Ulagansky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the ten in the Altai Republic, Russia. It is located in the east of the republic; the area of the district is 18,367 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ulagan; as of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 11,388, with the population of Ulagan accounting for 28.3% of that number. The district is located in a mountainous area, away from major roads. A large part of the district along the mountainous eastern border is in the Altai Nature Reserve; the district was established on October 1923 within Oirot Autonomous Oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Ulagansky District is one of the ten in the Altai Republic; as a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Ulagansky Municipal District. Both administrative and municipal districts are divided into the same seven rural settlements, comprising thirteen rural localities; the selo of Ulagan serves as the administrative center of both the administrative and municipal district.
Государственное Собрание —Эл Курултай Республики Алтай. Закон №101-РЗ от 10 ноября 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Алтай», в ред. Закона №51-РЗ от 6 октября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Алтай "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Алтай"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: Приложение к газете "Звезда Алтая", 14 ноября 2008 г.. Государственное Собрание —Эл Курултай Республики Алтай. Закон №10-РЗ от 13 января 2005 г. «Об образовании муниципальных образований, наделении соответствующим статусом и установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №12-РЗ от 31 марта 2015 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований на территории Майминского района Республики Алтай и о внесении изменений в Закон Республики Алтай "Об образовании муниципальных образований, наделении соответствующим статусом и установлении их границ"». Опубликован: "Звезда Алтая", №7–8, №23–24, 18 января 2005 г. 5 февраля 2005 г..
Исполнительный комитет Алтайского краевого Совета народных депутатов. Архивный отдел. Государственный архив Алтайского края. "Справочник административно-территориальных изменений на Алтае, 1917–1980". Барнаул, Алтайское книжное издательство, 1987
Chulyshman River is a river in Altai Republic in Russia. The river is 241 kilometres long, its drainage basin covers 16,800 square kilometres; the Chulyshman flows into Lake Teletskoye. It freezes up during late October through early December and stays icebound until late March through early May, its main tributary is the Bashkaus River
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century; the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to 36 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest. Worldwide, Siberia is well known for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C, as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, exile.
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land". Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, an ethnic group which spoke a Paleosiberian language; the Sirtya people were assimilated into the Siberian Tatars. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims; the Polish historian Chyliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north", but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian, he suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with Turkic origin, "su" and "bir". The region has paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or in permafrost. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago, – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the Denisovans. In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species. Siberia was inhabited by different groups of nomads such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians and the Uyghurs; the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century.
Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons."The growing power of Russia in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area; the Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara and Tobolsk were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator, in a map published in 1595, marks Sibier both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe, an indigenous Tungusic people, offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals; some suggest. By the mid-17th century, Russia had established areas of control; some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709.
Siberia was a destination for sending exiles. The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916, it linked Siberia more to the industrialising Russia of Nicholas II. Around seven million people moved to Siberia from European Russia between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. Siberia has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in central Siberia in the Tunguska Event. Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a comet. Though no crater has been found, the landscape in the area still bears the scars of this event. In the early decades of the Soviet Union (
The Ob River Ob', is a major river in western Siberia, is the world's seventh-longest river. It forms at the confluence of the Biya and Katun Rivers which have their origins in the Altay Mountains, it is the westernmost of the three great Siberian rivers. The Gulf of Ob is the world's longest estuary; the internationally known name of the river is based on the Russian name Обь. From Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hā́p-, "river, water". Katz proposes Komi ob'river' as the immediate source of derivation for the Russian name. Katz's proposal of a common Finno-Ugric root, loaned early on from a pre-Indo-Iranian source related to Sanskrit ambhas-'water' is deemed improbable by Rédei, who prefers to analyze this as a loan from a descendant of the non-nasal root form *Hā́p-; the Ob is known to the Khanty people as the As, Yag and Yema. The Ob forms 25 km southwest of Biysk in Altai Krai at the confluence of the Katun rivers. Both these streams have their origin in the Altay Mountains, the Biya issuing from Lake Teletskoye, the Katun, 700 kilometres long, bursting out of a glacier on Mount Byelukha.
