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Basel Convention

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal known as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty, designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. It does not, address the movement of radioactive waste; the Convention is intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as as possible to the source of generation, to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate. The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, entered into force on 5 May 1992; as of October 2018, 186 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention. Haiti and the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified it. With the tightening of environmental laws in developed nations in the 1970s, disposal costs for hazardous waste rose dramatically.

At the same time, globalization of shipping made transboundary movement of waste more accessible, many LDCs were desperate for foreign currency. The trade in hazardous waste to LDCs, grew rapidly. One of the incidents which led to the creation of the Basel Convention was the Khian Sea waste disposal incident, in which a ship carrying incinerator ash from the city of Philadelphia in the United States dumped half of its load on a beach in Haiti before being forced away, it sailed for many months. Unable to unload the cargo in any port, the crew was believed to have dumped much of it at sea. Another is the 1988 Koko case in which five ships transported 8,000 barrels of hazardous waste from Italy to the small town of Koko in Nigeria in exchange for $100 monthly rent, paid to a Nigerian for the use of his farmland; these practices have been deemed "Toxic Colonialism" by many developing countries. At its meeting that took place from 27 November to 1 December 2006, the Conference of the parties of the Basel Agreement focused on issues of electronic waste and the dismantling of ships.

According to Maureen Walsh, only around 4% of hazardous wastes that come from OECD countries are shipped across international borders. These wastes include, among others, chemical waste, radioactive waste, municipal solid waste, incinerator ash, old tires. Of internationally shipped waste that comes from developed countries, more than half is shipped for recovery and the remainder for final disposal. Increased trade in recyclable materials has led to an increase in a market for used products such as computers; this market is valued in billions of dollars. At issue is the distinction when used computers stop being a "commodity" and become a "waste"; as of October 2018, there are 187 parties to the treaty, which includes 184 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the European Union, the State of Palestine. The nine UN member states that are not party to the treaty are East Timor, Grenada, San Marino, Solomon Islands, South Sudan and United States. A waste falls under the scope of the Convention if it is within the category of wastes listed in Annex I of the Convention and it exhibits one of the hazardous characteristics contained in Annex III.

In other words, it must both be listed and possess a characteristic such as being explosive, toxic, or corrosive. The other way that a waste may fall under the scope of the Convention is if it is defined as or considered to be a hazardous waste under the laws of either the exporting country, the importing country, or any of the countries of transit; the definition of the term disposal is made in Article 2 al 4 and just refers to annex IV, which gives a list of operations which are understood as disposal or recovery. Examples of disposal are broad, including recycling. Alternatively, to fall under the scope of the Convention, it is sufficient for waste to be included in Annex II, which lists other wastes, such as household wastes and residue that comes from incinerating household waste. Radioactive waste, covered under other international control systems and wastes from the normal operation of ships are not covered. Annex IX attempts to define "commodities" which are not considered wastes and which would be excluded.

In addition to conditions on the import and export of the above wastes, there are stringent requirements for notice and tracking for movement of wastes across national boundaries. It is of note that the Convention places a general prohibition on the exportation or importation of wastes between Parties and non-Parties; the exception to this rule is where the waste is subject to another treaty that does not take away from the Basel Convention. The United States is a notable non-Party to the Convention and has a number of such agreements for allowing the shipping of hazardous wastes to Basel Party countries; the OECD Council has its own control system that governs the trans-boundary movement of hazardous materials between OECD member countries. This allows, among other things, the OECD countries to continue trading in wastes with countries like the United States that have not ratified the Basel Convention. Parties to the Convention must honor import bans of other Parties. Article 4 of the Basel Convention calls for an overall reduction of waste generation.

