Scouts Canada is a Canadian Scouting association providing programs for young people, aged 5 to 26, with the stated aim "to help develop well rounded youth, better prepared for success in the world.". Scouts Canada, in affiliation with the French-language Association des Scouts du Canada, is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. 2015-16 youth membership stands at 61,438, a 5% decline from 64,693 in 2014-15. Over the same period, volunteer numbers stabilized with 20,717 in 2015 and 20,756 in 2016; this is a significant decline from its 1965 peak of 33,524 volunteers. Scouts Canada's programs are based on three principles: Duty to God Duty to Others Duty to SelfScouts Canada's programs are co-educational and it states it is committed to diversity. Scouts Canada has a policy not to discriminate for reasons of gender, religious belief or sexual orientation. Although Scouts Canada's principles requires a basic spiritual belief, it states that members are not required to subscribe to a religion or belief in God.
For the history of the Scouting Movement in Canada outside of Scouts Canada, see Scouting and Guiding in Canada#History of Scouting in Canada. Scouts Canada states "There is evidence that a few Scouting groups started up in Canada in 1907". In his 1981 book, 75 Years of Scouting in Canada Robert Milks, the late Scouts Canada archivist, indicated that the first Scout groups in Canada were founded in 1908. St. Catharines and Merrickville are mentioned as among the locations of the first troops. Boy Scouts and the Scout Movement were well established in Canada before Scouts Canada or its parent organization, The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom were formed; the Boy Scouts Association was formed in the United Kingdom in 1910 and incorporated in 1912. It has been claimed that its founder, Baden-Powell, wrote to Earl Grey, the Governor General of Canada in 1910 and asked him to organize Scouting in Canada. A branch of The Boy Scouts Association was established in Canada under The Boy Scouts Association's Overseas Department.
The Canadian General Council of The Boy Scouts Association was incorporated by an Act of the Canadian Parliament on June 12, 1914. The Canadian General Council continued to be represented internationally by The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom until 30 October 1946, when the Canadian General Council became a direct member of the Boy Scout World Conference, now the World Organization of the Scout Movement; the organization continued to be a branch of The Scout Association of the United Kingdom until 2007. The Canadian General Council of The Boy Scouts Association changed its name to Boy Scouts of Canada by an amendment to its incorporating Act of Parliament. In 1976 the Scouts Canada logo was introduced and the organization, by its By-laws, adopted the name Scouts Canada. In 2007, the organization's name was amended to Scouts Canada in the establishing legislation. In 1972, Scouts Canada began accepting female participants as part of its Rover Section; this was expanded in the late 1970's.
In 1992, co-ed Scouting was an option for all program sections and became policy for all sections in 1998. Scouts Canada is governed by a Board of Governors. Administration of the organization is divided into twenty Councils, each administering a whole province or large part thereof; the national body and their respective Areas are organized around a key-three which include a Scouter and Staff member. The national body is made up of a National Commissioner appointed by the Voting Members, a National Youth Commissioner appointed by the Voting Members, an Executive Commissioner appointed the Board of Governors; the Council key-three is made up of a Council Commissioner appointed by the Naional Commissioner, a Council Youth Commissioner appointed by the National Youth Commissioner, a Council Executive Director appointed by the Executive Commissioner. Council Commissioners in consultation with their respective key-three furthermore appoint their management teams to manage the interests of the council.
All positions are advertised publicly and a selection committee interviews members based on skill set. The Area key-three is made up of an Area Commissioner appointed by the Council Commissioner, an Area Youth Commissioner appointed by the Council Youth Commissioner, an Area Support Manager appointed by the Council Executive Director. Scouts Canada is affiliated with Association des Scouts du Canada. Under the World Organization of the Scout Movement's constitution, only one organization is recognized in each country. Canada is the only country. Many other countries have more than one Scouting organization and some of these have formed national federations which are the WOSM members. Scouts Canada and L'Association des Scouts du Canada send a joint delegation to meetings of the World Organization of the Scout Movement; the Patron Scout of Canada is the current Governor General of Canada. From 1910 to 1946, the position of Chief Scout for Canada and, from 1946 to 2013, the position of Chief Scout of Canada were held by successive Governors General of Canada.
