The Basic Laws of Sweden are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries. These are the Instrument of Government, the Freedom of the Press Act, the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression and the Act of Succession. Together, they constitute a basic framework that stands above other laws and regulation, define which agreements are themselves above normal Swedish law, but subordinate to the fundamental laws, namely the European Convention on Human Rights and several UN and EU treaties and conventions; the Parliament Act in considered to be halfway between a fundamental law and a normal law, with certain main chapters afforded similar protections as the fundamental laws while other additional chapters require only a simple parliamentary majority. To amend or to revise a fundamental law, the Riksdag needs to approve the changes twice in two successive terms with qualified majorities, with a general election having been held in between.
The first vote can be replaced with a referendum. The most important of the fundamental laws is the Instrument of Government, it sets out the basic principles for political life in Sweden defining freedoms. The 1974 Instrument of Government grants the power to commission a prime minister to the Riksdag, at the nomination of the Speaker of the Riksdag, who following a vote in the Riksdag signs the letter of commission on behalf of the Riksdag; the prime minister is appointed when the majority of the Riksdag does not vote against the nominee, thus making it possible to form minority governments. The prime minister appoints members including heads of ministries; the government collectively decides on issues after hearing the report of the head of the ministry concerned. At least five members of the government need to be present for a decisional quorum to be made. In practice, reports are written and discussions rare during formal cabinet meetings. Constitutional functions for the head of state, i.e. the monarch, include heading the cabinet councils, heading the Council on Foreign Affairs, recognizing new cabinets, opening the annual session of the Riksdag.
The monarch is to be continuously briefed on governmental issues—in the Council of State or directly by the prime minister. The first constitutional Instrument of Government was enacted in 1719, marking the transition from autocracy to parliamentarism. Sweden's bloodless coup d'état of 1772 was legitimized by the Riksdag of the Estates in new versions of the Instrument of Government, Swedish Constitution of 1772 and the Union and Security Act from 1789, making the king a "constitutional autocrat"; when the ancient Swedish land in 1809 was split into two parts, the Grand Duchy of Finland was created as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire, this constitutional autocracy was well fitted for Finland and remained in force until Finland's independence in 1917. In Sweden, the loss of half the realm led to another bloodless revolution, a new royal dynasty, the Instrument of Government of 6 June 1809; the new Instrument of Government established a separation of powers between the executive branch and the legislative branch and gave the king and the Riksdag of the Estates joint power over legislation, with the king still playing a central role in government but no longer independently of the Privy Council.
The king was free to choose councillors, but was bound to decide on governmental matters only in presence of the Privy Council, or a subset thereof, after report of the councillor responsible for the matter in question. The councillor had to countersign a royal decision, unless it was unconstitutional, whereby it gained legal force; the councillor was responsible for his advice and was obliged to note his dissension in case he did not agree with the king's decision. This constitution put a considerable de jure power in the king, but, followed the councillors' advice. From 1917, the king adhered to principles of parliamentarism by choosing councillors possessing direct or indirect support from a majority of the Riksdag. After over fifty years of de facto parliamentarism, it was written into the Instrument of Government of 1974, although technically adherent to constitutional monarchy, created the Government of Sweden in its present constitutional form. In 2009, the Riksdag approved Proposition 2009/10:80, "A Reformed Constitution", making substantial amendments to the Instrument of Government, related acts.
The amendment modernized and simplified the text in general, strengthened several fundamental rights and freedoms. Protection against unfair discrimination was extended to include discrimination based on sexual orientation; the amendment affirmed the responsibility of public authorities to protect children's rights, to promote the preservation and development of ethnic minorities' culture and language, making special mention of the Sami people. It strengthens judicial powers to make it easier to determine whether new laws contravene the constitution or the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union; these amendments took effect on 1 January 2011. The other two acts define other forms of expression, they are separated into two separate laws to maintain the tradition of the Freedom of the Press Act
This is the discography of Glenn Hughes English rock bassist and vocalist, best known for playing bass and performing vocals for funk rock pioneers Trapeze and the Mk. III and IV line-ups of Deep Purple, as well as fronting Black Sabbath in the mid-1980s. In addition to being an active session musician, Hughes maintains a notable solo career. 1975 Deep Purple Rises Over Japan - re-issued on DVD "Phoenix Rising" in 2011 1977 The Butterfly Ball 1981 Deep Purple - California Jam - re-issued in 2006 on DVD 1989 The Ultimate Tommy Bolin Documentary 1991 Deep Purple - Heavy Metal Pioneers 1992 The Black Sabbath Story Vol. 2 1995 Rock Family Trees, ep.'Deep Purple' 2005 Burn - The Ultimate Critical Review 2005 Heavy: The Story of Metal, ep.'Looks That Kill' 2008 Guitar Gods - Ritchie Blackmore 2008 Deep Purple - In Their Own Words 2009 A Shot of Whisky 2011 Deep Purple - Phoenix Rising 2011 Metal Evolution 2013 Behind The Music Remastered, ep. Deep Purple 1982 I Got Your Number 1982 The Look In Your Eye 1986 No Stranger To Love 1987 City of Crime - from the "Dragnet" movie 1992 America 1994 Pickin' Up The Pieces 1994 Why Don't You Stay 1995 Save Me Tonight 2000 Days Of Avalon 2005 Soul Mover 2006 Black Light 2006 The Divine 2006 This House 2007 Monkey Man 2008 Love Communion 2009 Gumball 2011 Man In The Middle Discography at Glenn Hughes official website
The International Migration Institute is a research institute, part of Oxford University in the United Kingdom. It is affiliated with the Oxford Department of International Development; the International Migration Institute was founded in 2006 to complement the work of the Centre on Migration and Society and the Refugee Studies Centre, both at the University of Oxford. Stephen Castles, director of the Refugee Studies Centre, assumed directorship of IMI upon its formation, stepped down in August 2009. From September 2009 to September 2011, Robin Cohen was the director. Since directorship has been jointly in the hands of Oliver Blackwell and Hein de Haas. IMI is a member of the Migration Studies Society at Oxford University; the other two members of the society are the Centre on Migration and Society and the Refugee Studies Centre. IMI is a collaborator to the International Organization for Migration, it is listed as a partner for the migration program of the Social Science Research Council. Experts from the International Migration Institute have been cited and quoted in the New York Times and BBC News.
