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Bash (Unix shell)

GNU Bash or Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell. First released in 1989, it has been used as the default login shell for most Linux distributions and Apple's macOS Mojave and earlier versions. A version is available for Windows 10, it is the default user shell in Solaris 11. Bash is a command processor that runs in a text window where the user types commands that cause actions. Bash can read and execute commands from a file, called a shell script. Like all Unix shells, it supports filename globbing, here documents, command substitution and control structures for condition-testing and iteration; the keywords, dynamically scoped variables and other basic features of the language are all copied from sh. Other features, e.g. history, are copied from csh and ksh. Bash is a POSIX-compliant shell, but with a number of extensions; the shell's name is an acronym for Bourne-again shell, a pun on the name of the Bourne shell that it replaces and the notion of being "born again".

A security hole in Bash dating from version 1.03, dubbed Shellshock, was discovered in early September 2014 and led to a range of attacks across the Internet. Patches to fix the bugs were made available soon after the bugs were identified. Brian Fox began coding Bash on January 10, 1988 after Richard Stallman became dissatisfied with the lack of progress being made by a prior developer. Stallman and the Free Software Foundation considered a free shell that could run existing shell scripts so strategic to a free system built from BSD and GNU code that this was one of the few projects they funded themselves, with Fox undertaking the work as an employee of FSF. Fox released Bash as a beta, version.99, on June 8, 1989 and remained the primary maintainer until sometime between mid-1992 and mid-1994, when he was laid off from FSF and his responsibility was transitioned to another early contributor, Chet Ramey. Since Bash has become by far the most popular shell among users of Linux, becoming the default interactive shell on that operating system's various distributions and on Apple's macOS releases before Catalina in October 2019.

Bash has been ported to Microsoft Windows and distributed with Cygwin and MinGW, to DOS by the DJGPP project, to Novell NetWare and to Android via various terminal emulation applications. In September 2014, Stéphane Chazelas, a Unix/Linux specialist, discovered a security bug in the program; the bug, first disclosed on September 24, was named Shellshock and assigned the numbers CVE-2014-6271, CVE-2014-6277 and CVE-2014-7169. The bug was regarded as severe, since CGI scripts using Bash could be vulnerable, enabling arbitrary code execution; the bug was related to how Bash passes function definitions to subshells through environment variables. The Bash command syntax is a superset of the Bourne shell command syntax. Bash supports brace expansion, command line completion, basic debugging and signal handling since bash 2.05a among other features. Bash can execute the vast majority of Bourne shell scripts without modification, with the exception of Bourne shell scripts stumbling into fringe syntax behavior interpreted differently in Bash or attempting to run a system command matching a newer Bash builtin, etc.

Bash command syntax includes ideas drawn from the Korn shell and the C shell such as command line editing, command history, the directory stack, the $RANDOM and $PPID variables, POSIX command substitution syntax $. When a user presses the tab key within an interactive command-shell, Bash automatically uses command line completion, since beta version 2.04, to match typed program names and variable names. The Bash command-line completion system is flexible and customizable, is packaged with functions that complete arguments and filenames for specific programs and tasks. Bash's syntax has many extensions lacking in the Bourne shell. Bash can perform integer calculations without spawning external processes, it uses the command and the $ variable syntax for this purpose. Its syntax simplifies I/O redirection. For example, it can redirect standard output and standard error at the same time using the &> operator. This is simpler to type than the Bourne shell equivalent'command > file 2>&1'. Bash supports process substitution using the < and >syntax, which substitutes the output of a command where a filename is used..

When using the'function' keyword, Bash function declarations are not compatible with Bourne/Korn/POSIX scripts, but Bash accepts the same function declaration syntax as the Bourne and Korn shells, is POSIX-conformant. Because of these and other differences, Bash shell scripts are runnable under the Bourne or Korn shell interpreters unless deliberately written with that compatibility in mind, becoming less common as Linux becomes more widespread, but in POSIX mode, Bash conforms with POSIX more closely. Bash supports here documents. Since version 2.05b Bash can redirect standard input from a "here string" using the <<< operator. Bash 3.0 supports in-process regular expression matching using a syntax reminiscent of Perl. In February 2009, Bash 4.0 introduced support for associative arrays. Associative array indices are strings, in a manner similar to AWK or Tcl. Numeric and multidimensional in

Bob Cousy Award

The Bob Cousy Award presented by The College of the Holy Cross is an annual basketball award given by the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame to the top men's collegiate point guard. It is named after six-time National Basketball Association champion Bob Cousy, who played point guard for the Boston Celtics from 1950 to 1963. Cousy won six championships with the Celtics. Annually, a list of players is nominated by college head coaches, members of College Sports Information Directors of America, members of the National Association of Basketball Coaches. A screening committee of CoSIDA members reviews the nominations, selects 16 players from each division. A selection committee appointed by the Hall selects the winner; this 30-member committee is composed of Hall of Famers, head coaches, sports information directors, the media, Cousy himself. When Maryland's Greivis Vásquez won the award in 2010, the Venezuelan became the first player born outside the U. S. to receive this award. The University of North Carolina has fielded the greatest number of award winners, with Raymond Felton winning the award in 2005, Ty Lawson receiving the honor in 2009 and Kendall Marshall winning in 2012.

