Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, lawyer and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement; the British colonial authorities called him "The father of the Indian unrest." He was conferred with the title of "Lokmanya", which means "accepted by the people". Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj and a strong radical in Indian consciousness, he is known for his quote in Marathi: "Swarajya is my birthright and I shall have it!". He formed a close alliance with many Indian National Congress leaders including Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghose, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Tilak was born in a Marathi Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, in the headquarters of the eponymous district of present-day Maharashtra on 23 July 1856, his ancestral village was Chikhali. His father, Gangadhar Tilak was a school teacher and a Sanskrit scholar who died when Tilak was sixteen.
In 1871 Tilak was married to Tapibai at a few months before his father's death. After marriage, her name was changed to Satyabhamabai, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts in first class in Mathematics from Deccan College of Pune in 1877. He left his M. A. course of study midway to join the LL. B course instead, in 1879 he obtained his LL. B degree from Government Law College. After graduating, Tilak started teaching mathematics at a private school in Pune. Due to ideological differences with the colleagues in the new school, he withdrew and became a journalist. Tilak participated in public affairs, he stated: "practical life are not different. The real spirit is to make the country your family instead of working only for your own; the step beyond is to serve humanity and the next step is to serve God."Inspired by Vishnushastri Chiplunkar, he co-founded the New English School on 1 January 1880 with a few of his college friends, including Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Mahadev Ballal Namjoshi, Vishnushastri Chiplunkar and Vaman Shivram Apte.
Their goal was to improve the quality of education for India's youth. The success of the school led them to set up the Deccan Education Society on 24 October 1884; the aim of the institution was to create a new system of education that taught young Indians nationalist ideas through an emphasis on Indian culture. The Society established the Fergusson College on 2 January 1885 for post-secondary studies; the college held its initial classes in other locations in Pune. Tilak taught mathematics at Fergusson College. In 1890, Tilak left the Deccan Education Society for more political work, he began a mass movement towards independence by an emphasis on a cultural revival. Tilak had a long political career agitating for Indian autonomy from the British rule. Before Gandhi, he was the most known Indian political leader. Unlike his fellow Maharashtrian contemporary, Tilak was considered a radical Nationalist but a Social conservative, he was imprisoned on a number of occasions. At one stage in his political life he was called "the father of Indian unrest" by British author Sir Valentine Chirol.
Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890. He opposed its moderate attitude towards the fight for self-government, he was one of the most-eminent radicals at the time. In fact, it was the Swadeshi movement of 1905–1907 that resulted in the split within the Indian National Congress into the Moderates and the ExtremistsDespite being opposed to early marriage, Tilak was against the 1891 Age of Consent bill, seeing it as interference with Hinduism and a dangerous precedent. During late 1896, a bubonic plague spread from Bombay to Pune, by January 1897, it reached epidemic proportions. British troops were brought in to deal with the emergency and harsh measures were employed including forced entry into private houses, examination of occupants, evacuation to hospitals and segregation camps and destroying personal possessions, preventing patients from entering or leaving the city. By the end of May, the epidemic was under control, they were regarded as acts of tyranny and oppression. Tilak took up this issue by publishing inflammatory articles in his paper Kesari, quoting the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita, to say that no blame could be attached to anyone who killed an oppressor without any thought of reward.
Following this, on 22 June 1897, Commissioner Rand and another British officer, Lt. Ayerst were shot and killed by the Chapekar brothers and their other associates. According to Barbara and Thomas R. Metcalf, Tilak "almost concealed the identities of the perpetrators". Tilak was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment, he adopted a new slogan coined by his associate Kaka Baptista: "Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it."Following the Partition of Bengal, a strategy set out by Lord Curzon to weaken the nationalist movement, Tilak encouraged the Swadeshi movement and the Boycott movement. The movement consisted of the boycott of foreign goods and the social boycott of any Indian who used foreign goods; the Swadeshi movement consisted of the usage of natively produced goods. Once foreign goods were boycotted, there was a gap which had to be filled by the production of those goods in India itself. Tilak opposed the moderate views of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, was supported by fellow Indian nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab.
