United States Department of the Air Force
The Department of the Air Force is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18, 1947, per the National Security Act of 1947 and it includes all elements and units of the United States Air Force; the Department of the Air Force is headed by the Secretary of the Air Force, a civilian, who has the authority to conduct all of its affairs, subject to the authority and control of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force's principal deputy is the Under Secretary of the Air Force, their senior staff assistants in the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force are four Assistant Secretaries for Acquisition, Financial Management & Comptroller, Environment & Logistics, Manpower & Reserve Affairs and a General Counsel. The highest-ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, the senior uniformed adviser to the Secretary, represents the Air Force on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, heads the Air Staff and is assisted in the latter capacity by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force.
By direction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Air Force assigns Air Force units – apart from those units performing duties enumerated in 10 U. S. C. § 8013 -- to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands. Only the Secretary of Defense has the authority to approve transfer of forces between Combatant Commands. See Structure of the United States armed forces According to the FY2019_Budget_Request_Overview_Book | 8-12, the Department of Defense claims the Department of the Air Force is as follows *$ in Millions Numbers May Not Add Due to Rounding On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. In addition, the proposal would create an Undersecretary of the Air Force for the Space Force to provide civilian oversight, as well as providing the Space Force with a distinct budget. Organizational structure and hierarchy of the United States Air Force Department of the Air Force Police Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations Air Force Cross Department of the Air Force Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service Witt v. Department of the Air Force "Airman Magazine: The Book 2010 – Personnel Facts and Figures".
Airman Magazine, Volume 54 Number 3. Official site Department of the Air Force in the Federal Register
Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal
The Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Marine Corps. It was established on 8 May 1919 as the Marine Corps Expeditionary Ribbon. A full-sized medal was authorized on 1 March 1921 by Presidential Order of Warren G. Harding; the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is therefore one of the oldest medals of the United States military, still issued to active duty personnel. To be awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, a Marine must have engaged in a landing on foreign territory, participated in combat operations against an opposing force, or participated in a designated operation for which no other service medal is authorized. After 1961, some commands permitted eligible personnel to choose between the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, or the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, depending on the nature of the operation in question; the medal was designed by Walker Hancock and features a 1920s-era Marine in full combat gear, advancing with one foot in the water and one foot on land, bayonet at the ready, with the word "Expeditions".
On the reverse of both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, in the center of the bronze medallion an eagle is shown alight upon an anchor. The eagle is grasping sprigs of laurel. Above the eagle are the words UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS or UNITED STATES NAVY presented as an arch. Above the laurel are the words FOR SERVICE presented horizontally; the eagle is the American bald eagle and represents the United States, the anchor alludes to Marine Corps or Navy service, the laurel is symbolic of victory and achievement. Subsequent awards of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal were denoted by award numerals. After 1921, multiple awards were denoted by bronze service stars; the Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for navy personnel who were on duty with and attached to a Marine Corps unit that participated in combat. The Wake Island Device is authorized for any personnel who were awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal as part of the defense of Wake Island during the opening days of World War II.
Under the "deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded" clause, both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been awarded for classified operations with proper adjudication by the Secretary of the Navy Special Awards Board. The MCEM and NEM "can be authorized and awarded to individuals or units who have participated in classified operations not in connection with larger operations in which the public is aware.” The SECNAV INSTRUCTION 1650.1H - NAVY AND MARINE CORPS AWARDS MANUAL details the process via the Special Awards Board for issuing classified awards. Anecdotal reports from former service members cite a wide variety of classified operations for which the MCEM and NEM have been awarded, ranging from Marine Corps units clandestinely deployed in Africa, to helicopter gun-crews or force protection units assisting SEAL-DEVGRU or DeltaForce teams worldwide, classified submarine movements during the Cold War. In cases where the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal or Navy Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for classified operations, the name of the operation is omitted from public documentation including from the individual service member’s DD214 personnel record with only the name of the award and issue date provided.
