The News Leader
The News Leader is a daily newspaper owned by Gannett Company and serving Staunton and the surrounding areas. It was founded in 1904 by Brig. Gen. Hierome L. Opie as The Evening Leader. While it traces its founding to Opie in 1904, the paper had a predecessor, The Daily News, founded in 1890. Opie worked as a reporter for The Daily News, a morning paper, before starting The Evening Leader. In 1919, Opie bought The Daily News and combined it with The Morning Leader, a paper that he had started to compete directly with The News; the combined paper was called The Staunton News-Leader. When the papers were combined, the new edition adopted the volume number of The Daily News and so the current edition's volume number goes back further than the 1904 founding date. In the 1960s, the Opie family combined The Staunton News-Leader with The Evening Leader, Staunton was left with only one daily newspaper, The Daily News Leader. "Daily" was dropped from the name in 2002. The Opies sold the paper in 1979 to Multimedia Inc., purchased by Gannett Co. in 1995.
The newspaper launched its online edition in 2001. The News Leader Official mobile website
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
A boomtown is a community that undergoes sudden and rapid population and economic growth, or, started from scratch. The growth is attributed to the nearby discovery of a precious resource such as gold, silver, or oil, although the term can be applied to communities growing rapidly for different reasons, such as a proximity to a major metropolitan area, huge construction project, or attractive climate. Early boomtowns, such as Leeds and Manchester, experienced a dramatic surge in population and economic activity during the Industrial Revolution at the turn of the 19th century. In pre-industrial England these towns had been relative backwaters, compared to the more important market towns of Bristol and York, but they soon became major urban and industrial centres. Although these boomtowns did not directly owe their sudden growth to the discovery of a local natural resource, the factories were set up there to take advantage of the excellent Midlands infrastructure and the availability of large seams of cheap coal for fuel.
In the mid-19th century, boomtowns based on natural resources began to proliferate as companies and individuals discovered new mining prospects across the world. The California Gold Rush of the Western United States stimulated numerous boomtowns in that period, as settlements seemed to spring up overnight in the river valleys and deserts around what was thought to be valuable gold mining country. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, boomtowns called mill towns would arise due to sudden expansions in the timber industry. Modern-day examples of resource-generated boomtowns include Fort McMurray in Canada, as extraction of nearby oilsands requires a vast number of workers, Johannesburg in South Africa, based on the gold and diamond trade. Boomtowns are characterized as "overnight expansions" in both population and money, as people stream into the community for mining prospects, high-paying jobs, attractive amenities or climate, or other opportunities. Newcomers are drawn by high salaries or the prospect of "striking it rich" in mining.
Boomtowns are the site of both economic prosperity and social disruption, as the local culture and infrastructure, if any, struggles to accommodate the waves of new residents. General problems associated with this fast growth can include: doctor shortages, inadequate medical and/or educational facilities, housing shortages, sewage disposal problems, a lack of recreational activities for new residents; the University of Denver separates problems associated with a mining-specific boomtown into three categories: deteriorating quality of life, as growth in basic industry outruns the local service sector’s ability to provide housing, health services and retail declining industrial productivity in mining because of labor turnover, labor shortages, declining productivity an underserving by the local service sector in goods and services because capital investment in this sector does not build up adequatelyThe initial increasing population in Perth, Australia gave rise to overcrowding of residential accommodation as well as squatter populations.