The Royal and Pontifical Major University of Saint Francis Xavier of Chuquisaca is a public university in Sucre, Bolivia. It is one of the oldest universities of the new world, ranking as the second oldest university in the Americas behind Peru's National University of San Marcos. On many historical texts it is referred as the University of Charcas. Founded in 1624 by order of the Spanish King Philip IV, with the support of Pope Innocent XII, the university was intended to provide an education in Law and Theology to the families and descendants of the wealthy gentry of South America. At the turn of the 19th century and its university came to constitute a center of revolutionary zeal in Bolivia; the university intellectually sustained the well-cultivated Francophile elite whose ideals led to the Bolivian War of Independence and to the independence of all the Spanish colonies. Once Republic was proclaimed by Simón Bolívar, the university became the main university of the new country; until the first decades of the 20th century, its law faculty remained famous all across South America.
Sheikha Alia Humaid Al Qassimi is an Emirati surgeon with a specialism in gynaecology and reconstructive surgery. She was the first Emirati to become a senior member of the European Society of Aesthetic Surgery, has since sat on its scientific committee. Qassimi has worked internationally to bring developments in her field to the United Arab Emirates, was named Inspirational Woman of the Year at the Arab Woman Awards in 2016; as a child, Alia Humaid Al Qassimi suffered from asthma, was inspired by her doctors to pursue a career in as a medical professional. She pursued a specialism in gynaecology, becoming the first Emirati surgeon to gain senior membership in the European Society of Aesthetic Surgery, she said that part of her role was the travel in Europe to learn new techniques, bring them back to the United Arab Emirates to teach others there. As part of this overseas collaborative work, she attended the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland at its Dubai campus, graduating in 2008 with a Master's degree in Healthcare Management.
Qassimi was part of the Women Leadership Exchange Programme, an effort between the UAE government and Lund University in Sweden to share knowledge, which she graduated in 2013. Qassimi sits on the board of the non-government organisation, Women for Sustainable Growth, which seeks to expand the sharing of knowledge between the Middle East and Scandinavia for the benefit of women, she is employed as the Chief Executive of the Social Care and Development sector of the Dubai Government, leads two taskforces in the Dubai disability strategy for 2020 as part of her role as a subject matter expert for the Community Development Authority. In 2017, she was appointed to the scientific committee for the European Society of Aesthetic Surgery's world conference in Madrid, Spain. In 2016, she was named the Inspirational Woman of the Year at the Arab Woman Awards, she said that the awards would inspire her to further her work, adding "The UAE provided us with help and support and that increases our determination to be its ambassadors and inspire generations in the future."
The following year, she won the Woman Leader Award at the Global Women's Leaders Conference in the Community Development Excellence category, on the 19th occasion of the conference as it was held in Dubai. Qassimi is married and has five children
Highlands is a town in Orange County, New York, United States. Known as the Town of Highlands, it is located on the eastern border of the county; the population was 12,492 at the 2010 census. The West Point CDP, including the United States Military Academy, is located alongside the Hudson River here, the military reservation occupies a large part of the town; the town was first settled around 1725 by a patentee for this territory. During the American Revolution, colonial forces constructed Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton to obstruct enemy progress on the river; the Town of Highlands was created from the Town of Cornwall in 1872, making it one of the last towns formed in the county. Highlands is located at 41 ° 21 ′ 36 ″ N its elevation is 1,017 feet. According to the 2010 United States Census, the town has a total area of 33.47 square miles, of which 30.41 square miles is land and 3.06 square miles is water. Part of the south town line is the border of New York; the east town line is the border of New York, marked by the Hudson River.
US-9W and NY-218 are important north-south highways. NY-293 intersects them west of the military academy; as of the census of 2000, there were 12,484 people, 3,230 households, 2,322 families residing in the town. The population density was 404.0 people per square mile. There were 3,418 housing units at an average density of 110.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 75.18% White, 13.16% African American, 0.49% Native American, 2.68% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 2.27% from other races, 3.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.71% of the population. There were 3,230 households out of which 43.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.32. The age distribution is 22.8% under the age of 18, 32.1% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 12.2% from 45 to 64, 6.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 147.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 162.2 males. These statistics are consistent with the presence of the West Point military base in general, the Academy in particular; the median income for a household in the town was $52,816, the median income for a family was $59,345. Males had a median income of $23,491 versus $27,406 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,830. About 2.8% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over. Bear Mountain State Park – Part of the state park is on the south border of the town. Crows Nest – An elevated location near the north town line. Fort Montgomery – A hamlet on the bank of the Hudson River. Gees Point – A projection into the Hudson River by West Point village. Highland Falls – The Village of Highland Falls in the eastern part of the town on the Hudson River. Palisades Interstate Park – Part of the park is by the south town line.