Both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been fraudulently worn by military service members convicted under the UCMJ and civilians fraudulently claiming to have been awarded the MCEM or NEM along with other medals such as the Purple Heart. It has been reported that L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology, fraudulently claimed being awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal. Awards and decorations of the United States military
Naval Station Great Lakes
Naval Station Great Lakes is the home of the United States Navy's only boot camp, located near North Chicago, in Lake County, Illinois. Important tenant commands include the Recruit Training Command, Training Support Center and Navy Recruiting District Chicago. Naval Station Great Lakes is the largest military installation in Illinois and the largest training station in the Navy; the base has 1,153 buildings situated on 1,628 acres and has 69 miles of roadway to provide access to the base's facilities. Within the naval service, it has several different nicknames, including "The Quarterdeck of the Navy", or the more derogatory "Great Mistakes"; the original 39 buildings built between 1905 and 1911 were designed by Jarvis Hunt. The base is like a small city, with its own Fire Department, Naval Security Forces, Public Works Department. One of the landmarks of the area is Building 1 known as the clocktower building. Completed in 1911, the building is made of red brick, has a tower over the third floor of the building.
The large parade ground in front of the administration building is named Ross Field. In 1996, RTC Great Lakes became the Navy's only basic training facility; the Base Realignment and Closure Commission of 1993 resulted in the closure of Naval Training Center San Diego and Naval Training Center Orlando, their associated Recruit Training Commands, the consolidation of US Navy enlisted recruit training to Great Lakes. 40,000 recruits pass through Recruit Training Command annually with an estimated 7,000 recruits on board the installation at any time. RTC Great Lakes has been active for over 100 years. TSC Great Lakes is the Navy's premier technical training command, it has an annual throughput of 16,000 sailors a year. TSC supports the following six learning sites: Center for Surface Combat Systems Surface Warfare Officers School Command Unit Center for EOD and Dive Center for Naval Leadership Center for Personal Development Center for Service Support The following rating training class A-schools are located at Naval Station Great Lakes: Electrician's Mate Electronics Technician Fire Controlman Gunner's Mate Interior Communications Electrician Boatswain's Mate Operations Specialist Hull Maintenance Technician Damage Controlman Engineman Gas Turbine System Technician Gas Turbine System Technician Machinery Repairman Quartermaster Machinist Mate Culinary Specialist A-school was taught at TSC Great Lakes until December 10, 2010, when the school graduated its final class.
The course has been consolidated with the US Army's parallel program and relocated to Fort Lee, Virginia. Hospital Corpsman "A" School has been moved out of Great Lakes; the last class graduated on July 27, 2011. Its last class was Class 11-125; the school has relocated to the Medical Education and Training Campus at Fort Sam Houston, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas. This change has merged Air Force and Navy Medical staff to a centralized location. In addition, all Navy rates that require basic electrical knowledge and troubleshooting training complete Apprentice Technical Training school; this includes the Mineman and Sonar Technician rates, as well as some aviation rates prior to detachment to their respective school locations in San Diego, CA and Pensacola, Florida. Boatswain's Mates complete Surface Common Core Basic Maintenance Training and engineering rates complete Basic Engineering Common Core Great Lakes was approved in 1904 by Theodore Roosevelt. Construction was supervised by Navy Captain Albert R. Ross.
Chicago-area architect Jarvis Hunt designed the original 39 buildings and Lt. George A. McKay was the civil engineer for the construction on the 172 acres wilderness location. $3.5 million was appropriated to finance construction. President William Howard Taft dedicated the Naval Training Station in 1911. On 3 July 1911, Joseph Gregg was the first recruit to arrive, he would graduate in the first class of 300. 55 years he was buried at the Naval Station Cemetery 5 July 1966. John Philip Sousa led the Great Lakes Naval Station Band in the mid- to late 1910s. Great Lakes had a Radio School including two 400 feet towers constructed in 1915. From 1911 to 1916 around 2,000 recruits a year were trained at Great Lakes. At the start of 1917, just prior to the United States entry to World War I, Great Lakes was under the command of Captain William A. Moffett and had 39 permanent brick buildings, over 165 acres, about 1,500 Sailors. At the close of the war, there were 776 buildings, with 1,200 acres and about 45,000 Sailors in training.