The Ob's entire main course is within Russia, though its tributaries extend into Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The river splits into more than one arm after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. From the source of the Irtysh to the mouth of the Ob, the river flow is the longest in Russia at 4,248 kilometers. Other noteworthy tributaries are: from the east, the Tom, Ket and Vakh rivers; the Ob zigzags west and north until it reaches 55° N, where it curves round to the northwest, again north, wheeling eastwards into the Gulf of Ob, a 1,000-kilometre-long bay of the Kara Sea, separating the Yamal Peninsula from the Gydan Peninsula. The combined Ob-Irtysh system, the fourth-longest river system of Asia, is 5,410 kilometres long, the area of its basin 2,990,000 square kilometres; the river basin of the Ob consists of steppe, swamps and semi-desert topography. The floodplains of the Ob are characterized by many lakes; the Ob is ice-bound at southern Barnaul from early in November to near the end of April, at northern Salekhard, 150 km above its mouth, from the end of October to the beginning of June.
The Ob River crosses several climatic zones. The upper Ob valley, in the south, grows grapes and watermelons, whereas the lower reaches of the Ob are Arctic tundra; the most comfortable climate for the rest on the Ob are Biysk and Novosibirsk. The Ob provides irrigation, drinking water, hydroelectric energy, fishing. There are several hydroelectric power plants along the Ob river, the largest being Novosibirskaya GES rated at 460 MW; the navigable waters within the Ob basin reach a total length of 15,000 km. The importance of navigation in the Ob basin for transportation was great before the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, despite the general south-to-north direction of the flow of Ob and most of its tributaries, the width of the Ob basin provided for transportation in the east-west direction as well; until the early 20th century, a important western river-port was Tyumen, located on the Tura River, a tributary of the Tobol. Reached by an extension of the Ekaterinburg-Perm railway in 1885, thus obtaining a rail link to the Kama and Volga rivers in the heart of Russia, Tyumen became an important railhead for some years until the railway extended further east.
In the eastern reaches of the Ob basin, Tomsk on the Tom River functioned as an important terminus. Tyumen had its first steamboat in 1836, steamboats have navigated the middle reaches of the Ob since 1845; the first steamboat on the Ob, Nikita Myasnikov's Osnova, was launched in 1844. Steamboats started operating on the Yenisei on the Lena and Amur in the 1870s. In 1916 there were 49 steamers on the Ob. In an attempt to extend the Ob navigable system further, a system of canals, utilizing the Ket River, 900 km long in all, was built in the late 19th-century to connect the Ob with the Yenisei, but soon abandoned as being uncompetitive with the railway; the Trans-Siberian Railway, once completed, provided for more direct, year-round transportation in the east-west direction. But the Ob river-system still remained important for connecting the huge expanses of Tyumen Oblast and Tomsk Oblast with the major cities along the Trans-Siberian route, such as Novosibirsk or Omsk. In the second half of the 20th century, construction of rail links to Labytnangi and the oil and gas cities of Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk provided more railheads, but did not diminish the importance of the waterways for reaching places still not served by the rail.
A dam built near Novosibirsk in 1956 created the then-largest artificial lake in Siberia, called Novosibirsk Reservoir. From the 1960s through 1980s, Soviet engineers and administrators contempl
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The Altai Republic is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the West Siberia region of Asian Russia, is part of the Siberian Federal District; the Altai Republic covers an area of 92,600 square kilometers and has a population of 206,168, the least-populous republic of Russia and federal subject in Siberia. Gorno-Altaysk is the largest town of the Altai Republic; the Altai Republic is one of Russia's ethnic republics representing the indigenous Altay people, a Turkic ethnic group that form 35% of the Republic's population, while ethnic Russians form a majority at 57%, with minority populations of Kazakhs, other Central Asian ethnicities, Germans. The official languages of the Altai Republic are the Altay language; the Xiongnu Empire governed the territory of the modern Altai Republic. The southern part of the Altai Republic came under the Naiman Khanate; the territory of the modern Altai Republic has been ruled by the Mongolic Xianbei state, Rouran Khaganate, Mongol Empire, Golden Horde, Zunghar Khanate and Qing Empire.
