Hare Tonic is a 1945 Warner Bros. cartoon in the Looney Tunes series, directed by Chuck Jones and written by Tedd Pierce. It stars Bugs Bunny and Elmer Fudd, making this the second cartoon directed by Jones to co-star the two. Voice characterizations are by Mel Blanc and Arthur Q. Bryan, respectively; the title is a play on "hair tonic", a type of patent medicine, reinforced by Bugs' portrayal of a fake doctor at a few points in the picture. A bottle of "hare tonic" appeared as a prop in The Big Snooze. Elmer Fudd is taking him home to make a meal; as he walks along, he sings the tune of "Shortnin' Bread", substituting "Wabbit Stew". Bugs pops out of Elmer's basket, munching on a carrot, in there with him, asks, "Eh, whatcha got in the basket, doc?" Elmer replies, "I got me a wabbit! I'm gonna cook me a wabbit stew!" Bugs states his "love" of rabbit stew and begs to see Elmer's rabbit. When Elmer opens his basket and finds it empty, Bugs pushes his nemesis into his own basket and sings the tune Elmer had been singing — but Elmer realizes he's been tricked, so he re-reverses the switch.
Foreshadowing pranks to come, Bugs tells the audience from inside the basket, "He don't know me vewy well, do he?" Once at home, Bugs secures his escape by distracting Elmer, tricking him into thinking the phone has rung. However, just as he's about to leave, he decides that he just can't leave, he decides to heckle his would-be devourer. Bugs effects a radio broadcast that warns of the dread disease "rabbititis", contracted from rabbits "sold within the last three days" and which causes people to see spots and have "delusions assuming the characteristics of rabbits", followed by the onset of schizophrenia and depersonalization disorder; this frightens the gullible Elmer and he informs Bugs that he is free to leave. Bugs, decides he doesn't want to leave by saying "Oh, no, Doc. Wouldn't think of it. We're gonna brew a stew, remember?", only to make Elmer back away, forcing him to hide on top of his door: "Oh no! Pwease, Mr. Wabbit! Go away! Don't come any cwoser! D-Don't come near me! Nooooooooo!".
Bugs, thinking he has B. O. sniffs his glove and tells the audience "Oh, goodness! Don't tell me I offend." Just as Elmer pleads with Bugs to "Make twacks. Scuwwy away. Scwam!" to which Bugs angrily replies as he leaves "Okay! I can take a hint! I know when I'm not wanted! Goodbye!". But when Bugs returns, Elmer reminds him that Bugs has to "scwam", but Bugs points to a new sign on the front door that states "Quarantined for Rabbititus. No one may leave premises." Thus Bugs stays to torment Elmer, many hijinks ensue, including Bugs posing as Elmer's shower faucets and a doctor, painting a room with red and blue spots to make Elmer think he sees spots before his eyes and pretending to be Elmer's reflection in the mirror and his own rabbity image reflected at him in a mirror that's just Bugs after the glass has been removed. And when Dr. Killpatient tests Elmer's reflexes, Elmer goes into a familiar Russian kick dance, Bugs decides to join him in a busby hat and boots. Elmer sees Bugs' game and chases him out of the house with a shotgun.
But Bugs halts the chase and, in an unusually lengthy breaking of the fourth wall by Bugs' standards, he convinces Elmer that members of the audience are now afflicted with rabbititis by saying "Hey, wait a minute. Wait a minute. Look, the people out there in the audience - the lady there with the long ears. They're getting longer all the time, and the guy back there in the seventeenth row with the cute tomato - he's gettin' all fuzzy. Yeah, they've got it. Everybody out there's got rabbititis! Yaah!" which causes Elmer to flee back into his house in a terror of panic. Bugs addresses the audience and says the whole thing was "just a gag, of course" and that if the audience had rabbititis, they'd see swirling red and yellow spots, whereupon red and yellow spots are seen swirling on the screen, the underscore starts to build dramatically. After Bugs says, "And suddenly, everything'd go black!" the screen does go black, the music stops abruptly and followed by a second or two of dark silence. Bugs snickers and the cartoon ends.
