he gave Panton any favours in return for such hospitality, or that the relationship between the two was that close. Lucy Panton at Journalisted

Pterostylis truncata

Pterostylis truncata known as the brittle greenhood or little dumpies, is a species of orchid endemic to eastern Australia. It is distinguished from other greenhood orchids by its short habit and large, "dumpy", green and brown flowers, it is widespread and common in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory but is classed as "endangered" in Victoria due to habitat loss as a result of urbanisation. When not flowering, Pterostylis truncata has a rosette of between two and six bright green, egg-shaped to lance-shaped leaves, each leaf 10–35 mm long and 5–18 mm wide; when it flowers it produces a single white flower with green and brown stripes, borne on a spike 50–150 mm high. There are between two and five stem leaves wrapped around the flowering spike; the flowers are inflated, leaning forward with a downturned tip. The dorsal sepal has the petals turn inwards underneath it; the lateral sepals have a deep V-shaped sinus between them and each sepal has a thread-like tip 25–30 mm long.

Pterostylis truncata was first described in 1878 by Robert FitzGerald from a specimen collected near Mittagong and the description was published in Fitzgerald's book Australian Orchids. The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "to maim or shorten by cutting off"; the brittle greenhood is widespread and common in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory where it grows in forest on sheltered ridges and slopes south from the New England Tableland. It is rare in Victoria where it grows in well-drained soil in grassland, woodland or on granite outcrops within 100 km of Melbourne. Pterostylis truncata is classed as "endangered" under the Victorian Government Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. Populations are only known from the You Yangs, Black Hill Reserve near Ballarat and the Long Forest Nature Conservation Reserve near Bacchus Marsh although the range of the orchid was once larger; the main threats to the species and factors in its decline in Victoria, include grazing by European rabbits, feral goats and eastern grey kangaroos, as well as weed invasion boneseed and habitat loss due to urbanisation