A mouse, plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse, it is a popular pet. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are locally common, they are known to invade homes for shelter. Species of mice are found in Rodentia, are present throughout the order. Typical mice are found in the genus Mus. Mice are distinguished from rats by their size; when someone discovers a smaller muroid rodent, its common name includes the term mouse, while if it is larger, the name includes the term rat. Common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. Scientifically, the term mouse is not confined to members of Mus for the deer mouse. Domestic mice sold as pets differ in size from the common house mouse; this is attributable both to different conditions in the wild. The best-known strain, the white lab mouse, has more uniform traits that are appropriate to its use in research.
Cats, wild dogs, birds of prey and certain kinds of arthropods have been known to prey upon mice. Because of its remarkable adaptability to any environment, the mouse is one of the most successful mammalian genera living on Earth today. Mice, in certain contexts, can be considered vermin which are a major source of crop damage, causing structural damage and spreading diseases through their parasites and feces. In North America, breathing dust that has come in contact with mouse excrement has been linked to hantavirus, which may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Nocturnal animals, mice compensate for their poor eyesight with a keen sense of hearing, rely on their sense of smell to locate food and avoid predators. Mice build long intricate burrows in the wild; these have long entrances and are equipped with escape tunnels or routes. In at least one species, the architectural design of a burrow is a genetic trait. Order Dasyuromorphia marsupial mice, smaller species of Dasyuridae order Rodentia suborder Castorimorpha family Heteromyidae Kangaroo mouse, genus Microdipodops Pocket mouse, tribe Perognathinae Spiny pocket mouse, genus Heteromys suborder Anomaluromorpha family Anomaluridae flying mouse suborder Myomorpha family Cricetidae Brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii Florida mouse Golden mouse American Harvest mouse, genus Reithrodontomys family Muridae typical mice, the genus Mus Field mice, genus Apodemus Wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus Yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis Large Mindoro forest mouse Big-eared hopping mouse Luzon montane forest mouse Forrest's mouse Pebble-mound mouse Bolam's mouse Eurasian Harvest mouse, genus Micromys Mice are common experimental animals in laboratory research of biology and psychology fields because they are mammals, because they share a high degree of homology with humans.
They are the most used mammalian model organism, more common than rats. The mouse genome has been sequenced, all mouse genes have human homologs; the mouse has 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 pairs of chromosomes. They can be manipulated in ways that are illegal with humans, although animal rights activists object. A knockout mouse is a genetically modified mouse that has had one or more of its genes made inoperable through a gene knockout. Reasons for common selection of mice are small size, inexpensive varied diet maintained, can reproduce quickly. Several generations of mice can be observed in a short time. Mice are very docile if raised from birth and given sufficient human contact. However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with the difference of size. Many people buy mice as companion pets, they can be playful and can grow used to being handled. Like pet rats, pet mice should not be left unsupervised outside as they have many natural predators, including birds, lizards and dogs.
Male mice tend to have a stronger odor than the females. However, mice are as pets they never need bathing. Well looked-after mice can make ideal pets; some common mouse care products are: Cage – Usually a hamster or gerbil cage, but a variety of special mouse cages are now available. Most should have a secure door. Food – Special pelleted and seed-based food is available. Mice can eat most rodent food Bedding – Usually made of hardwood pulp, such as aspen, sometimes from shredded, uninked paper or recycled virgin wood pulp. Using corn husk bedding is avoided because it promotes Aspergillus fungus, can grow mold once it gets wet, rough on their feet. In nature, mice are herbivores, consuming any kind of fruit or grain from plants. However, mice adapt well to urban areas and are known for eating all types of food scraps. In captivity, mice are fed commercial pelleted mouse diet; these diets are nutritionally complete. Mice are a staple in the diet of many small carnivores. Humans have eaten mice since prehistoric times and still eat them as a delicacy throughout eastern Zambia and northern Malawi, where they are a seasonal source of protein.
Mice are no longer consumed by humans elsewhere. However, in Victorian Britain, fried mice were still given to children as a folk remedy for bed-wetting. Prescribed cures in Ancient Egypt included mice as medicine. In Ancient Egypt, when infant
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China. Located in Southwest China, the province spans 394,000 square kilometres and has a population of 45.7 million. The capital of the province is Kunming also known as Yunnan; the province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi, Guizhou and the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as the countries Vietnam and Myanmar. Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as 3,000 metres. Yunnan has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has 17,000 or more. Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead and tin are the largest in China, there are major reserves of copper and nickel; the Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th century AD.
Nanzhao was multi-ethnic. The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s. From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier, with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China; as with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi, Hani, Zhuang and Miao; the Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian.
These people constructed simple wooden structures. Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian; the Chu general Zhuang Qiao entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing, in eastern Yunnan; the Han–Dian wars began under Emperor Wu. He dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Dian during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties; the commandery seat was at Dianchi county in present-day Jinning. Another county was called "Yunnan" the first use of the name.
To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma and India, Emperor Wu sent Tang Meng to maintain and expand the Five Foot Way, renaming it "Southwest Barbarian Way". By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly; the local people used bronze tools and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats and dogs. Anthropologists have determined, they lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese. During the Three Kingdoms, the territory of present-day Yunnan, western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong; the dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes, his seven captures of Meng Huo, a local magnate, is much celebrated in Chinese folklore. International trade flowed by din of Yunnan. In the 4th century, northern China was overrun by nomadic tribes from the north.
In the 320s, the Cuan clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian known as Kunchuan. Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan for over four hundred years. Before the rise and dominance of the Nanzhao Kingdom around Yunnan in the eighth century, many local tribes and other groups sprang up. Around Lake Erhai, the Dali area, there emerged six zhao: Mengzi, Langqiong, Dengdan and Mengshe. Zhao was an indigenous non-Chinese language term meaning "king" or "kingdom." Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five. By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake–area under its authority. In 738, the western Yunnan was united by Piluoge, the fourth king of Nanzhao, confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang dynasty as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a part in the dynamic relationship between China and Tibet. By the 750s, Nanzhao had taken eastern Yunnan into its empire and had become a potential rival to Tang China.
The following period saw conflicts between Tang China and Nanzhao. In 750, Nanzhao captured Yaozhou, the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan. In 751, Xianyu Zhongtong (
The term eunuch refers to a man from antiquity, castrated in order to serve a specific social function. In Latin, the words eunuchus and castratus were used to denote eunuchs; the earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Over the millennia since, they have performed a wide variety of functions in many different cultures: courtiers or equivalent domestics, treble singers, religious specialists, royal guards, government officials, guardians of women or harem servants. Eunuchs would be servants or slaves, castrated in order to make them reliable servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence. Lowly domestic functions—such as making the ruler's bed, bathing him, cutting his hair, carrying him in his litter, or relaying messages—could in theory give a eunuch "the ruler's ear" and impart de facto power on the formally humble but trusted servant. Similar instances are reflected in etymology of many high offices.
Eunuchs did not have loyalties to the military, the aristocracy, or to a family of their own, were thus seen as more trustworthy and less interested in establishing a private'dynasty'. Because their condition lowered their social status, they could be replaced or killed without repercussion. In cultures that had both harems and eunuchs, eunuchs were sometimes used as harem servants or seraglio guards. Eunuch comes from the Greek word eunoukhos, first attested in a fragment of Hipponax, the 6th century BC comic poet and prolific inventor of compound words; the acerbic poet describes a certain lover of fine food having "consumed his estate dining lavishly and at leisure every day on tuna and garlic-honey cheese paté like a Lampsacene eunoukhos". In ancient classical literature from the early 5th century BC onward, the word designates some incapacity for or abstention from procreation, whether due to natural constitution or to physical mutilation. For instance, Lucian suggests two methods to determine whether someone is a eunuch: physical inspection of the body, or scrutiny of his ability to perform sexually with females.
The earliest surviving etymology of the word is from late antiquity. The 5th century Etymologicon by Orion of Thebes offers two alternative origins for the word eunuch: first, to tēn eunēn ekhein, "guarding the bed", a derivation inferred from eunuchs' established role at the time as "bedchamber attendants" in the imperial palace, second, to eu tou nou ekhein, "being good with respect to the mind", which Orion explains based on their "being deprived of male-female intercourse, the things that the ancients used to call irrational". Orion's second option reflects well-established idioms in Greek, as shown by entries for noos and ekhein in Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, while the first option is not listed as an idiom under eunē in that standard reference work. However, the first option was cited by the late 9th century Byzantine emperor Leo VI in his New Constitution 98 banning the marriage of eunuchs, in which he noted eunuchs' reputation as trustworthy guardians of the marriage bed and claimed that the word eunuch attested to this kind of employment.
The emperor goes further than Orion by attributing eunuchs' lack of male-female intercourse to castration, which he said was performed with the intention "that they will no longer do the things that males do, or at least to extinguish whatever has to do with desire for the female sex". The 11th century Byzantine monk Nikon of the Black Mountain, opting instead for Orion's second alternative, stated that the word came from eunoein, thus meaning "to be well-minded, well-inclined, well-disposed or favorable", but unlike Orion he argued that this was due to the trust that certain jealous and suspicious foreign rulers placed in the loyalty of their eunuchized servants. Theophylact of Ohrid in a dialogue In Defence of Eunuchs stated that the origin of the word was from eunoein and ekhein, "to have, hold", since they were always "well-disposed" toward the master who "held" or owned them; the 12th century Etymologicum Magnum repeats the entry from Orion, but stands by the first option, while attributing the second option to what "some say".
In the late 12th century, Eustathius of Thessalonica offered an original derivation of the word from eunis + okheuein, "deprived of mating". In translations of the Bible into modern European languages, such as the Luther Bible or the King James Bible, the word eunuchus as found in the Latin Vulgate is rendered as officer, official or chamberlain, consistent with the idea that the original meaning of eunuch was bed-keeper. Modern religious scholars have been disinclined to assume that the courts of Israel and Judah included castrated men though the original translation of the Bible into Greek used the word eunoukhos; the early 17th century scholar and theologian Gerardus Vossius therefore explains that the word designated an office, he affirms the view that it was derived from eunē and ekhein. He says the word came to be applied to castrated men in general because such men were the usual holders of that office. Still, Vossius notes the alternative etymologies offered by Eustathius and others, calling these analyse
Fear of mice
Fear of mice and rats is one of the most common specific phobias. It is sometimes referred to as musophobia or murophobia, or as suriphobia, from French souris, "mouse"; the phobia, as an unreasonable and disproportionate fear, is distinct from reasonable concern about rats and mice contaminating food supplies, which may be universal to all times and cultures where stored grain attracts rodents, which consume or contaminate the food supply. In many cases a phobic fear of mice is a induced conditioned response, combined with the startle response common in many animals, including humans, rather than a real disorder. At the same time, as is common with specific phobias, an occasional fright may give rise to abnormal anxiety that requires treatment. Fear of mice may be treated by any standard treatment for specific phobias; the standard treatment of animal phobia is systematic desensitization, this can be done in the consulting room, or in hypnosis. Some clinicians use a combination of both in vitro desensitization during treatment.
It is helpful to encourage patients to experience some positive associations with mice: thus, the feared stimulus is paired with the positive rather than being continuously reinforced by the negative. An exaggerated, phobic fear of mice and rats has traditionally been depicted as a stereotypical trait of women, with numerous books, television shows, films portraying women screaming and jumping onto chairs or tables at the sight of a mouse – for example, Mammy Two Shoes in Tom and Jerry. Despite this portrayal, murophobia has always been experienced by individuals of both sexes. However, women are twice as as men to suffer from specific phobias, such as musophobia. In George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the protagonist Winston Smith has a phobic fear of rats. In Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Henry Jones is described as being "scared to death" of rats; the titular character in the Doraemon series is scared of mice, due to having had his robotic ears bitten off by mice as their revenge on him.
The incarnation of Princess Zelda from The Legend of Zelda: Spirit Tracks will freeze in fear if she is met by rats. Injun Joe is afraid of mice and rats in the 1995 anime movie and Tom's Mississippi Adventure. In the video game Donkey Kong Country III: Dixie's Double Trouble the rideable elephant Ellie is afraid of rats and must throw a barrel at them. There is a common folk belief; the earliest reference to this claim is by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia, book VIII. As translated by Philemon Holland, "Of all other living creatures, they cannot abide a mouse or a rat." Numerous zoos and zoologists have shown. MythBusters performed an experiment in which, multiple elephants did attempt to avoid a mouse, showing there may be some basis for this belief, it is not known why elephants should react in this way. Regardless, elephantine murophobia remains the basis of various metaphors; the classical board game Dou Shou Qi has the Rat kill an Elephant: as multiple editions of the rule book mentions that the Rat would crawl into the Elephant's ears to gnaw into its brain: but this is considered to be a folk tale.
Gertrude of Nivelles is the patron saint of murophobia, is invoked against rats and mice in general. List of phobias
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. It is abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"; the rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis or admiratus, although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U. S. a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has today come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this wasn't always the case.
The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; the generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a important history in Spain.
Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Chinese treasure ship
A Chinese treasure ship was a type of large wooden ship in the fleet of admiral Zheng He, who led seven voyages during the early 15th-century Ming dynasty. The size and dimensions of the treasures are debated. According to British scientist and sinologist Joseph Needham, the purported dimensions of the largest of these ships were 135 metres by 55 metres, which would make them at least twice as long as the largest European ships at the end of the sixteenth century. In fact, such dimensions would make the treasure ships larger than the largest wooden boats built 19th century steel-reinforced ones; these dimensions have thus been challenged, on engineering grounds by experts and on the reliability of their sources. In 1962 a large rudder post was unearthed in the Treasure Ship Yard in Nanjing; as it is 11 metres long, it has been claimed that such dimensions correspond with a 200 metres long ship, although objections have again been raised. According to the Guoque, the first voyage consisted of 63 treasure ships crewed by 27,870 men.
The History of Ming credits the first voyage with 62 treasure ships crewed by 27,800 men.. A Zheng He era inscription in the Jinghai Temple in Nanjing gave the size of Zheng He ships in 1405 as 2,000 lia, but did not give the number of ships Alongside the treasures were another 255 ships according to the Shuyu Zhouzilu, giving the combined fleet of the first voyage a total of 317 ships. However, the addition of 255 ships is a case of double accounting according to Edward L. Dreyer, who notes that the Taizong Shilu does not distinguish the order of 250 ships from the treasure ships; as such the first fleet would have been around 250 ships including the treasure ships. The second voyage consisted of 249 ships.. The Jinghai Temple inscription gave the ship dimensions in 1409 as 1500 liao According to the Xingcha Shenglan, the third voyage consisted of 48 treasure ships, not including other ships; the Xingcha Shenglan states that the fourth voyage consisted of 63 treasure ships crewed by 27,670 men.
There are no sources for number of men for the fifth and sixth voyages. According to the Liujiagang and Changle Inscriptions, the seventh voyage had "more than a hundred large ships".. The most contemporary non-Chinese record of the expeditions is an untitled and anonymous annalistic account of the then-ruling Rasūlid dynasty of Yemen, compiled in the years 1439-1440, it reports the arrival of Chinese ships in 1419, 1423, 1432, which correspond to Zheng He's fifth and seventh voyages. The 1419 arrival is described thus: Arrival of Dragon-ships in the protected harbour city and with them the messengers of the ruler of China with brilliant gifts for his Majesty, the Sultan al-Malik al-Nāsir in the month of l’Hijja in the year 821, his Majesty, the Sultan al-Malik al-Nāsiṛ’s in the Protected Dār al-Jund send the victorious al-Mahaṭṭa to accept the brilliant gifts of the ruler of China. It was a splendid present consisting of all manner of rarities, splendid Chinese silk cloth woven with gold, top quality musk and many kinds of chinaware vessels, the present being valued at twenty thousand Chinese mithqāl.
It was accompanied by the Qādi Wajīh al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Jumay, and this was on 26 Muharram in the year 822. His majesty, the Sultan al-Malik al-Nāsir ordered that the Envoy of the ruler of China returned with gifts of his own, including many rare, with frankincense wrapped coral trees, wild animals such as Oryx, wild ass, thousands of wild lion and tamed cheetahs, and they travelled in the company of Qādi Wajīh al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Jumay out of the sheltered harbour of Aden in the month of Safar of the year 822; the Yemeni historian, Ibn al-Daybaʿ, writes: great vessels containing precious gifts, the value of, twenty lacs of gold... had an audience with al-Malik al-Nāsir without kissing the ground in front of him, said: "Your Master the Lord of China greets you and counsels you to act justly to your subjects.” And he said to him: "Welcome, how nice of you to come!” And he entertained him and settled him in the guesthouse. Al-Nāsir wrote a letter to the Lord of China: "Yours it is to command and country is your country."
He dispatched to him wild animals and splendid sultanic robes, an abundant quality, ordered him to be escorted to the city of Aden. Mamluk historian Ibn Taghribirdi writes: Shawwāl 22. A report came from Mecca the Honored that a number of junks had come from China to the seaports of India, two of them had anchored in the port of Aden, but their goods, silk and the like, were not disposed of there because of the disorder of the state of Yemen; the captains of these two junks wrote to the Sharīf Barakāt ibn Hasan ibn ʿAjlān, emir of Mecca, to Saʾd al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Marra, controller of Judda, asking permission to come to Judda. The two wrote to the Sultan about this, made him eager for the large amount that would result if they came; the Sultan wrote to them to let them come to Judda, to show them honor. Niccolò Da Conti, a contemporary of Zhe
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara
Biligtü Khan or The Emperor Zhaozong of Yuan, born Ayushiridara, was a ruler of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia. Ascended to the throne after the death of his father, the last Yuan emperor, he defeated the invading Ming army in 1372 and recaptured some Chinese borderlands that were lost to the newly founded Ming dynasty. Ayushiridara was the eldest son of Toghon Temür and Lady Gi in 1338, he was given his earliest tuition in Chinese at the house of his father's minister, Toqto'a, at age ten. Toghon Temür's principal empress, bore only one son who died in infancy; the Mongol noyans preferred another Borjigin heir, rather than Ayushiridara, as his mother was a former palace maid and tea server of Korean nationality. Only after the purge of Danashiri's family and the death of Bayan, were he and his mother accepted at the Mongolian court. Induced by his Korean Empress, Lady Gi, the Yuan Emperor Toghon Temür scheduled to elect his heir apparent in 1353. However, Toqto'a delayed the schedule for some unknown reason.
This aroused the anger of the latter's political enemies. The chief minister and his former protégé, Hama of the "Qangli", Ayushiridara, with the support of his mother, the Empress, Lady Gi, accused Toqto'a of corruption and violation of law while he was fighting the Red Turban Rebellion in 1354; this situation halted Toqto'a, successful in defeating the rebellion, he was stripped of his dignities and sent to Hoai-nan into exile. Hama was made first minister and all power was in his hands. Elated by this success, Hama decided to raise Ayushiridara to the throne; this plot was discovered, Hama was sentenced to exile and strangled by his enemies there in 1356, Ayushiridara was pardoned. When he became crown prince in 1353, it caused internal strife between his opponents. Seven years he and Lady Gi wished the first minister, Tai ping, to convince the Khagan to resign and leave Ayushiridara dominion; when Tai ping refused, they forced him to resign. Power passed to a eunuch, to Cho sekin, two weak men.
An opposition leader, Bolad-Temür, occupied the capital in 1364. Ayushiridara was ordered back by his father to Dadu. Feeling himself not powerful enough to resist Bolad-Temür's large army, Ayushiridara fled to the Yuan general, Köke Temür; when Bolad-Temür learned that Ayushiridara was advancing with troops, he arrested Lady Gi and forced her to recall her son to the capital. However, Bolad-Temür's commanders deserted to Köke Temür. Toghon Temür secretly ordered son of the prince of Wei chun, to murder Bolad-Temür. After the latter's death, Köke Temür defeated Bolad-Temür's commander Tukiel in 1365. Ayushiridara forced Köke Temür to persuade the Emperor to resign in his favor; the Emperor was unwilling to abdicate. Köke Temür tried to prevent it, but was stripped of his dignities. In 1368 the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Ming dynasty, Toghon Temür Khan and his family fled north to Shangdu from Dadu. In 1370 Toghon Temür died in Yingchang; the Ming army captured the city and relatives and Maidarbal, a son of Ayushiridara who escaped safely to Karakorum where he was enthroned as Khagan of the Mongols with the Mongolian title of Biligtü.
Shortly after the succession, he fled to Karakorum and he changed the era name to Xuanguang there. Biligtü Khan made Köke Temür his commander in chief and chingsang of the right hand of the Central Government; the Yuan remnants in Mongolia homeland, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty, still remained overall a strong power during his reign. Its dominions covered the areas from Northeast China to Xinjiang. Hongwu Emperor failed. In 1372, the former dispatched the Ming army of 150,000 men to Mongolia. Biligtü Khan sent Köke Temür's army against the central division of the Ming army under Xu Da. Xu Da's troops reached Tuul River within 20 days. However, they were routed and their commander escaped with a few of his men; the eastern division of the Ming army advanced to Kherlen River, pillaging the Mongolian camps en route. They were defeated and forced to retreat to Orkhon where another bloody battle ensued. After that they fought the Mongol army under Halajchani and was defeated near Karakorum; the western division of the Ming army was forced to retreat due to other divisions' failures, they won a series of places.
Ayushiridara asked the assistance from the Yuan's former vassal King Gongmin of Goryeo to fight against the Ming dynasty of China. In his letter to Gongmin, Biligtü Khan says: "... Oh wang, you are a descendant of Genghis Khan same as me. Therefore, we wish you to work with us to establish justice and truth under the heaven..."On the contrary, King Gongmin refused to help and started an opposition policy against the Mongols, retook their lands, which were annexed by the Yuan dynasty in the 1270s. The pro-Mongol faction under Yin Im-in killed Gongmin in 1374, they sent envoys to the Mongols in Liaoyang and Biligtü Khan recognized the legitimacy of King U, puppet of Yin Im-in. Biligtü Khan asked Goryeo Korea to send troops for a joint attack against the Ming fortress; the Goryeo court cautiously refused to help again. The Mongols conquered Funin and Suijin districts in Sinhe and Hebei provinces in 1373, cutting the Ming from Liaodong. In 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official in Liaoyang province invaded the Liaodong Peninsula with aims of restoring the Mongols to power and succeeded with the support of the pro-Mongol Jurchens.
The Ming ceased its raids into the Northern Yuan. Biligtü