125,000 had been trained at Great Lakes during the war. In 1923, Naval Reserve Air Base, Great Lakes was commissioned. Recruit training slowed after the war and halted in 1933. In 1932, Great Lakes had 102 buildings on 507 acres. A harbor was constructed around that time at a cost of $1 million. On 1 July 1933, Great Lakes was placed in a maintenance status, it was reopened 1 July 1935 after lobbying by local businessmen and the Congressional Delegation from Illinois. In 1936, aviation training was moved from Great Lakes to Naval Air Station Glenview. On 9 December 1940, the Class A Service School opened for its first class. On 7 December 1941, Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan, around 6,000 sailors were training at Great Lakes; this grew to 68,000 in six months. The base grew to 1,600 acres in the next 10 months. By mid-1943, there were over 700 instructors at the Class A service scho
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Awards and decorations of the United States Department of the Navy
The Awards and decorations of the United States Department of the Navy are the military awards and decorations which are presented to members of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy. Other military service members may receive specific Navy Department military awards, provided such service members are performing duty under a Navy or Marine Corps command. A Navy or Marine Corps service member may receive medals and decorations of another military branch, if cross assigned to a command of the respective service. All Navy and Marine Corps members are eligible to receive inter-service awards and decorations as well as approved foreign awards and International awards. * = Awarded only to US Navy Personnel ** = Awarded only to US Marine Corps Personnel No star indicates that the decoration is awarded to both services U. S. Navy order of precedence U. S. Navy ribbon checker U. S. Marine Corps ribbon checker
Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are the medals, service ribbons, specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U. S. Armed Forces; such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career. While each service has its own order of precedence, the following general rules apply to all services: U. S. military personal decorations U. S. military unit awards U. S. non-military personal decorations Presidential awards National Medals DoD and JCS Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Superior Service awards Agency-specific Meritorious Service awards Agency-specific Commendation awards Agency-specific Achievement awards Civilian unit awards Civilian service awards U. S. non-military unit awards U. S. military campaign and service medals U. S. military service and training awards U. S. Merchant Marine awards and non-military service awards Foreign military personal decorations Foreign military unit awards Non-U.
S. Service awards Foreign military service awards Marksmanship awards Awards of U. S. military societies and other organizations6a 6b State awards of the National Guard Notes on branch-specific exceptions to the above: 1a In the Army, unit awards are worn as a separate grouping, on the right side of the uniform and without frames, are worn in the order of precedence from the wearer’s right to left. 1b In the Navy, unit award ribbons are only worn on the right side of the uniform, when wearing full medals on the left side. Arrange ribbons in order of precedence in rows from top down, inboard to outboard. For U. S. Navy, the USPHS unit awards are considered unit awards. However, if Navy personnel are awarded USPHS personal decorations the USPHS order of precedence would apply. 2 Some awards, despite being ribbon-only, are higher in precedence. The Navy & Coast Guard Combat Action Ribbons and the Coast Guard's Commandant's Letter of Commendation Ribbon are included with personal decorations, while two Air Force ribbon-only awards and the Coast Guard Enlisted Person of the Year Ribbon are considered in the same category as service medals.
3a Marksmanship Awards in the Air Force are considered training awards. 3b The Army and Marine Corps issue Marksmanship Qualification Badges instead of Marksmanship awards. 4 For Navy, Merchant Marine awards are considered U. S. non-military awards. 5 The obsolete Philippine Commonwealth service awards, when still listed in the order of precedence, come before the United Nations medals or before the Merchant Marine awards. 6a For Navy and ribbons from military societies, such as the Army and Navy Union of the United States, worn in the order earned may be worn after marksmanship awards. Medals and badges issued by these societies may be worn only while attending meetings or conventions or while participating in parades or other ceremonies as a member of these organizations. 6b For Army, no allowance of military society medals or ribbons is prescribed. More badges of the Army and Navy Union of the United States of America are authorized for such active duty ANU members without further restriction.
Badges of other civic and quasi-military societies of the United States, international organizations of a military nature may be worn with restrictions. These include badges of organizations composed of members who served in a U. S. force during the Revolutionary War. The badges are worn only while the wearer is attending meetings or functions of such organizations, or on occasions of ceremony. Personnel will not wear these badges to and from such events. Notes: Precedence of particular awards will vary among the different branches of service. All awards and decorations may be awarded to any service member unless otherwise designated by name or notation. Note: ^ The precedence of the Purple Heart was before the Good Conduct Medals until changed to its current precedence in 1985. Inter-service Air Force Army Coast Guard Navy and Marine CorpsTo denote additional achievements or multiple awards of the same decoration, the United States military maintains a number of award devices which are pinned to service ribbons and medals.