This cartoon marks one of the few times Bugs addresses Elmer by name, albeit in the guise of "Dr. Killpatient", who addresses him as "Mr. Fudd". Despite their frequent cinematic encounters, many of their cartoons are played as if they had never met before. Bugs impersonates Frankenstein's monster to chase Elmer; this and Baseball Bugs feature a Bugs Bunny variant of the then-usual closing, where instead of Porky Pig busting out of a drum, he does, proclaiming "... And that's the end!" while chomping on a carrot. Glut, Donald F. "What's Up, Doc Frankenstein?", The Frankenstein Archive: Essays on the Monster, the Myth, the Movies, More, McFarland & Company, ISBN 978-0786480692 Picart, Caroline Joan. Hare Tonic on IMDb
Carl W. Stalling
Carl W. Stalling was an American composer and arranger for music in animated films, he is most associated with the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts produced by Warner Bros. where he averaged one complete score each week, for 22 years. Stalling was born to Ernest and Sophia C. Stalling, his parents were from Germany. The family settled in Missouri where his father was a carpenter, he started playing piano at six. By the age of 12, he was the principal piano accompanist in his hometown's silent movie house. For a short period, he was the theatre organist at the St. Louis Theatre, which became Powell Symphony Hall. By his early 20s, he was conducting his own orchestra and improvising on the organ at the Isis Movie Theatre in Kansas City, his actual job at the time was to play "organ accompaniment" for silent films. During that time, he met and befriended a young Walt Disney, producing animated comedy shorts in Kansas City. According to music critic Neil Strauss, the chance meeting between Stalling and Disney in the early 1920s was of great importance to the development of music for animation.
Stalling was at his job at the Isis Movie Theatre, demonstrating his ability to combine well-known music by other creators with his own, improvised compositions. Disney stepped into the movie theater and was impressed with his style, he approached Stalling to introduce himself, their acquaintance was mutually beneficial. Stalling was able to arrange the screening of a few Disney animated shorts at the Isis, Disney ensured that Stalling would play the accompaniment for his films. Disney left Kansas City and moved to California in order to open a new studio. Stalling and Disney kept in touch through correspondence, considered each other friends. In 1928, Disney was on a journey from California to New York City in order to record the sound and make the preview of Steamboat Willie, Disney's first released sound short. During the journey he stopped at Kansas City to hire Stalling to compose film scores for two other animated shorts. Stalling composed several early cartoon scores for Walt Disney, including Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho in 1928.
Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were silent films and were the first two Mickey Mouse animated short films in production. When finishing composing the film scores, Stalling went to New York City to record them for Disney. Walt was pleased with the results, offered to hire Stalling as his studio's first music director. In order to get the job, Stalling had to move to California. According to Martha Sigall, Stalling accepted, he realized that his career as an organist for a silent movie theatre was coming to an end, because the silent film era was at its end. Sound films were the new trend. Stalling soon followed Disney in moving to Hollywood. Animation historian Allan Neuwirth credits Stalling for inventing the process of creating a film score for cartoons. According to Neil Strauss, the "wildly talented" Stalling was suitable as a film score composer for animated films. Stalling voiced Mickey Mouse in Wild Waves in 1929. Stalling encouraged Disney to create a new series of animated short films, in which the animation and its action would be created to match the music.
This was still unusual at the time, since film music was played or composed to match the action of a film. Stalling's discussions with Disney on whether the animation or the musical score should come first led to Disney creating the Silly Symphonies series of animated short films. Stalling is credited with both the composition and the musical arrangement of The Skeleton Dance, the first of the Silly Symphonies; these cartoons allowed Stalling to create a score. While there, Stalling pioneered the use of "bar sheets", which allowed musical rhythms to be sketched out with storyboards for the animation; the Silly Symphonies was an innovative animated film series, in which pre-recorded film scores were making use of well-known classical works and the animation sequences were choreographed to match the music. Stalling helped Disney streamline and update the sound process used in creating early animated sound films, following the long and laborious synchronization process used in Steamboat Willie.
The close synchronization of music and on-screen movement pioneered by the Disney short films became known as Mickey Mousing. While working at the Disney studio, Stalling invented a tick system which helped synchronize music to visuals; this system was a forerunner to the click track, a method which would become a standard process used in both live-action and animated films. An early example of a click track was used in the production of The Skeleton Dance; the method used in this film involved a reel of unexposed film with holes punched out to make clicks and pops when run on the sound head. According to Neil Strauss, this version of the click track is credited to sound effects artist Jimmy MacDonald. Stalling left Disney at the same time as animator Ub Iwerks, he had completed the scoring of about 20 animated films for Disney. Finding few outlets in New York, Stalling rejoined Iwerks at his studio in California, while freelancing for Disney and others. Stalling served as the music director of Iwerks' studio until the studio shut down in 1936.
In 1936, when Leon Schlesinger—under contract to produce animated shorts for Warner Bros.—hired Iwerks, Stalling went with him to become a full-time cartoon music composer. Ac
An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema, television or computer screen, made using sequential drawings, as opposed to animation in general, which include films made using clay, puppets, 3D modeling and other means. Animated cartoons are still created for entertainment, commercial and personal purposes. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions attempting to convey the perception of motion. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree; the phenakistoscope and praxinoscope, as well as the common flip book, were early animation devices to produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film. The first person to make animated movies was a French science teacher named, Charles-Emile Reynaud.