On 19 April 2013, the Scouts Canada Board of Governors appointed Terry Grant as Chief Scout of Canada and the honorary title held by the Governor General was renamed to Patron Scout. The organization divides programs by participant age; the Beaver program is for participants from five to seven. The Wolf Cub program is for participants from eight to ten; the SCOUTSabout program is for participants from five to ten. The Scout program is for participants from 11 to 15; the Venturer program is for participants from 15 to 17. The Extreme Adventure program is for p
Woodroffe Avenue is a major north-south arterial road in Ottawa, Canada's west end. It runs south from the Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway through Baseline Road and Barrhaven to just short of Prince of Wales Drive near Manotick; the road runs through the heart of Nepean in Ottawa's west end. A satellite Via Rail station is located at the intersection of Fallowfield Road; the northern part of the road, from the Ottawa River to Carling Avenue contains a mix of homes and a number of public institutions. This includes Our Lady Of Fatima Catholic Church, Woodroffe Avenue United Church, Woodroffe Avenue Public School, the Carlingwood branch of the Ottawa Public Library. Near Carling Avenue, Woodroffe runs along the western edge of the Carlingwood Mall. South of Carling Avenue the avenue is busier around the intersection with the Queensway; this portion of the road is home to D. Roy Kennedy Public School. At Baseline Road the road runs past Algonquin College and the College Square shopping plaza and the closed Confederation High School.
Just to the west is Ben Franklin Place, in the heart of the community of Centrepointe, the Baseline Station transit complex. South of Meadowlands Drive, Woodroffe Avenue passes through suburban residential areas and south of Hunt Club Road it passes through the Greenbelt; the most notable site in this area is the large Nepean Sportsplex. After passing through a portion of the Greenbelt, Woodroffe Avenue runs through Barrhaven, serving as the main street of that bedroom community. South of Barrhaven it again goes through some semi-rural areas, before ending just short of Prince of Wales Drive near the Rideau River. Woodroffe Avenue has a few unusual features. First, it changes alignment at Carling Avenue, requiring a couple of turns. Second, the middle section south of Baseline Road includes dedicated bus lanes as it incorporates the Southwest Transitway. South of Hunt Club Road, it was quite narrow and congested as it was a two-lane rural road heading towards Barrhaven. However, the road was widened to four lanes to improve traffic flow between Hunt Club Road and Fallowfield Road.
A new section of the Transitway was built alongside this road. The geometrics and design of Woodroffe Avenue change from section to section; the northernmost section north of Carling is a two-lane minor arterial road, which becomes a four-lane principal arterial road south of Carling Avenue as far as Baseline Road. These sections have a speed limit of 50 km/h. From Baseline Road to south of Hunt Club Road, Woodroffe Avenue is a four to six-lane principal arterial with a speed limit of 60 km/h. From Hunt Club Road to Strandherd Drive, Woodroffe Avenue is a four-lane arterial road; the speed limit is 80 km/h for the most part, with a short section at 70 km/h. South of Strandherd Drive, it is still a two-lane road with a speed limit of 80 km/h, however it may decrease in the future with the continuous growth of traffic in the area. In 2002, a project was announced to widen Woodroffe Avenue from two to four lanes between Fallowfield Park and Ride and Black Rapids Creek. However, it was discovered that there is a rare underground rock formation that would double the cost of the project.
It was widened as far south as Longfields Avenue. Another section from Longfields to south of Strandherd Road was widened during the summer of 2007 in conjunction with the widening of the latter from Riocan Marketplace to Crestway Avenue. In 2016, Woodroffe Avenue was dead-ended at the south end to remove a dangerous intersection with Prince of Wales Drive. Access to Woodroffe Avenue from the south is now via Strandherd Drive. Woodroffe Avenue Transportation Study Region of Ottawa-Carleton, 2000. Woodroffe Avenue Environmental Study Report Ottawa: Dillon Consulting, 2001. Secondary Plan for the Woodroffe Community of the City of Nepean. Nepean, Ontario Planning and Development Dept, 1981
Central Experimental Farm
The Central Experimental Farm known as the Experimental Farm, is an agricultural facility, working farm, research centre of the Research Branch of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. As the name indicates, this farm is centrally located in and now surrounded by the City of Ottawa, Canada; the 4 square kilometres farm is a National Historic Site of Canada and most buildings are protected and preserved as heritage buildings. The CEF original intent was to perform scientific research for improvement in agricultural methods and crops. While such research is still being conducted, the park-like atmosphere of the CEF has become an important place of recreation and education for the residents of Ottawa. Furthermore, over the years several other departments and agencies have encroached onto the CEF property, such as Natural Resources Canada, National Defence, the Ottawa Civic Hospital; the CEF is bordered by the Rideau Canal to the east, Prince of Wales Drive to the South-East, Baseline Road to the south, Merivale and Fisher Roads to the west, Carling Avenue to the north.