The Qing period is a semi-autonomous period with the supervision of two Altan Nuur Uriankhai Governor Banners and part of the seven Altai Uriankhai banners. During the Qing administration, the General of Siberia Fedor Ivanovich Soimonov launched a non-military expedition into the Altan Nuur region in 1760 and began fort building, subsequently removed by Heseri Jalafungga of Qing. Since the 1820s, the routine border check was less frequent and the Chuy drainage basin has been occupied by Russians. Since the annexation of the entire Altan Nuur Uriankhai into Russia in 1864-1867, the Altaians no longer enjoyed autonomy until June 1, 1922, with the creation of Oyrot Autonomous Oblast, part of Altai Krai. During the Russian Civil War, the Confederated Republic of Altai was established, declared as the first step to rebuilding Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire, but it never became a competing force in the Russian Civil War, stayed neutral from 1917 until January 1920, when it was annexed back into Russia.
The original name for this region was Bazla. On January 7, 1948, it was renamed Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast. In 1991 it was reorganized into the Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1992 it was renamed as the Altai Republic; the Altai Republic is situated in the Altai Mountains in the center of Asia at the junction of the Siberian taiga, the steppes of Kazakhstan and the semi-deserts of Mongolia. Forests cover about 25% of the republic's territory. Area: 92,600 km2 Borders: internal: Kemerovo Oblast, Republic of Khakassia, Tuva Republic, Altai Krai. international: Mongolia and Kazakhstan Highest point: Mount Belukha Maximum N->S distance: 360 km Maximum E->W distance: 380 km More than 20,000 tributaries sprawl throughout the mountainous Republic, making for a total of more than 60,000 kilometers worth of waterways. The republic's largest rivers are the Katun and the Biya, both of which originate in the mountains and flow northwards; the junction of the two rivers forms the Ob River, one of the longest rivers in Siberia, which flows northward to the Arctic Ocean.
The source of the black Biya River is Lake Teletskoye, the region's largest lake located in an isolated area far south in the mountains. The emerald-colored Katun River has its source at the Gebler glacier, situated on the Republic's highest point, Mount Belukha; the Katun River, in particular, holds a religious significance for native Altaians, as well as for many Russians who live in the area, as Mount Belukha is known in Altai folklore to be the gateway to the mystical kingdom of Shambhala. The hydrographic network of the Republic includes 7,000 lakes, adding up to a total area of more than 700 km2; the largest lake is Lake Teletskoye, 80 km long and 5 kilometers wide, has an area of 230.8 square kilometers, has a maximum depth of 325 meters. The mountain lakes of Altai contain enormous freshwater reserves of a pure quality as a result of their distance from civilization. Lake Teletskoye alone contains more than 40 cubic kilometers of clear water. Potential groundwater storage is evaluated at 22 million m³ per day, while the present use constitutes about 44,000 m³ per day.
The most striking geographical aspect of the Republic of Altai is its mountainous terrain. The Republic is situated within the Russian part of the Altai Mountains system, which covers a large part of the Republic and continues into neighboring Kazakhstan and China; the region continues to experience periodic notable seismic activity, visually made apparent through the mountains' characteristically high and rugged mountain ridges, separated by narrow and deep river valleys. The Republic's highest peak, Mount Belukha, is the highest point in Siberia. Various bodies of water are among the most important natural resources of the Republic. Mineral and hot springs are popular destinations for tourists and locals, sought for their therapeutic effects. Additionally, Altai glaciers contain a great amount of fresh water; the general volume of ice for registered Altai glaciers comes to a total of 57 km³, 52 km³ of, water. The total water stock of the glaciers exceeds the average annual effluence of all Altai riv
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly