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Bashni known as column draughts, multi-level checkers, rarer Chinese checkers, is a variation of draughts, known in Russia since the XIX century. The game is played according to the basic rules of Russian draughts, with the main difference being that draughts being jumped over are not removed from the playing field but are instead placed under the jumping piece; the resulting towers move across the board as one piece. When a tower is jumped over, only the upper draught is removed from it. If, as a result of the combat, the top draught changes colour, ownership of the tower passes on to the opposing player. Based on Bashni, but according to the basic rules of English draughts, world chess champion Emanuel Lasker developed the draughts game "Laska" and, in 1911, published its description. Lasker described towers that can only be "double-layered": i.e. there can be no alternation of colors. He showed that during the game the number of game pieces either remains constant or decreases. Column draughts are a subject of interest for the mathematical Sciences: combinatorics, theory of paired zero-sum games, etc.

It is believed, the first description of column draughts was presented in the article "Towers or tours" of the "Collection of games for family and school" compiled by Valerian Alexandrovich Viskovatov, published in 1875 in St. Petersburg. A famous theorist and historian draughts Davyd I. Sargin. Being the editor of the chess and draughts sections in many Russian Newspapers reprinted the article and published its own research pole pieces. One of the most complete descriptions of column draughts is given in his fundamental work "the Antiquity of the games of checkers and chess", published in Moscow in 1915. A significant role in the dissemination column draughts belongs to enthusiasts of the Leningrad production Association "Krasnaya Zarya" headed by researcher table games, teacher of adult education and the promoter of Aleksandr G. Borovikov. A. G. Borovikov for many years, co-editor of the magazine "Koster" in which he led the column "on the checkered Board" and told a fascinating story not only about the varieties of column draughts, but other Board games.

Yuri Pavlovich Filatov, one of the first initiators of the go-movement in the USSR valued column draughts and promoted them. Wonderful style game shows columnar checkers grandmaster N. In. Abatsiev Board. Bashni is played on an 8 × 8 board with alternating light squares; the left down square field should be dark. Starting position; each player starts with 12 pieces on the three rows closest to their own side. The row closest to each player is called the "crownhead" or "kings row"; the colors of the pieces are black and white, but possible use other colors. The player with white pieces moves first. Pieces. There are two kinds of pieces: "men" and "kings". Both kinds of pieces may be column. Kings are differentiated as consisting of two normal pieces of the same color, stacked one on top of the other or by inverted pieces. Men. Men move forward diagonally to an adjacent unoccupied square. Kings. If a player's piece moves into the kings row on the opposing player's side of the board, that piece is "crowned", becoming a "king".

The piece now has the ability to move both diagonal backwards and forwards to an adjacent unoccupied square. Capture. If the adjacent square contains an opponent's piece, the square beyond it is vacant, the opponent's piece may be captured and placed under the piece that jumped over it and create a column. Jumping can be done backward. Multiple-jump moves are possible if, when the jumping piece lands, there is another piece that can be jumped. Jumping can not be passed up to make a non-jumping move; when there is more than one way for a player to jump, one may choose which sequence to make, not the sequence that will result in the most amount of captures. However, one must make all the captures in that sequence. If the column make jump over opponent column only upper piece removed from the opponent column. If a man touches the kings row during a capture and can continue a capture, it jumps backwards as a king; the player can choose. Column. Move as man if upper piece is man and move as a king if upper piece is a king.

If a man′s column touches the kings row only upper piece become king. Winning. A player with no valid move remaining loses; this is the case if the player either has no free pieces left or if a player's pieces are obstructed from making a legal move by the pieces of the opponent. Draw; the game is considered a draw when the same position repeats itself for the third time, with the same player having the move each time. If one player proposes a draw and his opponent accepts the offer. If quantity of pieces and their composition after 15 moves don't change. Games and positions are recorded using a special notation – algebraic notation; the vertical columns of squares are labeled from a to h. The horizontal rows of squares are numbered 1 to 8 starting from White's side of the board, thus each square of the board has a unique identification of file letter followed by rank number. Move from e3 to d4 are recorded as e3-d4. Move with capture are recorded as c5:e3.1. C3-b4 b6-c5 2. B4-a5 a7-b6 3. B2-c3 c5-b4 4.