Nancy Lieberman Award – the counterpart to the Bob Cousy Award. General"Winners". Bob Cousy Award. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2009. Specific Official website

Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús, Cusco

The Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús is a historic Jesuit church in Cusco, the ancient capital of the Inca Empire, in Cusco Region, Peru. It is situated in the city center, it is built on an Inca palace. It is one of the best examples of Spanish Baroque architecture in Peru; the architecture of this building exerted a great influence on the development of many Baroque architecture in the South Andes. Its construction began in 1576, but it was badly damaged in an earthquake in 1650; the rebuilt church was completed in 1668. The construction of the original church was begun in 1576 on the grounds of the old Amarucancha, palace of the Inca Huayna Cápac, one of the largest palaces surrounding the main square of Qosqo; the grounds of this palace were given to Hernando Pizarro. Years the property was purchased from the heirs of the conquistador by Diego de Silva y Guzmán and his wife Teresa Orgoñez, who donated it to the Jesuits after their arrival to the city in 1571. In the year 1650, the main church was devastated by the earthquake.

This allowed the builders to undertake, a more ambitious reconstruction. Despite the protests of the council, the work continued according to plan, the church was reinaugurated in 1668, it was built by the Flemish Jesuit and architect, Jean-Baptiste Gilles, the works on the façade were directed by Diego Martínez de Oviedo, Oviedo is likely to follow the plan provided by Gilles. The main facade is a classic example of the Baroque style; the Jesuit college in Cusco was dedicated the Transfiguration of Christ, the high altar features a painting of the Transfiguration attributed to the Jesuit Diego de la Puente. The most notable piece of art in the church is a painting depicting the wedding of Martín García de Loyola, the nephew of Ignatius Loyola with Beatriz, the great-niece of the Inca ruler Tupac Amaru. In the church, there are paintings and sculptures by Diego de la Puente, Marcos Zapata, Cristo de Burgos; the portal, a "altarpiece" type, presents towers of medium height and its stone walls have been worked.

Its towers appear divided into two sections, leaving the lower one free of all decoration, while the upper part has two "balconies" with projecting ledges. At the start of the bell towers, a large flown cornice joins the towers to the front, curving in a trilobed form on the top of it; the tall body of the towers has a square plan, its portholes, the octagonal dome and the pinnacles, define the typical profile of the Cusco bell towers. Similar sumptuousness is seen in the carved tribunes and the rest of the altarpieces, some of which belonged to the defunct Templo de San Agustín; the collection of sculptures and paintings within are noteworthy. The church exhibits, under the choir of the main altar, works of art by Marcos Zapata and his assistant Cipriano Gutiérrez. On both sides of the main gate of the main altar, around the alabaster windows, there are two canvases that represent the life of St. Ignatius of Loyola: in one he is healing the sick and in the other he is victorious over the heretics and schismatics of the Reformation.

The interior hosts two paintings of great historical value. The first, located on the northern wall, is The Wedding of Martín García Oñas de Loyola with Doña Ñusta Beatriz Clara Qoya, which depicts the union of this Spanish captain, nephew of St. Ignatius of Loyola and apprehender of the last Incas of Túpac Amaru, the ñusta of Inca lineage, daughter of Sayri Túpac and therefore niece of Túpac Amaru; this noble indigenous woman, Beatriz Clara, was heiress of the Lordship of Yucay. Their mestiza daughter, ñusta Lorenza de Loyola Qoya, was the first Marquiss of Santiago de Oropesa, the nobiliary title that granted claim to all the properties of the Yucay Valley and the surrounding Oropesa, with the power to rule them with complete independence of the local authorities; this daughter married son of St. Francis Borgia. On the canvas are Túpac Amaru and Sayri Túpac, like the princess, wear native clothes; the second painting is on the south wall and represents the wedding of Beltrán García de Loyola with Teresa Idiáquez, daughter of Juan Idiáquez and Magdalena de Loyola.

The chapel of San Ignacio de Loyola is located to the south, adjacent to, the central location of the modern-day National University of Saint Anthony the Abbot in Cuzco. That building served the Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, part of the University of the Transfiguration, created by Pope Gregory XV in 1621. After the Jesuits were expelled in 1767, the site served as the army barracks and prison of José Gabriel Condorcanqui. At the end of the 19th century it housed the Society of Artisans; the chapel is small and austere, with a single nave built in stone, has a more sober portal than that of the main church. It is an exhibition hall. Next to their church, the Jesuits built their own university: the University of San Ignacio de Loyola, now the premises of the National University of Saint Anthony the Abbot. Paradoxically, the two institutions were major rivals at the end of the 17th century; the stone façade dates from that time. Its composition, like an altarpiece, is adorned with a profuse padding and with blind, purely decorative windows.

Its wide hall, crowned by a dome, is unique in Cusco. The inner cloister, which contains an austere stone arcade, served as a model for others in the city, it houses the Museum of Natural Scienc