By encouraging countries to keep wastes within their boundaries and as close as possible to its source of generation, the internal pressures should provide incentives for waste reduction and pollution prevention. Parties are prohibited from exporting covered wastes to, or import covered waste from, non-parties to the convention; the Convention sta

Do-it-yourself biology

Do-it-yourself biology is a growing biotechnological social movement in which individuals and small organizations study biology and life science using the same methods as traditional research institutions. DIY biology is undertaken by individuals with extensive research training from academia or corporations, who mentor and oversee other DIY biologists with little or no formal training; this may be done as a hobby, as a not-for-profit endeavour for community learning and open-science innovation, or for profit, to start a business. The term "biohacking" as well as the concept of do-it-yourself biology has been known as early as 1988. Biohacking entered the San Francisco programmer and maker communities as early as 2005, through simple demonstrations of basic experiments; as DIYbio experiments became the focus of SuperHappyDevHouse hackers, the hobby gained additional momentum. In 2005 Rob Carlson wrote in an article in Wired: "The era of garage biology is upon us. Want to participate? Take a moment to buy yourself a lab on eBay."

He set up a garage lab the same year, working on a project he had worked at the Molecular Sciences Institute in Berkeley, California. In 2008, the DIYbio organization was founded by Jason Bobe and Mackenzie Cowell and its first meeting held. In 2010, Genspace opened the first community biology lab, Ten months it was followed by BioCurious, Victoria Makerspace. Many other labs and organizations followed, including but not limited to Counter Culture Labs in Oakland, CA, Baltimore Underground Science Space in Baltimore, MD, TheLab in Los Angeles, CA and Denver Biolabs in Denver, CO. In 2016, the first conference to focus on biohacking was announced to take place in September in Oakland, CA; the DIYbio movement seeks to revise the notion that one must be an academic with an advanced degree to make any significant contribution to the biology community. It allows large numbers of small organizations and individuals to participate in research and development, with spreading knowledge a higher priority than turning profits.

The motivations for DIY biology include lowered costs, medicine, life extension, education. Recent work combining open-source hardware of microcontrollers like the Arduino and RepRap 3-D printers low-cost scientific instruments have been developed. Many organizations maintain a laboratory akin to a wet-lab makerspace, providing equipment and supplies for members. Many organizations run classes and provide training. For a fee, members can do experiments on their own; the DIY biology movement attempts to make available the tools and resources necessary for anyone, including non-professionals, to conduct biological engineering. One of the first pieces of open source laboratory equipment developed was the Dremelfuge by Irish biohacker Cathal Garvey, which uses a 3D printed tube holder attached to a Dremel rotary tool to spin tubes at high speeds, replacing expensive centrifuges. Many other devices like PCR machines have been recreated extensively. In recent times, more complex devices have been created such as the OpenDrop digital microfluidics platform and the DIY NanoDrop both developed by GaudiLabs.

Opentrons makes open-source, affordable lab robots, got its start as a DIY biology collaboration at Genspace. Incuvers makes telemetric chambers for cellular research that are affordable and allow for complete customizability of their environments. OpenCell, a London based biotech lab provider hosts regular biohackathons to help encourage more opensource development. Most advocacy in biohacking is about the safety and future legality of experimentation. Todd Kuiken of the Woodrow Wilson Center proposes that through safety and self-governance, DIY biologists won't be in need of regulation. Josiah Zayner has proposed that safety is inherent in biohacking and that accessibility should be the foremost concern as there is large underrepresentation of social and ethnic minorities in biohacking. Many biohacking projects revolve around the modification of life and molecular and genetic engineering. Bioinformatics is another popular target for do-it-yourself biology research; as in other fields, many programming languages can be used in DIY biology, but most of the languages that are used are those with large bioinformatics libraries.

Examples include BioPython, which use the languages Perl and Python, respectively. Genetic Engineers are a subculture of biohackers as one of the most accessible forms of biohacking is through engineering microorganisms or plants. Experiments can range from using plasmids to fluorescent bacteria, controlling gene expression using light in bacteria using CRISPR to engineer the genome of bacteria or yeast. Restricted access to medical care and medicine has pushed biohackers to start experimenting in medically related fields; the Open Insulin project aims to make the recombinant protein insulin more accessible by creating an open source protocol for expression and purification. Other experiments that have involved medical treatments include a whole body microbiome transplant and the creation of open source artificial pancreases for diabetics. Grinders are a subculture of biohackers that focus on implanting technology or introducing chemicals into the body to enhance or change their bodies' functionality.