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Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire. Congress is a secular party whose social democratic platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and marginalised people; the party endorses social democracy—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings. Its constitution states democractic socialism to be its ideal.
After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, many regional state governments. Congress became India's dominant political party. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, the most recent Manmohan Singh. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, political parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party. In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. From 2004 to 2014, United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of Congress with several regional parties, formed the Indian government led by Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister as the head of the coalition government; the leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of December 2018, the party is in power in six legislative assemblies: Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the union territory of Puducherry.
The Indian National Congress conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil Service officer Allan Octavian Hume. In 1883, Hume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta, its aim was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians, to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between them and the British Raj. Hume took the initiative, in March 1885 a notice convening the first meeting of the Indian National Union to be held in Poona the following December was issued. Due to a cholera outbreak there, it was moved to Bombay. Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of Congress. Notable representatives included Scottish ICS officer William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta of the Bombay Presidency Association, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, social reformer and newspaper editor Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Justice K. T. Telang, N. G. Chandavarkar, Dinshaw Wacha, Behramji Malabari and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha.
This small elite group, unrepresentative of the Indian masses at the time, functioned more as a stage for elite Indian ambitions than a political party for the first decade of its existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, the new extremists who advocated agitation, regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists. Congress included a number of prominent political figures. Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, was elected president of the party in 1886 and was the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons.
Congress included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Jinnah was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favouring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government, he became the leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjee during the partition of Bengal in 1905, the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale, Gandhi became president of Congress. After the First World War, the party became associated with Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon, he formed an alliance wit
Sarat Chandra Bose
Sarat Chandra Bose was a barrister and Indian independence activist. He was elder brother of Subhas Chandra Bose, he was born to Janakinath Bose and Prabhabati Devi in Howrah on 6 September 1889. Prabhabati Devi was part of the famous Dutt family of Hatkhola in north Kolkata, she gave birth to fourteen children, six daughters and eight sons, among whom were nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and distinguished cardiologist Dr. Sunil Chandra Bose. Sarat Bose studied in Presidency College affiliated with the University of Calcutta, went to England in 1911 to become a barrister, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He began a successful legal practice upon his return to India, but abandoned it to join the Indian independence movement. In 1936, Bose became the president of the Bengal Pradesh Congress Committee, served as a member of the All India Congress Committee from 1936 to 1947. From 1946 to 1947, Bose would lead the Congress delegation to the Central Legislative Assembly.
He supported the formation of the Indian National Army by Subhas Bose, participated in the Quit India movement. Following his brother's reported death in 1945, Bose led efforts to provide relief and aid to the families of INA soldiers through the INA Defence and Relief Committee. In 1946, he was appointed Member of the Interim Government for Works and Powers – the position of a minister in a national executive council led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, presided over by the Viceroy of India. However, Bose resigned from the AICC in disagreement over the Cabinet Mission Plan's call to partition Bengal between Hindu-majority and Muslim-majority regions, he attempt to construct a bid for a united but independent Bengal and North-East with Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, the Bengali Muslim League leader. Muhammad Ali Jinnah so did Mahatma Gandhi; the Indian National Congress and the Hindu members of Indian Legislative Council from Bengal opposed it. After India's independence, Bose led his brother's Forward Bloc and form the Socialist Republican Party, advocating a socialist system for Bengal and India.
He died in Calcutta. Sarat Bose married Bivabati Devi in 1910 and the couple had eight children, their children included Dr. Asoke Nath Bose, a Doctorate in Chemistry from Germany and eminent engineer, Amiya Nath Bose who participated in the Quit India Movement, became a Member Parliament and was the Indian ambassador to Burma, Sisir Kumar Bose, who became a pediatrician and Member of Legislative Assembly, Subrata Bose, an electrical engineer and a Member of Parliament, his youngest daughter Prof. Chitra Ghosh is a distinguished academician and a social scientist and a member of the parliament, his grandson, Sumantra Bose, is a professor of comparative politics at the London School of Economics and Political Science. In January 2014, Sarat Chandra Bose Memorial Lecture was instituted and the maiden lecture was delivered by international historian Leonard A. Gordon, who has penned a joint biography of Sarat and his younger brother Subhas, titled Brothers Against The Raj. A statue of Sarat Chandra Bose is situated beside Calcutta High Court.
Sunita Devi, real name Armina Peerbhoy known just as Sunita, was a model for the sculptor Jacob Epstein in London. Her death in India in 1932 was believed by some to be a political assassination. From Kashmir, Sunita was a Muslim who married Ahmed Peerbhoy, a millionaire of Bombay, but some time in the early 1920s went to England with her son Enver and younger sister Anita Patel, who had left her husband; the sisters joined a troupe of magicians known as the Maysculine Brothers. Sunita performed a stunt that involved sitting in a tank of water submerged for five minutes, they had a stand selling erotic trinkets at the British Empire Exhibition. Sunita developed a persona as an Indian mystic and fortune teller and became known as Princess Sunita. Sunita posed for the artist Matthew Smith from 1924, their relationship became model. Smith drew her in 1924 and painted her in The Red Sari, Sunita Reclining, The Black Sari, Sunita Wearing a Black Sari. Jacob Epstein may have met Sunita at the British Empire Exhibition, where the exotic foreign displays intrigued him, or through his friend Matthew Smith.
In 1925 Epstein invited Sunita and Anita to live at his home at Guilford Street in London with the agreement of his wife Margaret. Mrs Epstein was trying to end her husband's affair with Kathleen Garman by encouraging him into affairs with other women. Dolores, who Mrs Epstein had hoped in vain would tempt her husband away from Kathleen, had left the house and now there were two new women that might do the job, it is unclear, whether Epstein had any romantic interest in either sister. Epstein sculpted Enver's head in 1926 and 1927 and heads of Sunita three times in 1926. Sunita and Enver were the models for Epstein's sculpture of Madonna and Child, though Epstein had great difficulty getting Enver to stand still, which he said was responsible for the unfinished modelling of the boy in the work. Epstein thought Sunita beautiful but Joseph Duveen, on seeing Madonna and Child for the first time, asked, "Why did you not choose a beautiful model?" In addition to the sculpture, there were over 100 drawings and watercolours of Sunita and Anita.
In 1931 Sunita returned to India, according to the American press, "I am going to my death. In 1932 it was reported that she had died of "intestinal inflammation"; those who knew her outside India believed that she had been poisoned and that her closeness to participants in the Round Table Conferences had meant that she was seen as a spy. Betty May Lilian Shelley Media related to Sunita Devi at Wikimedia Commons
Indian independence movement
The Indian independence movement was a series of activities whose ultimate aim was to end the British Raj and encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule and the British Raj in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 90 years considering movement against British Indian Empire; the Indian Independence movement includes both protest and militant mechanisms to root out British Administration from India. The first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they took root in the newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil; the early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai; the last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of non-violence and civil disobedience, several other campaigns.
Nationalists like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Bagha Jatin,preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule. Poets and writers such as Subramania Bharati, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Kazi Nazrul Islam used literature and speech as a tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement; the period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society, it underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic and civil-libertarian political structure.
After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, owing to the influence of Bhagat Singh's demand of Purna Swaraj. The work of these various movements led to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which ended the suzerainty in India and the creation of Pakistan. India remained a Dominion of the Crown until 26 January 1950, when the Constitution of India came into force, establishing the Republic of India. In 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 at the port of Calicut, in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up at Surat in 1613. Over the course of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the British defeated the Portuguese and Dutch militarily, but remained in conflict with the French, who had by sought to establish themselves in the subcontinent.
The decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, during which the East India Company's Indian Army under Robert Clive defeated Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, the Company established itself as a major player in Indian affairs, soon afterwards gained administrative rights over the regions of Bengal and Midnapur part of Odisha, following the Battle of Buxar in 1764. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Company's direct rule, or under its indirect political control as part a princely state in a subsidiary alliance; the Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. English was made the medium of instruction in India's schools in 1835, many Indians disliked British rule.