A3:c5:a7 c7-b6 5. A5:c7:e5 f6:d4:b2 6. A1:c3 d8-c7 For record a position with column Men are recorded as «О», King as «1». Captured opponent's piece are recorded under note «/». For example: White: с1 - 1/0000, d6 – 000000, f4 – 0000. First official

Townships in Montgomeryshire

Townships in Montgomeryshire are divisions of the ancient parishes of the county of Montgomery. In 1539 townships were grouped together in Hundreds; the Townships which were recognised were based on the older Welsh divisions of Tref, or plural Trefi, which had formed the Welsh administrative districts of the Commote. Not all of the former Tref were recognised and some smaller trefi were amalgamated into larger townships. A township was allocated to a particular parish, but townships were recognised as administrative districts, rather than the parishes; the Townships have been mapped by Murray Chapman. The Townships were grouped into Hundreds, this formed the basis for the Montgomeryshire Court of Great Sessions; the Court met for the first time in 1541, established the civil and criminal administration of the new County of Montgomeryshire and arranged for the election of the Member of Parliament for Montgomeryshire. A Mr Sulyard was appointed as surveyor to define the new counties and agree the new townships.

The number of Trefi were reduced and many were grouped together. An example is the township named Ffin in Kerry. In the large township of Rhandir in Llandyssil parish, the trefi of Coed-wig and Cefn-y-coed were all merged. Many names of Trefi were lost, but some are noted in Melville Richards study of administrative units; the exact extent of many townships can be recovered from many of the Enclosure Awards, but for some Montgomeryshire parishes such as Llangynog the information appears to be missing. Townships have been studied in Wales and the Marches by Dorothy Sylvester, she has shown that in Montgomeryshire and North West Wales Parishes were larger in the Medieval period and would contain many townships, while in Southern and Western Wales, parishes would be smaller and the extent of the Township will coincide with that of the parish. Sylvester notes that in 1811 there were 53 parishes in Montgomeryshire, with an average size of 15.8 square miles, making them larger than most parishes in other Welsh counties.

There were about 239 townships, with an average of 4.5 per parish. Some Montgomeryshire township were within ecclesiastical parishes; this is the case along the Montgomeryshire Shroshire border and Sylvester’s figures may have to be modified. The pattern of local government for Montgomeryshire based on the Township and the Court of Great Sessions survived until 1830, when the Court of Great Sessions was abolished while the Assises and Quarter Sessions remained; the responsibilities of Townships further declined with the establishment of the Poor Law Unions in 1834, which were organised on a parish basis. Townships in Montgomeryshire disappeared as a recognised administrative unit with the establishment of the Montgomeryshire County Council in 1886 and the Rural District Councils in 1894; as the pattern of administration evolved in Elizabethan and times, the Welsh Township was expected to have its own Court House, to provide a pinfold and butts for archery. They were responsible for Vagabonds and Paupers.

Two Parish Constables were appointed each year for the administration of Justice. The maintenance of roads and bridges was a responsibility of the Township, but this was reduced in 1819, when Thomas Penson was appointed as the first County Surveyor for Montgomeryshire; the Militia in the earlier period would be raised by the Hundred with the townships contributing. The Court House would be the main residence in the Township and the occupier of the house was to be a Justice of the Peace. With the establishment of the National Census in 1801, the population counts were on a township rather than parish basis. Montgomeryshire was split into 10 Hundreds, but Clun Hundred was removed by an Act of Parliament in 1546 and included in Shropshire; the following Hundreds were established in 1541 Llanfyllin Deuddwr Welshpool Caus Montgomery Newtown Mathrafal Machynlleth Chapman, Murray Ll. The Creation of the County of Montgomery, Montgomeryshire Collections, Vol. 100, 127-148. Chapman, Murray Ll; the Creation of the County of Montgomery, in The Montgomeryshire Historical Atlas, Jenkins D.