Some biohackers can now sense which direction they face using a magnetic implant that vibrates against the skin. In 2000, controversial and self-described "transgenic artist" Eduardo Kac appropriated standard laboratory work by biotechnology and genetics researchers in order to both utilize and critique such scientific techniques. In the only putative work of transgenic art by Kac, the artist

Vyacheslav Golubtsov

Vyacheslav Alekseevich Golubtsov was a Russian scientist and a specialist in the field of thermal engineering. Born March 29 in 1894 in Nizhny Novgorod in the family of a teacher, he was a brother of the wife of the Soviet statesman Georgy Malenkov. In 1913—1915 he worked in Pavlovsky Posad as a mechanic and as a technician at Elektrogorsk Power Plant, one of the first power plants in Russia. In 1915-1918 he served in Russian Imperial Army. In 1918—1922 he again worked at the Power Plant: first as an Assistant to the Head of the Electric department as an Assistant to the Director of the Power plant. In 1925 Golubtsov graduated from Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute with a degree in the field of electrical power stations engineering, he was a member of the CPSU since 1931. Until 1937 he worked in leading positions in the construction and operation of power plants in Leningrad, Kashira, Chelyabinsk and other cities. In 1931-1933 he was Chief Deputy manager of Mosenergo. Since 1937 he was Deputy Chief Engineer of Glavenergo.

Since 1944 he worked at Moscow Power Engineering Institute. He taught at the Department of Boiler Plants. In 1947, he until 1964 headed the Department of Water and Fuel Technology. Since 1964 he had been professor-consultant of MPEI. Corresponding Member of USSR Academy of Sciences since 1953. Stalin prize winner of III degree, he died on 18 October 1972 in Moscow

Ups & Downs

"Ups & Downs"/"Bang Out" is the fourth single of Snoop Dogg's album R&G The Masterpiece. It is the only song not to be produced by The Neptunes; the song interpolates The Bee Gees' 1979 hit "Love You Inside Out". It has a different sound with a slower Beats per minute rate that are more characteristic of Snoop Dogg and of the album as a whole. Upon release, the single received some criticism Rolling Stone | Music News, Photos, Videos and More due to re-using the sample, used only 2 years earlier by Jay-Z and R. Kelly in "Honey" from their Best of Both Worlds project. Although the vocal is credited to Shon Don with the Bee Gees it wasn't recorded with the performers together and like so it can be considered as a tribute in honour of the original artists instead; because the track contains a sample with an early British sound it became popular in Europe in the first place. In some prints of the cover of the R&G album the introductory sentence of "Ups & Downs" "Every Dogg Has His Day" is indicated as a separate interlude that sample from the motion picture "Scarface".

However, with or without it the length of the track remains four minutes seven seconds long. It was performed by Snoop Dogg at the Live 8 concert in London on July 2, 2005; the premiere of video for the single was first aired on Friday, April 29 at 7:30 p.m. on BET. It was directed by Anthony Mandler and consists of three parts where each section ends with a fade out; the first half was shot in black and white to give the watcher a 1970s flashback feeling. In the intro Nuthin' but a "G" Thang is played as background music; the beginning portrays us a suburban modern residence, where Snoop is ensconced and spies out across the window blind when sirens and tire screech can be heard followed by the "Every Dogg Has His Day" insert. He settles into his armchair with Mr. Cartoon sitting next to him, who continues to tattoo a real R&G logo on Snoop's right shoulder. Mr. Cartoon is the professional tattoo artist member of the creative team, the Soul Assassins, whose production company made the video, he designed the R&G initials himself for the album cover artwork.

Ups & Downs starts, while Snoop visits his girls hanging around in the house, while the rest of his mob is lifting dumbbells and playing domino in the trashy garden. Cameo appearances done by his Black Wall Street affiliates and the Soul Assassins. In the lyrics Snoop claims that despite of all rumours he still trusts imprisoned Tray Deee and has no feud going on between them, but the Eastsidaz no longer exist. Snoop and some of his crew can be seen wearing a "Western Conference" pullover; the outro is for "Bang Out", a song mixed and produced by Jonathan "J. R." Rotem with Jasmin Lopez on the vocals. The clip segment is a colored one, where green is rolling in slow motion; the scenes include a smoky alley-way and the entrance of Mr. T's Bowling Club. Nate Dogg and Warren G join Snoop; the Western Conference is a real conference organized by Snoop and held on July 4, 2005. It was like peace talks between members of the former "West Coast" and an attempt to reunite them to put the westside into the mainstream by launching a movement that helps newcomers and off-label street artists to reach the audience and get a contract.