The English tried to impose the Western standards of education and culture on Indian masses, believing in the 18th century superiority of Western culture and enlightenment. Puli Thevar was one of the opponents of the British rule in India, he was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot, supported by the British. His prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Nelkatumseval the present Tirunelveli Dist of Tamil Nadu state of India was the headquarters of Puli Thevan Syed Mir Nisar Ali Titumir. Along with his followers, he built a bamboo fort in Narkelberia Village, which passed into Bengali folk legend. After the storming of the fort by British soldiers, Titumir died of his wounds on 19 November 1831; the toughest resistance the Company experienced was offered by Mysore. The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presiden
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Amitabh Bachchan is an Indian film actor, film producer, television host, occasional playback singer and former politician. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s for films such as Zanjeer and Sholay, was dubbed India's "angry young man" for his on-screen roles in Bollywood. Referred to as the Shahenshah of Bollywood, Sadi ka Mahanayak, Star of the Millennium, or Big B, he has since appeared in over 190 Indian films in a career spanning five decades. Bachchan is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors in the history of Indian cinema as well as world cinema. So total was his dominance on the Indian movie scene in the 1970s and 1980s that the French director François Truffaut called him a "one-man industry". Beyond the Indian subcontinent, he has a large overseas following in markets including Africa, the Middle East, United Kingdom and parts of the United States. Bachchan has won numerous accolades in his career, including four National Film Awards as Best Actor and many awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies.
He has won fifteen Filmfare Awards and is the most nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 41 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter, he has hosted several seasons of the game show Kaun Banega Crorepati, India's version of the game show franchise, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. He entered politics for a time in the 1980s; the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1984, the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2015 for his contributions to the arts. The Government of France honoured him with its highest civilian honour, Knight of the Legion of Honour, in 2007 for his exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond. Bachchan made an appearance in a Hollywood film, Baz Luhrmann's The Great Gatsby, in which he played a non-Indian Jewish character, Meyer Wolfsheim. Bachchan was born in Allahabad, his ancestors on his father's side came from a village called Babupatti, in the Raniganj tehsil, in the Pratapgarh district, in the present-day state of Uttar Pradesh, in India.
His mother, Teji Bachchan,was a social activist and Punjabi Sikh woman from Lahore. His father Harivansh Rai Bachchan was a Hindi-speaking Kayastha Hindu poet, fluent in the related Hindustani dialects of Awadhi and Urdu. Bachchan was named Inquilaab, inspired by the phrase Inquilab Zindabad popularly used during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the boy's name to Amitabh, according to a Times of India article, means "the light that will never die". Although his surname was Shrivastava, Amitabh's father had adopted the pen name Bachchan, under which he published all of his works, it is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films and for all other practical purposes, Bachchan has become the surname for all of his immediate family. Bachchan's father died in 2003, his mother in 2007. Bachchan is an alumnus of Nainital, he attended Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi. He has Ajitabh, his mother had a keen interest in theatre and was offered a feature film role, but she preferred her domestic duties.
Teji had some influence in Amitabh Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should "take the centre stage". He is married to actress Jaya Bhaduri. Bachchan made his film debut in 1969, as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award-winning film Bhuvan Shome, his first acting role was as one of the seven protagonists in the film Saat Hindustani, directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Anwar Ali and Jalal Agha. Anand followed, his role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garnered Bachchan his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor award. He played his first antagonist role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwana. Following Parwana were several films including Reshma Aur Shera. During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri, he narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972 he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa directed by S. Ramanathan, moderately successful. Many of Bachchan's films during this early period did not do well, but, about to change.
Bachchan was struggling, seen as a "failed newcomer" who, by the age of 30, had twelve flops and only two hits. Bachchan was soon discovered by screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar. Salim Khan wrote the story and script of Zanjeer, conceived the "angry young man" persona of the lead role. Javed Akhtar came on board as co-writer, Prakash Mehra, who saw the script as groundbreaking, as the film's director. However, they were struggling to find an actor for the lead "angry young man" role. Salim-Javed soon discovered Bachchan and "saw his talent, he was exceptional, a genius actor, in films that weren’t good." According to Salim Khan, they "strongly felt that Amitabh was the ideal casting for Zanjeer". Salim Khan introduced Bachchan to Prakash Mehra, Salim-Javed insi