The Montgomeryshire Historical Atlas, The Powyland Club, Welshpool. Glyn Parry, Guide to the Court of Great Sessions, National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. Richards M Welsh Territorial Units. University of Wales Press, UWP, 1969. Sylvester D; the Rural Landscape of the Welsh Borderland: A Study in Historical Geography, London Parishes by Diocese in Montgomeryshire with their respective Townships. 57 Parishes in total-some Montgomeryshire Townships may be part of parishes in other counties such as Shropshire Llangurig:- Carn-Coed, Cefn yr Hafodau, Glan-y-nant, Glyngynwydd, Uwchcoed, Llan-iwaered. Llanidloes:- Llanidloes Trefeglwys:- Bodaeoch, Esgeiredd, Maestregymer, Carno:- Derlwyn, Trawsgoed. Llanwnog:- Caersws, Esgob, Uwchlaw’r-coed, Wig. Penstrowed:- Penstowed. Llandinam:- Carnedd, Esgair-maen, Gwern-eirin, Maesmawr, Trewyddan, Tre’r’-llan. Hyssington Snead Lydham:-? Aston Mainstone:-Castlewright. Churchstoke:- Bacheldre, Hopton Isaf, Hopton Uchaf, Mellington, Weston Madog. Montgomery; as a Borough, Montgomery was not counted as a township.

Forden:-Ackley and Hett, Cilcewydd. Edderton, Hem Magna and Parva, Munlyn, Thornbury/Gaer, Woodlustan/Pen-y-llan, Wropton/Nantcribba. Worthen:- Leighton, Rhos Goch, Trelystan. Talybont/Buttington:-Buttington, Trewern. Llanfihangel- yng-Ngheinton/Alberbury:-Bausley, Criggion

Lynn Flewelling

Lynn Flewelling is an American fantasy fiction author. Born at Presque Isle, Flewelling grew up in northern Maine, United States, has since lived on both coasts and traveled around the world, all experiences that are reflected in her writing, she has worked as a teacher, a house painter, a necropsy technician, a free-lance editor and journalist. She has been married to Douglas Flewelling since 1981, has two sons, she lives in Redlands, where she continues to write, offers lectures and creative writing workshops at the University of Redlands. Flewelling is a convert to Thiền Buddhism, having taken her vows with Engaged Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh, is a practitioner of Buddhist meditation. Flewelling's writings promote feminism and LGBT causes, having said in relation to these topics, "I’ve always believed that people are people, it’s wrong to discriminate against them just because of what gender or group they fall into." Her first Nightrunner novel, Luck in the Shadows, was a Locus Magazine Editor's Pick for Best First Novel and a finalist for the Compton Crook Award.

Her novels Traitor's Moon and Hidden Warrior were both finalists for the Spectrum Award. Her novels are published in 13 countries, in 2005, the first volume of the Japanese-language version of Luck in the Shadows was published. Flewelling is accessible to readers through her web site, her Live Journal blog, her Yahoo! group, numerous guest appearances at conventions including Comic-Con and Smith College's ConBust. Her work has been praised by other fantasy authors, including George R. R. Martin, Orson Scott Card, Elizabeth Hand, Robin Hobb, Katherine Kurtz. Independent film company Csquared Pictures has acquired film rights to the first three books in the Nightrunner series, but they have not yet started production. Flewelling has cited a number of authors as being major influences on her work, including Ray Bradbury, William Faulkner, T. S. Eliot, Stephen King, Joyce Carol Oates, William Shakespeare, Ernest Hemingway, Mary Renault, Anne Rice, Arthur Conan Doyle, has expressed her admiration for works by additional authors, including Isaac Asimov, William Kotzwinkle, Ellen Kushner, C. S. Lewis, Toni Morrison, Shirley Jackson, E. B.

White, J. M. Barrie, Michael Moorcock. Flewelling's work has promoted LGBT themes as well as topics related to gender; the protagonists of the Nightrunner books are both bisexual, Flewelling has stated their creation was in response to the near-absence of LGBT characters in the genre and marginalization of existing ones. The Tamir Triad, combining elements of psychological drama with ghost story horror, features a protagonist who transforms from one sex and gender to the other. Flewelling's works have drawn academic attention in relation to these themes. Luck in the Shadows. Bantam Spectra. 1996. ISBN 0-553-57542-2. Stalking Darkness. Bantam Spectra. 1997. ISBN 0-553-57543-0. Traitor's Moon. Bantam Spectra. 1999. ISBN 0-553-57725-5. Shadows Return. Bantam Spectra. 2008. ISBN 0-553-59008-1; the White Road. Bantam Spectra. 2010. ISBN 0-553-59009-X. Casket of Souls. Bantam Spectra. 2012. ISBN 0-345-52230-3. Shards of Time. Del Rey. 2014. ISBN 0-345-52231-1; the Bone Doll's Twin. Bantam Spectra. 2001. ISBN 0-00-711307-2. Hidden Warrior.

Bantam Spectra. 2003. ISBN 0-00-711310-2. Oracle's Queen. Bantam Spectra. 2006. ISBN 0-00-711312-9. "Letter To Alexi" Prisoners of the Night, 1995 "Raven's Cut" Assassin Fantastic anthology, Martin Greenberg and Alex Potter, ed. DAW books. "The Complete Nobody's Guide to Query Letters" Speculations, 1999, reprinted on SFWA website and in The Writer's Guide to Queries and Proposals by Moira Allen, Allsworth Press "Perfection" Elemental: The Tsunami Relief Anthology: Stories of Science Fiction and Fantasy, Steven Savile and Alethea Kontis, ed, TOR Books, 2006. Glimpses: A Collection of Nightrunner Short Stories. Three Crow Press. 2010. ISBN 1-453-62491-0. Lynn Flewelling's Official Web Site Lynn Flewelling Blog on LiveJournal Lynn Flewelling's Yahoo! group Lynn Flewelling at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Lynn Flewelling Blog on WordPress

Poplar Rural District

The Poplar Rural District is a nationally recognized historic district located north of Jacksonville, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. At the time of its nomination the district consisted of 55 resources, including 29 contributing buildings, one contributing site, five contributing structures, one contributing object, 15 non-contributing buildings, four non-contributing structures; the 36 contributing resources include three houses, 12 barns, 14 outbuildings, which are all included as buildings. The three corn cribs and the two granaries/corn cribs are the structures. A concrete post fence line is the object, the landscape of the district is the site, they are all associated with the largest rural settlement of Danish immigrants in the United States. The farmsteads are located along the hillsides; the latter appear to be somewhat linked to the ethnic heritage of the Danish immigrants who tended to locate their farmsteads on sheltered hillsides. The period of significance starts with the construction of the original Jackson #1 schoolhouse in 1884, concludes with the construction of the second Jackson #1 schoolhouse in 1923

El Sendero Luminoso

El Sendero Luminoso is the name of a rock climb at El Potrero Chico, Nuevo León, Mexico. A bigwall sport-route, El Sendero Luminoso rises over 1500 ft up the impressive front side of El Toro, it is one of the harder long routes in the area — 11 of its 15 pitches clock in at 5.12. The route was established by Jeff Jackson, Kurt Smith and Pete Peacock and is graded 5.12+ V. On January 15, 2014, Alex Honnold became the first person to free-solo the route, he did so in a little over three hours. On November 27, 2019, the American rock climber Brad Gobright fell 300 meters to his death while descending from the route with his climbing partner, Aidan Jacobson who fell between 20 and 30 meters and survived

History of bipolar disorder

Cyclical variations in moods and energy levels have been recorded at least as far back as several thousand years. The words "melancholia" and "mania" have their etymologies in Ancient Greek; the word melancholia is derived from melas/μελας, meaning "black", chole/χολη, meaning "bile" or "gall", indicative of the term’s origins in pre-Hippocratic humoral theories. A man known as Aretaeus of Cappadocia has the first records of analyzing the symptoms of depression and mania in the 1st century of Greece. There is documentation that explains how bath salts were used to calm those with manic symptoms and help those who are dealing with depression. Today, lithium is used as a treatment to bipolar disorder, significant because lithium could have been an ingredient in the Greek bath salt. Centuries passed and little was studied or discovered, it wasn't until the mid-19th century that a French psychiatrist by the name of Jean-Pierre Falret wrote an article describing "circular insanity" and this is believed to be the first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

Years in the early 1900s, Emil Kraepelin, a German psychiatrist, analyzed the influence of biology on mental disorders, including bipolar disorder. His studies are still used as the basis of classification of mental disorders today; the linguistic origins of mania, are not so clear-cut. Several etymologies are proposed by the Roman physician Caelius Aurelianus, including the Greek word ""ania", meaning to produce great mental anguish, "manos", meaning relaxed or loose, which would contextually approximate to an excessive relaxing of the mind or soul. There are at least five other candidates, part of the confusion surrounding the exact etymology of the word mania is its varied usage in the pre-Hippocratic poetry and mythologies; the idea of a relationship between mania and melancholia can be traced back to at least the 2nd century AD. Soranus of Ephesus described melancholia as distinct diseases with separate etiologies; the earliest written descriptions of a relationship between mania and melancholia are attributed to Aretaeus of Cappadocia.

Aretaeus was an eclectic medical philosopher who lived in Alexandria somewhere between 30 and 150 AD. Aretaeus is recognized as having authored most of the surviving texts referring to a unified concept of manic-depressive illness, viewing both melancholia and mania as having a common origin in "black bile". A clear understanding of bipolar disorder as a mental illness was recognized by early Chinese authors; the encyclopedist Gao Lian describes the malady in his Eight Treatises on the Nurturing of Life. The basis of the current conceptualisation of manic-depressive illness can be traced back to the 1850s. Two weeks on February 14, 1854, Jean-Pierre Falret presented a description to the Academy on what was the same disorder, designated folie circulaire by him; the two bitterly disputed as to, the first to conceptualise the condition. These concepts were developed by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, using Kahlbaum's concept of cyclothymia and studied the natural course of untreated bipolar patients.

He coined the term manic depressive psychosis, after noting that periods of acute illness, manic or depressive, were punctuated by symptom-free intervals where the patient was able to function normally. The first diagnostic distinction to be made between manic-depression involving psychotic states, that which does not involve psychosis, came from Carl Gustav Jung in 1903. Jung's distinction is today referred to in the DSM-IV as that between'bipolar I' and'bipolar II'. In his paper Jung introduced the non-psychotic version of the illness with the introductory statement, "I would like to publish a number of cases whose peculiarity consists in chronic hypomanic behaviour" where "it is not a question of real mania at all but of a hypomanic state which cannot be regarded as psychotic". Jung illustrated the non-psychotic variation with 5 case histories, each involving hypomanic behaviour, occasional bouts of depression, mixed mood states, which involved personal and interpersonal upheaval for each patient.

After World War II, John Cade, an Australian psychiatrist, was investigating the effects of various compounds on veteran patients with manic depressive psychosis. In 1949, Cade discovered that lithium carbonate could be used as a successful treatment of manic depressive psychosis; because there was a fear that table salt substitutes could lead to toxicity or death, Cade's findings did not lead to treatments. In the 1950s, U. S. hospitals began experimenting with lithium on their patients. By the mid-60s, reports started appearing in the medical literature regarding lithium's effectiveness; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration did not approve of lithium's use until 1970; the term "manic-depressive reaction" appeared in the first American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic Manual in 1952, influenced by the legacy of Adolf Meyer who had introduced the paradigm illness as a reaction of biogenetic factors to psychological and social influences. Subclassification of bipolar disorder was first proposed by German psychiatrist Karl Leonhard in 1957.