Awards and decorations of the National Guard Awards and decorations of the state defense forces U. S. military personnel having received these awards have either been discharged or retired for a substantial length of time and/or are deceased. The following decorations were designed for issuance with an approved medal, but were either never approved for presentation or were discontinued bef
Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes, Illinois
Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes, is a unit within the United States Navy responsible for conducting the initial orientation and indoctrination of incoming recruits. It is part of Naval Service Training Command, is located at Naval Station Great Lakes, Illinois. RTC Great Lakes is commonly referred to as boot camp and recruit training, or RTC. Since the BRAC-directed closures of Recruit Training Commands in Orlando, Florida in 1994 and San Diego, California in 1993, RTC Great Lakes has been the only enlisted basic training location in the U. S. Navy and has been called "The Quarterdeck of the Navy" since it was first utilized in July 1911. Running at eight weeks long, all enlistees into the U. S. Navy commence their enlistments at this command; some recruits may take longer than eight weeks. Upon successful completion of basic training, qualifying sailors are sent to various apprenticeship, or "A schools", located across the United States for training in their occupational speciality, or ratings.
Those who have not yet received a specific rating enter the fleet with a general designation of airman, fireman, or seaman. Recruit Training Command is located at Naval Station Great Lakes in the city of North Chicago, Illinois in Lake County, north of Chicago, it is a tenant command, meaning that although it is located on the base, it has a separate chain of command. After the Spanish–American War, the U. S. Navy began investigating 37 sites around Lake Michigan in order to locate a new training center in the Midwest, an area that contributed 43 percent of the Navy’s recruits at the time. Illinois Congressional Representative and chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs George Edmund Foss pressed for the decision to locate the center at its present location and was called "The Father of Great Lakes". Foss Park, just north of the base in North Chicago, is named in his honor, it is the facility would have been located elsewhere had it not been for the $175,000 contribution of the Merchants Club of Chicago to purchase the land.
Rear Admiral Albert A. Ross was the station’s first commander and the base's Ross Field and Ross Auditorium were named in his honor; the first flag was planted on site on 1 July 1905. President William H. Taft dedicated the station six years on 28 October 1911. In that same year, the station received Seaman Recruit Joseph W. Gregg. Naval Station Great Lakes was at the forefront of the racial integration of the Navy. African-Americans were permitted to enlist for general service in the middle of 1942 receiving training at Great Lakes as well as Hampton, Virginia, they had been restricted to special duties. The Navy commissioned its first African-American officers known as the "Golden Thirteen", at Great Lakes in February 1944. In July 1987, building 1405, the Golden Thirteen Recruit In-Processing Center, was dedicated in their honor; the surviving eight attended the ceremony. Navy recruit training is now conducted at Naval Station Great Lakes' Recruit Training Command. Prior to the mid-1990s, recruit training facilities included Naval Training Center Orlando and Naval Training Center San Diego.
Female recruit training was limited to the Orlando facility. The Base Realignment and Closure Commission of 1993 resulted in the consolidation of recruit training to Great Lakes. Following the consolidation, the Navy undertook a massive recapitalization program to upgrade the Great Lakes Recruit Training facility; the recap included the construction of Camp John Paul Jones, a 48-acre site on land owned by the Veterans Administration Hospital adjacent to Camp Porter. New barracks were constructed and are referred to as "ships" by the recruits; each "ship" was named after an important ship in naval history, such as USS John F. Kennedy and USS Enterprise; each "ship" can house up to 1,300 recruits during training. A 210-foot Arleigh Burke-class destroyer simulator called USS Trayer was constructed as part of the recap program known as Battle Stations 21; the USS Enterprise Recruit Barracks Building is the eighth of fourteen built as part of a $763 million recapitalization program. The building is named after the eight USS Enterprises that have borne the name, including the two famous aircraft carriers pictured around the building's quarterdeck.
The first is CV-6, a ship of the Yorktown class launched in 1936 and one of only three American carriers commissioned prior to World War II to survive the war. The nautical flags hanging on the quarterdeck of BLDG 7115 are from CV-6; the second is the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Many of the displays on the quarterdeck of USS Enterprise were donated by USS Enterprise; the USS Enterprise has 120,000 square feet of space, enough to accommodate 16 recruit divisions of up to 88 recruits each. This facility integrates berthing, learning resource centers, a galley, a quarterdeck, all under one roof; each "ship" has a ship's officer who fills the role of commanding officer, a ship's leading chief petty officer who fills the role of command master chief, a chaplain. USS Triton Recruit Barracks was dedicated in ceremonies held on 25 June 2004; the facility honors the memory of two submarines named Triton and includes memorabilia from both ships, USS Triton and USS Triton. Triton Hall is the fifth barracks constructed under the RTC Recapitalization Project, covering 172,000 square feet in floor space.
The facility is designed to accommodate 1056 recruits, it includes berthing, learning resource