"The real future of Perth is not in Perth’s hands but in Melbourne and London where Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton run their organizations", indicating that some boomtowns’ growth and sustainability are controlled by an outside entity. Boomtowns are extremely dependent on the single activity or resource, causing the boom, when the resources are depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust", boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; this can take place on a planned basis. Since the late 20th century, mining companies have developed temporary communities to service a mine-site, building all the accommodation shops and services, using prefabricated housing or other buildings, making dormitories out of shipping containers, removed all such structures as the resource was worked out. Ararat Ballarat Bathurst Bendigo Brisbane Broken Hill Castlemaine Charters Towers Gold Coast Kalgoorlie Melbourne Altamira, Pará Balsas, Maranhão Brasília, Federal District, development of capital Goiânia, Goiás Laranjal do Jari, Amapá Luís Eduardo Magalhães, Bahia Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais Palmas, Tocantins Parauapebas, Pará Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso Serra Pelada District, Curionópolis, Pará Sinop, Mato Grosso Sorriso, Mato Grosso Tucuruí, Pará São Paulo, São Paulo Calgary, Alberta Dawson City, Yukon Edmonton, Alberta Elliot Lake, Ontario Estevan, Saskatchewan Faro, Yukon Fisherville, British Columbia Barkerville, British Columbia Fort McMurray, oil Greater Sudbury, Ontario Kirkland Lake, Ontario Sept-Îles, a city in the Côte-Nord region of eastern Québec, Canada Sydney, Nova Scotia Yellowknife, Northwest Territory Aberdeen, North Sea oil boom, known as the "oil capital of Europe" B
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The News Virginian
The News Virginian is a newspaper owned by Berkshire Hathaway. The paper serves residents in the cities of Waynesboro and Staunton, Virginia, as well as Augusta and Nelson Counties; the News Virginian
Augusta County, Virginia
Augusta County is a county located in the Shenandoah Valley on the western edge of the U. S. commonwealth of Virginia. It is the second-largest county in Virginia by total area, it surrounds the independent cities of Staunton and Waynesboro; the county seat of Augusta is Staunton, although most of the administrative services have offices in neighboring Verona. The county was created in 1738 from part of Orange County, was named after Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, it was a huge area, but many parts of Augusta County were carved out to form other counties and several states, until the current border was finalized in 1790. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 73,750, which represented an increase of more than 34 percent over the 1990 figure. Along with Staunton and Waynesboro, it forms the Staunton–Waynesboro, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Augusta County was formed in 1738 from Orange County, because few people lived there, the county government was not organized until 1745, it was named for Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales and mother of the future King George III of the United Kingdom.
Augusta County was a vast territory with an indefinite western boundary. Most of what is now West Virginia as well as the whole of Kentucky were formed from it, it claimed the territory north and west of those areas, theoretically all the way to the Pacific Ocean. A series of maps show the formation and division of Augusta County from 1738 through 1791. Reductions in its extent began in 1770. In 1776 part of western Augusta County, an area known as the District of West Augusta, became Monongalia County, Ohio County, Yohogania County. In 1778 the portion of Augusta County west of the Ohio River became Illinois County. In 1788 the northern part of the county was combined with part of Hardy County to become Pendleton County. Augusta County assumed its present dimensions in 1790, when its western part was combined with parts of Botetourt County and Greenbrier County to form Bath County. During the Civil War, Augusta County served as an important agricultural center as part of the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy."
The Virginia Central Railroad ran through the county, linking the Shenandoah Valley to the Confederate capital at Richmond. One of the bloodiest engagements fought in the Shenandoah Valley took place on June 5, 1864 at the Battle of Piedmont, a Union victory that allowed the Union Army to occupy Staunton and destroy many of the facilities that supported the Confederate war effort. Augusta County suffered again during General Philip H. Sheridan's "Burning," which destroyed many farms and killed all of the farm animals. Staunton, the county seat for many years, was incorporated as a city in 1871 and separated from Augusta County in 1902. However, it remained the county seat. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 971 square miles, of which 967 square miles is land and 3.9 square miles is water. It second-largest by total area. Staunton Waynesboro Pendleton County, West Virginia Rockingham County Albemarle County Nelson County Rockbridge County Bath County Highland County The county is divided into seven magisterial districts: Beverley Manor, Middle River, North River, Riverheads, South River, Wayne.
The county is serviced by Augusta County Public Schools. Blue Ridge Parkway George Washington National Forest Shenandoah National Park Natural Chimneys As of the Census of 2000, there were 65,615 people, 24,818 households, 18,911 families residing in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 26,738 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.02% White, 3.60% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 24,818 households of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.70% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.80% were non-families. 20.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 26.80% from 45 to 64, 12.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,045, the median income for a family was $48,579. Males had a median income of $31,577 versus $24,233 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,744. About 4.20% of families and 5.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.40% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2010 US Census data, below are the populations of the two towns and select unincorporated communities within Augusta County: The majority of Grottoes is located in Rockingham County. Only seven of the town's 2,668 residents reside in Augusta County. Beverley Manor district: Terry L. Kelley, Jr.
Middle River di
Speculation is the purchase of an asset with the hope that it will become more valuable in the near future. In finance, speculation is the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable financial instrument—rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, dividends, or interest. Many speculators pay little attention to the fundamental value of a security and instead focus purely on price movements. Speculation can in principle involve any tradable financial instrument. Speculators are common in the markets for stocks, commodity futures, fine art, real estate, derivatives. Speculators play one of four primary roles in financial markets, along with hedgers, who engage in transactions to offset some other pre-existing risk, arbitrageurs who seek to profit from situations where fungible instruments trade at different prices in different market segments, investors who seek profit through long-term ownership of an instrument's underlying attributes.
With the appearance of the stock ticker machine in 1867, which removed the need for traders to be physically present on the floor of a stock exchange, stock speculation underwent a dramatic expansion through the end of the 1920s. The number of shareholders increased from 4.4 million in 1900 to 26 million in 1932. The view of what distinguishes investment from speculation and speculation from excessive speculation varies among pundits and academics; some sources note that speculation is a higher risk form of investment. Others define speculation more narrowly; the U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission defines a speculator as "a trader who does not hedge, but who trades with the objective of achieving profits through the successful anticipation of price movements." The agency emphasizes that speculators serve important market functions, but defines excessive speculation as harmful to the proper functioning of futures markets. According to Benjamin Graham in The Intelligent Investor, the prototypical defensive investor is "...one interested chiefly in safety plus freedom from bother."
He admits, that "...some speculation is necessary and unavoidable, for in many common-stock situations, there are substantial possibilities of both profit and loss, the risks therein must be assumed by someone." Thus, many long-term investors those who buy and hold for decades, may be classified as speculators, excepting only the rare few who are motivated by income or safety of principal and not selling at a profit. Speculation is condemned on ethical-moral grounds as creating money from money and thereby promoting the vices of avarice and gambling. There is opinion that it serves no purposes from a human and economic perspective Nicholas Kaldor has long recognized the price-stabilizing role of speculators, who tend to out "price-fluctuations due to changes in the conditions of demand or supply," by possessing "better than average foresight." This view was echoed by the speculator Victor Niederhoffer, in "The Speculator as Hero", who describes the benefits of speculation: Let's consider some of the principles that explain the causes of shortages and surpluses and the role of speculators.
When a harvest is too small to satisfy consumption at its normal rate, speculators come in, hoping to profit from the scarcity by buying. Their purchases raise the price, thereby checking consumption so that the smaller supply will last longer. Producers encouraged by the high price further lessen the shortage by growing or importing to reduce the shortage. On the other side, when the price is higher than the speculators think the facts warrant, they sell; this reduces prices, helping to reduce the surplus. Another service provided by speculators to a market is that by risking their own capital in the hope of profit, they add liquidity to the market and make it easier or possible for others to offset risk, including those who may be classified as hedgers and arbitrageurs. If any market, such as pork bellies, had no speculators, only producers and consumers would participate. With fewer players in the market, there would be a larger spread between the current bid and ask price of pork bellies.
Any new entrant in the market who wanted to trade pork bellies would be forced to accept this illiquid market and might trade at market prices with large bid-ask spreads or face difficulty finding a co-party to buy or sell to. By contrast, a commodity speculator may profit the difference in the spread and, in competition with other speculators, reduce the spread; some schools of thought argue that speculators increase the liquidity in a market, therefore promote an efficient market. This efficiency is difficult to achieve without speculators. Speculators take information and speculate on how it affects prices and consumers, who may want to hedge their risks, needing counterparties if they could find each other without markets it would happen as it would be cheaper. A beneficial by-product of speculation for the economy is price discovery. On the other hand, as more speculators participate in a market, underlying real demand and supply can diminish compared to trading volume, prices may become distorted.
Speculators perform a risk bearing role. For example, a farmer might be considering planting corn on some unused farmland. However, he might not want to do so because he is concerned that the price might fall too far by harvest time. By selling his cro