The Victorian era was a time of great interest in the advancement of natural sciences and many nations built zoos, botanical gardens, experimental farms. Canada followed suit and as the result of lobbying by John Carling, the Minister of Agriculture, William Saunders, the first director of the research branch, the "Act Respecting Experimental Stations" came into force in 1886; the CEF started out with 188 hectares, chosen because of their proximity to Parliament Hill but outside the city. Over the next few years the site was prepared by improving the land, building the facilities, planting the Arboretum and forest belt. Early research projects focused only on entomology and horticulture; the Chief Dominion Architect designed a number of prominent public buildings in Canada including those at the CEF: Thomas Seaton Scott. David Ewart embraced the Scottish baronial style. In 1887-8, Chief Dominion Architect Thomas Fuller designed the Museum, barn and Staff Residences on Prince of Wales Drive In 1887, Charles F. Cox lay out of the site and design of farm buildings.
In 1887-1888, William John Beckett, a contractor, served as foreman during the building of the residences and barns. In 1889, livestock was introduced to the CEF. Chief Dominion Architect David Ewart designed the Dominion Observatory, Carling Avenue in 1902. Chief Dominion Architect Edgar Lewis Horwood designed the Cereal and Agrostology Building, 1915-16. Chief Dominion Architect Richard Cotsman Wright designed a number of buildings including: the Poultry Office Building, 1920. John Bethune Roper designed the Administration Building, Carling Avenue, 1934. William James Abra designed the Biological Building, 1935. Over the years the scope of research grew and changed, prompting a need to increase the farm's lands and buildings; the Horticulturalist's house and staff residences were removed by the 1930s, the forest belt disappeared, new larger centralized facilities were built, starting with the Saunders Building in 1935, followed by the Neatby Building, Geophysical Lab, Laboratory Services Building, the Carling Building.
From 1940-47, building 136, operated as a high frequency Naval Radio Station -CFF which intercepted enemy transmissions. On May 1, 1993, a memorial was erected by NOAC and Royal Canadian Naval Association Ottawa and dedicated to the Naval Veterans and those who served at this station which provided a link during World War II between Canadian naval headquarters and ships at sea, allied naval headquarters and operational naval authorities. In 1983, the agricultural museum was created in the former Dairy Barn; the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office recognized or classified a number of CEF buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings between 1984-1997. The Cereal Barn Building 76 was classified in 1984; the Victoria Memorial Museum was classified in 1986. The Main Dairy Barn Building 88 was classified in 1987. In 1988, the Botanical Laboratory / Horticulture Building 74 and the Sheep Showcase / Small Dairy Barn Building 95 were recognized; the Nutrition Building 59 was recognized in 1992.
In 1993, Heritage House, Building 60 was recognized. The William Saunders Building 49 was recognized in 1994. In 1995, Heritage House, Building 54. In 1996, the Main Greenhouse Range, Building 50 was recognized. In 1997, a number of buildings were recognized: ARC Biotech, Building 34; the CEF was designated as a National Historic Site in 1998. In 2003, Public Works and Government Services Canada bought the Skyline office complex on the corner of Merivale and Baseline Roads from Nortel Networks; the complex has been renamed to "NHCAP". The head offices of Agricult
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Heron Road Workers Memorial Bridge
The Heron Road Workers Memorial Bridge is a bridge in Ottawa, Canada. It connects Baseline Road and Heron Road passing over both the Rideau River and the Rideau Canal just south of Carleton University; the current bridge was finished in 1967, one year after a bridge collapse killed nine workers in the worst construction accident in both Ottawa's and Ontario's history. It was renamed in 2016 to commemorate the victims of that accident. Ottawa Mayor Charlotte Whitton opposed the plans of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker to build the bridge to ease east-west traffic in the city. In 1961, Diefenbaker's government threatened to reduce the amount of federal grants to Ottawa by the cost of the bridge if the city did not agree to build it. After further negotiations, an agreement on building the bridge was signed by the municipal and federal governments in 1964; the original construction plan included two 3-lane, 300-metre-long bridges, one eastbound and one westbound, was budgeted at two and a half million dollars.
The bridge was north of Hog’s Back Falls and was to connect Baseline Road and Heron Road over the Rideau River and the Rideau Canal for both motorists and pedestrians. On August 10, 1966, a shift of about seventy workers were finished pouring 2,000 short tons of concrete on the eastern side of the completed southern span of the bridge when it collapsed at 3:27 p.m. The wooden falsework on the bridge failed and workers on the bridge fell between fifteen and twenty metres to the ground, while rebars, wood and other building materials fell on them; the collapse triggered the nearby Dominion Observatory's seismometer, which prompted officials to issue a statement that the collapse had not been caused by an earthquake. Many workers panicked and ran or swam away from the site right after the collapse, while others ran to the site to help the victims. People picnicking in nearby Vincent Massey Park arrived on the scene to help shortly before emergency services did. Ottawa mayor Don Reid came to the scene and joined in the rescue efforts with a pair of bolt cutters.
Most of the injured were taken to the Civic Hospital, in the middle of switching from day to night shifts, allowing many medical staff to stay and deal with the influx of patients or to travel to the site to provide aid such as administering morphine to trapped workers. The high number of patients forced the hospital to cancel all elective procedures and relocate patients in wings adjacent to the emergency room so the injured construction workers could be kept together; because many of the injured were arrived Europeans who were not fluent in English, were not carrying their identification at the time of the accident, were covered in concrete, many blood transfusions were done without having a patient name, contrary to standard operating procedure. Over one third of the 183 workers were treated at the Civic Hospital, while the Ottawa General Hospital and the National Defence Medical Centre received just two patients each; the surgeon of the General Hospital criticized the focus on sending patients to the overwhelmed, but nearby Civic Hospital, when his hospital only received their first patient at 4:30 p.m. despite having its staff on standby in anticipation of a patient influx.
Rescue efforts ended at 3:30 a.m.. Nine men died as a result of the collapse: seven were killed on site, one died at the civic hospital, another died from his injuries in September. Over sixty workers were injured from the falling wet cement that had just been poured on the bridge when it collapsed. Among the dead were Leonard Baird, the project's resident engineer, Clarence Beattie, the site foreman; the accident remains the deadliest construction accident in Ontario history. A $100,000 inquest into the collapse heard testimony from over seventy witnesses and was completed in November, it blamed the use of green lumber, weaker than mature wood, the lack of proper diagonal bracing on the wooden falsework supporting the concrete. The inquest found that the weight of concrete being placed to form the bridge deck exceeded the weight that the supports could hold, that a second collapse was imminent as supports near the collapsed area showed signs of buckling. Oliver Gaffney, the owner and namesake of the construction firm building the bridge, accepted only partial responsibility for the falsework's design and construction, since the design and method of construction had been approved by M.
M Dillon Co. a design consulting engineering firm. John Bromley, the project engineer at Dillon in charge of approving the falsework design, testified that the fault for not recognizing the fatal lack of diagonal bracing was his alone and said that "My mind must have been a bit confused at the time."The inquest found that O. J. Gaffney Ltd. of Stratford, M. M Dillon Co. were both responsible for the bridge collapse. O. J. Gaffney Ltd. was fined $5,000, the maximum allowed penalty under the existing Construction Safety Act. As a result of the findings, the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario suspended two of its members, including Bromley, for one year and reprimanded a third; the recommendations of the inquest prompted a rewrite of the Construction Safety Act to increase workplace safety standards. Families of those killed received monthly compensation cheques worth hundreds of dollars; the bridge
Heron Road (Ottawa)
Heron Road is a major road in Ottawa, Canada. It runs from Walkley Road at an angle to the Rideau River. Heron is home to the Public Works and Government Services Canada headquarters, the Sir Leonard Tilley Building, the Canada Post headquarters, the Edward Drake Building, it is home to St. Patrick's Intermediate High School and Herongate Mall. Heron Road starts on the Heron Road Bridge which crosses the Rideau River, Rideau Canal, part of Vincent Massey Park. From there, most of Heron Road is a four- to six-lane divided principal arterial, becomes a speed trap.
Montreal Road is a major east-west Ottawa road that links Lowertown to Vanier, eastern neighbourhoods of Ottawa. Until downloading in 1998, it was part of the provincially managed Highway 17B. At its western end, Montreal Road begins at the Cummings Bridge, which spans the Rideau River and is an extension of Rideau Street, it becomes Vanier's main road. East of St. Laurent Boulevard, it becomes a four-lane principal road which divides several neighbourhoods such as Beacon Hill. At Regional Road 174, Montreal Road continues as St. Joseph Boulevard which runs through the older portions of Orléans Village until Trim Road, it continues east of Trim Road under the name Old Montreal Road. This road, known as Queen Street prior to amalgamation in 2001, goes through the old Cumberland Village and ends at Regional Road 174 just past Becketts Creek. Points of interest along this road are: Montfort Hospital National Research Council labs Greens Creek Conservation Area Place d'Orléans Shopping Centre Orléans Town Centre.
There are bus lanes between North River Road and St. Laurent Boulevard to speed transit service during rush hours. Future plans by the city could include an LRT corridor on this stretch all the way to Blair Road. Montreal Road goes through the following neighbourhoods: Vanier Cardinal Glen Rothwell Heights Beacon HillSt. Joseph Boulevard goes through the following neighbourhoods: Convent Glen Queenswood Fallingbrook On Montreal Road: Vanier Parkway St. Laurent Boulevard Aviation Parkway Blair Road Ogilvie Road Regional Road 174On St. Joseph Boulevard: Jeanne d'Arc Boulevard Orléans Boulevard Tenth Line Road Trim Road