Snoop not only took up regenerative tasks but he's backing the whole movement by offering his Doggystyle label for the producing duties of the West Coast upcoming musical acts, if needed. Its main achievement was tha Dogg Pound team-up, it was estimated that about 60–70 rappers participated on the event including Ice Cube, Wc, Mack 10, Jayo Felony, Mac Mall, Warren G, The Game, DJ Quik, Kurupt amongst others. It is unknown at the time. Tiffany Foxx and her partner Brooke Holiday participates in acting on the set, however she has been recognized for his single "Shake that shit" with Snoop from his album Welcome to tha Chuuch - Da Album. Video Static MVDB Mr. Cartoon official home page Snoop speaks about the single on MTV Snoop Dogg interview pt.1-2 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Kai yang

Kai yang or gai yang known as kai ping or gai ping, or pīng kai, is a dish originating from the Lao people of Laos and Isan, but it is now eaten throughout the whole of Thailand. The dish is a standard staple of street markets and available at all times. Being a typical Laotian/Isan dish, it is paired with green papaya salad and sticky rice, it is eaten with raw vegetables, dipped in spicy sauces such as Laotian jaew bong. In Thailand, there are many famous Thai Muslim varieties of kai yang which are not of Lao origin at all, but more akin to the grilled chicken from Malaysia; the Laotian name for the dish is pīng kai and means "roast chicken". In Laotian restaurants in the West, it is known as "Laotian barbecued chicken" or "ping gai"; the Thai and Isan term is spelled ไก่ย่าง, although ปิ้งไก่, a Thai letter rendering of the Laotian name, would be understood in Isan and in most of Thailand as well although to Thai ears it would sound a bit quaint, due to the slight grammatical difference between Thai and Laotian.

Thais would put kai before ping rather than the other way round. In the West, where this dish features on the menu of Thai restaurants, it is either known by its Thai name kai yang or as "Thai barbecued chicken". A whole chicken is halved and pounded flat, it is marinated and grilled over a low heat on a charcoal flame for a long time, but is not cooked to be burnt or dry. The marinade includes fish sauce, turmeric, coriander root, white pepper. Many variations exist, it is quite common to find black soy sauce, hoisin sauce, shallots and seeds of coriander, chilis, vinegar, palm sugar, MSG. List of Thai dishes List of barbecue dishes List of chicken dishes List of street foods Mu ping Tan, Terry.. The Thai Table: A Celebration of Culinary Treasures. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 981-261-442-7 Thompson, David.. Thai Food: Arharn Thai. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-462-1 Brissenden, Rosemary.. Southeast Asian food: Classic and Modern Dishes from Indonesia, Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-7946-0488-9 McDermoot, Nancie..

Real Thai: The Best of Thailand's Regional Cooking. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0017-2ISBN 1-58008-462-1

Silent Nights

Silent Nights is a rock album released in 1985 by Rick Wakeman. The single to the album entitled "Glory Boys" got a large amount of airplay but the pressing plant where it was being made went on strike. Although the shops were ordering the single in large amounts, not many copies of the single were available to be purchased; this meant. Although the album was not a commercial success Rick Wakeman himself has stated on his official site that "Glory Boys" is the best single he has released. All titles arranged by Rick Wakeman. "Tell'Em All You Know" 4.04 "The Opening Line" 3.47 "The Opera" 6.20 "Man's Best Friend" 4.27 "Glory Boys" 3.13 "Silent Nights" 3.54 "Ghost of a Rock'n' Roll Star" 3.39 "The Dancer" 3.28 "Elgin Mansions" 5.13 "That's Who I Am" 4.15 Rick Wakeman - keyboards, lead vocal Tony Fernandez - drums, percussion Chas Cronk - bass guitar Rick Fenn - guitar Bimbo Acock- saxophone Gordon Neville - lead vocals on all tracks