The first animated projection was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud, a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888. On 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris; this film is notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. His films were not drawn directly onto the transparent strip. In 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings; the first animated projection was Humorous Phases of Funny Faces by newspaper cartoonist J. Stuart Blackton, one of the co-founders of the Vitagraph Company arrived. In the film, a cartoonist's line drawings of two faces were'animated' on a blackboard; the two faces smiled and winked, the cigar-smoking man blew smoke in the lady's face. The first animated projection in the traditional sense was Fantasmagorie by the French director Émile Cohl in 1908; this was followed by two more films, Le Cauchemar du fantoche and Un Drame chez les fantoches, all completed in 1908.
One of the first successful animated cartoons was Gertie the Dinosaur by Winsor McCay. It is considered the first example of true character animation. At first, animated cartoons were silent. Felix the Cat and Oswald the Lucky Rabbit are notable examples. From the 1920s to 1960s, theatrical cartoons were produced in huge numbers, shown before a feature film in a movie theater. Disney, Warner Bros. MGM, UPA were the largest studios producing these 5- to 10-minute "shorts." Other studios included Walter Lantz, DePatie-Freleng, Van Beuren Studios, ComiColor Cartoons, Charles Mintz Studios, Famous Studios, Terrytoons. The first cartoon to use a soundtrack was in 1926 with Max Fleischer's My Old Kentucky Home; however the Fleischers used a De Forest sound system and the sound was not synchronized with the film. Walt Disney's 1928 cartoon Steamboat Willie starring Mickey Mouse was the first to use a click track during the recording session, which produced better synchronism. "Mickey Mousing" became a term for any movie action, synchronized with music.
The music used is original most of the time, but musical quotation is employed. Animated characters performed the action in "loops," i.e. drawings were repeated over and over. Although other producers had made films earlier using 2-strip color, Disney produced the first cartoon in 3-strip Technicolor and Trees, in 1932. Technicians at the Fleischer studio invented rotoscoping, in which animators trace live action in order to make animation look more realistic. However, rotoscoping made the animation look stiff and the technique was used more for studying human and animal movement, rather than directly tracing and copying filmed movements. Other movie technologies were adapted for use in animation, such as multiplane cameras with The Old Mill, stereophonic sound in Fantasia, widescreen processes with the feature-length Lady and the Tramp, 3D with Lumber Jack-Rabbit. Today, traditional animation is aided by computers in certain areas; this gives the animator new tools not available. In 1917, Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani created the first animated feature made, El Apóstol, utilizing cutout animation.
In 1937, Disney created the first sound and color animated feature film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The name "animated cartoon" is not used when referring to full-length animated productions, since the term more or less implies a "short." Huge numbers of animated feature films were, are still, produced. Competition from television drew audiences away from movie theaters in the late 1950s, the theatrical cartoon began its decline. Tod
A double entendre is a figure of speech or a particular way of wording, devised to be understood in two ways, having a double meaning. One of the meanings is obvious, given the context, whereas the other may require more thought; the innuendo may convey a message that would be awkward, sexually suggestive, or offensive to state directly. A double entendre may exploit puns to convey the second meaning. Double entendres rely on multiple meanings of words, or different interpretations of the same primary meaning, they exploit ambiguity and may be used to introduce it deliberately in a text. Sometimes a homophone can be used as a pun; when three or more meanings have been constructed, this is known as etc.. A person, unfamiliar with the hidden or alternative meaning of a sentence may fail to detect its innuendos, aside from observing that others find it humorous for no apparent reason; because it is not offensive to those who do not recognise it, innuendo is used in sitcoms and other comedy where the audience may enjoy the humour while being oblivious to its secondary meaning.
A triple entendre is a phrase that can be understood in any of three ways, such as in the back cover of the 1981 Rush album Moving Pictures which shows a moving company carrying paintings out of a building while people are shown being moved and a film crew makes a "moving picture" of the whole scene. The expression comes from French double = "double" and entendre = "to hear". However, the English formulation is a corruption of the authentic French expression à double entente. Modern French uses double sens instead. In Homer's The Odyssey, when Odysseus is captured by the Cyclops Polyphemus, he tells the Cyclops that his name is Oudeis; when Odysseus attacks the Cyclops that night and stabs him in the eye, the Cyclops runs out of his cave, yelling to the other cyclopes that "No-one has hurt me!", which leads the other cyclopes to take no action under the assumption that Polyphemus blinded himself by accident, allowing Odysseus and his men to escape. Some of the earliest double entendres are found in the Exeter Book, or Codex exoniensis, at Exeter Cathedral in England.
The book was copied around AD 975. In addition to the various poems and stories found in the book, there are numerous riddles; the Anglo-Saxons did not reveal the answers to the riddles, but they have been answered by scholars over the years. Some riddles were double-entendres, such as Riddle 25 which suggests the answer "a penis" but has the correct answer "an onion". Examples of sexual innuendo and double-entendre occur in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, in which the Wife of Bath's Tale is laden with double entendres; the most famous of these may be her use of the word "queynte" to describe both domestic duties and genitalia. The title of Sir Thomas More's 1516 fictional work Utopia is a double entendre because of the pun between two Greek-derived words that would have identical pronunciation: with his spelling, it means "no place". Sometimes, it is unclear. For example, the character Charley Bates from Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist is referred to as Master Bates; the word "masturbate" was in use when the book was written, Dickens used colourful names related to the natures of the characters.
The title of Damon Knight's story To Serve Man is a double entendre which could mean "to perform a service to humanity" or "to serve a human as food". An alien cookbook with the title To Serve Man is featured in the story which could imply that the aliens eat humans; the story was the basis for an episode of The Twilight Zone. At the end of the episode the line "It's a cookbook!" Reveals the truth. Shakespeare used double entendres in his plays. Sir Toby Belch in Twelfth Night says of Sir Andrew's hair. Thou wilt fall backward when thou hast more wit"; the title of Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing is a pun on the Elizabethan use of "no-thing" as slang for vagina. In the UK, starting in the 19th century, Victorian morality di
Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931, the building has a roof height of 1,250 feet and stands a total of 1,454 feet tall, including its antenna, its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of New York, of unknown origin. As of 2019 the building is the 5th-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States and the 28th-tallest in the world, it is the 6th-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas. The Empire State Building stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years until the completion of the World Trade Center's North Tower in Lower Manhattan in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was again the tallest building in New York until the new One World Trade Center was completed in April 2012; the site of the Empire State Building, located in Midtown South on the west side of Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets, was part of an early 18th-century farm.
It was purchased by the Astor family, who built the Waldorf–Astoria Hotel on the site in the 1890s. The hotel remained in operation until the late 1920s, when it was sold to the Bethlehem Engineering Corporation to Empire State Inc. a business venture that included famous businessman and former General Motors executive, John J. Raskob, members of the du Pont family, former New York governor Al Smith; the original design of the Empire State Building was for a 50-story office building. However, after fifteen revisions, the final design was for an 86-story 1,250-foot building, with an airship mast on top; this ensured it would be the world's tallest building, beating the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street, two other Manhattan skyscrapers under construction at the time that were vying for that distinction. Demolition of the Waldorf–Astoria began in October 1929, the foundation of the Empire State Building was excavated before demolition was complete. Construction on the building itself started on March 17, 1930, with an average construction rate of four and a half floors per week.
A well-coordinated schedule meant that the 86 stories were topped out on September 19. Despite the publicity surrounding the building's construction, its owners failed to make a profit until the early 1950s. However, since its opening, the building's Art Deco architecture and open-air observation deck has made it a popular tourist attraction, with around 4 million visitors from around the world visiting the building's 86th and 102nd floor observatories every year. Since the mid-2010s, the Empire State Building has been undergoing improvements to improve access to its observation decks; the building stands within a mile of other major Midtown tourist attractions including Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station, Madison Square Garden and Macy's Herald Square. The Empire State Building is an American cultural icon and has been featured in more than 250 TV shows and movies since the film King Kong was released in 1933. A symbol of New York City, the tower has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
The Empire State Building and its ground-floor interior have been designated as a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, were confirmed as such by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986, was ranked number one on the American Institute of Architects' List of America's Favorite Architecture in 2007; the Empire State Building is located on the west side of Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, between 33rd and 34th Streets. Tenants enter the building through the Art Deco lobby located at 350 Fifth Avenue. Since August 2018, visitors to the Empire State Building Observatory use an entrance at 20 West 34th Street, replacing the previous Observatory entrance inside the Fifth Avenue lobby. Although physically located in South Midtown, a mixed residential and commercial area, the building is so large that it was assigned its own ZIP Code, 10118; the areas surrounding the Empire State Building are home to other major Manhattan landmarks as well, including Macy's at Herald Square on Sixth Avenue and 34th Street, Koreatown on 32nd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, Penn Station and Madison Square Garden on Seventh Avenue between 32nd and 34th Streets, the Flower District on 28th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues.
The nearest New York City Subway stations are 34th Street–Penn Station at Seventh Avenue, two blocks west. There is a PATH station at 33rd Street and Sixth Avenue. To the east of the Empire State Building is Murray Hill, a neighborhood with a mix of residential and entertainment activity. One block east of the Empire State Building, on Madison Avenue at 34th Street, is the New York Public Library's Science and Business Library, located on the same block as the City University of New York's Graduate Center. Bryant Park and the New York Public Library Main Branch are located six blocks north of the Empire State Building, on the block bounded by Fifth Avenue, Sixth Avenue, 40th Street, 42nd Street. Grand Central Terminal is located two blocks east of the library's Main Branch, at Park Avenue and 42nd Street; the tract was part of Mary and John Murray's farm on Murray Hill. The earliest recorded major action on the site was during the American Revolutionary War, when General George Washington'
Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Leon Schlesinger Productions and voiced by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. Though a similar character debuted in the WB cartoon Porky's Hare Hunt and appeared in a few subsequent shorts, the definitive character of Bugs is credited to have made his debut in director Tex Avery's Oscar-nominated film A Wild Hare. Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray and white rabbit, famous for his flippant, insouciant personality, he is characterized by a Brooklyn accent, his portrayal as a trickster, his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" Due to Bugs' popularity during the golden age of American animation, he became an American cultural icon and the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment, he can thus be seen in the older Warner Bros. company logos. Since his debut, Bugs has appeared in various short films, feature films, compilations, TV series, music records, video games, award shows, amusement park rides, commercials.
He has appeared in more films than any other cartoon character, is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world, has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. According to Chase Craig, who wrote and drew the first Bugs Bunny comic Sunday pages and the first Bugs comic book, "Bugs was not the creation of any one man. In those days, the stories were the work of a group who suggested various gags, bounced them around and finalized them in a joint story conference." A rabbit with some of the personality of Bugs, though looking different, was featured in the film Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. It was co-directed by an uncredited Cal Dalton; this cartoon has an identical plot to Avery's Porky's Duck Hunt, which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig is again cast as a hunter tracking a silly prey, more interested in driving his pursuer insane and less interested in escaping. Hare Hunt replaces the little black duck with a small white rabbit; the rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers," and Mel Blanc gave the character a voice and laugh much like those he would use for Woody Woodpecker.
The rabbit character was popular enough with audiences that the Termite Terrace staff decided to use it again. According to Friz Freleng and Dalton had decided to dress the duck in a rabbit suit; the white rabbit had a shapeless body. In characterization, he was "a rural buffoon", he was loud, zany with a guttural laugh. Blanc provided him with a hayseed voice; the rabbit comes back in Prest-O Change-O, directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house; the rabbit harasses them but is bested by the bigger of the two dogs. This version of the rabbit was cool and controlled, he was otherwise silent. The rabbit's third appearance comes in Hare-um Scare-um, directed again by Hardaway; this cartoon—the first in which he is depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one—is notable as the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the film, gave the character a name, he had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet.
In promotional material for the cartoon, including a surviving 1939 presskit, the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny. In his autobiography, Blanc claimed that another proposed name for the character was "Happy Rabbit." In the actual cartoons and publicity, the name "Happy" only seems to have been used in reference to Bugs Hardaway. In Hare-um Scare-um, a newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway." Animation historian David Gerstein disputes that "Happy Rabbit" was used as an official name, believing that the only usage of the term was from Mel Blanc himself in humorous and fanciful tales he told about the character's development in the 1970s and 1980s. Thorson had been approached by Tedd Pierce, head of the story department, asked to design a better rabbit; the decision was influenced by Thorson's experience in designing hares. He had designed Max Hare in Toby Tortoise Returns. For Hardaway, Thorson created the model sheet mentioned, with six different rabbit poses.
Thorson's model sheet is "a comic rendition of the stereotypical fuzzy bunny". He had a pear-shaped body with a protruding rear end, his face had large expressive eyes. He had an exaggerated long neck, gloved hands with three fingers, oversized feet, a "smart aleck" grin; the end result was influenced by Walt Disney Animation Studios' tendency to draw animals in the style of cute infants. He had an obvious Disney influence, but looked like an awkward merger of the lean and streamlined Max Hare from The Tortoise and the Hare, the round, soft bunnies from Little Hiawatha. In Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera, the rabbit first meets Elmer Fudd; this time the rabbit looks more like the present-day Bugs and with a similar face—but retaining the more primitive voice. Candid Camera's Elmer character design is different: taller and chubbier in the face than the modern model, though A
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew