An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows, Doctorate in Business Administration. The degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitors contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in ones CV as an award, rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford and he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common, universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees, these nominees usually go through several committees before receiving approval. Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation, the dissertation et jure dignitatis is considered to be a full academic degree.
Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are often awarded honoris causa, the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. Usually, the applicant must have some strong connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff. The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees, some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy - see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the way as honorary degrees are awarded by universities. A typical example of university regulations is, Honorary graduates may use the approved post-nominal letters and it is not customary, for recipients of an honorary doctorate to adopt the prefix Dr. In some universities, it is however a matter of preference for an honorary doctor to use the formal title of Doctor. Written communications where an honorary doctorate has been awarded may include the letters h. c. after the award to indicate that status.
In some countries, a person who holds an honorary doctorate may use the title Doctor prenominally, abbreviated Dr. h. c. or Dr. Sometimes, they use Hon before the letters, for example. In recent years, some universities have adopted entirely separate post nominal titles for honorary degrees and this is in part due to the confusion that honorary degrees have caused. It is now common in countries to use certain degrees, such as LLD or HonD. For instance, a doctor of the Auckland University of Technology takes the special title HonD. Some universities, including the Open University grant Doctorates of the University to selected nominees, most American universities award the degrees of LLD, LittD, LHD, ScD, PedD and DD only as honorary degrees
Merton College, Oxford
Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The important feature of Walters foundation was that this college was to be self-governing, the hall and the chapel and the rest of the front quad were complete before the end of the 13th century. Notable alumni and academics past and present include four Nobel Laureates and writer J. R. R. Tolkien who was Merton Professor of English Language, Merton is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford and had a financial endowment of £212.8 million as of July 2014. Merton has a reputation for academic success, having regularly ranked first in the Norrington Table in recent years. Merton College was founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor and it has a claim to be the oldest college in Oxford, although this claim is disputed between Merton College, Balliol College and University College. The substance of Mertons claim is that it was the first college to be provided with statutes, Mertons statutes date back to 1264, whereas neither Balliol nor University College had statutes until the 1280s.
Merton was the first college to be conceived as a community working to achieve academic ends, Merton has an unbroken line of wardens dating back to 1264. Of these, many had great influences over the development of the college, Henry Savile was one notable leader whose vision led the college to flourish in the early 17th century. St Alban Hall was an independent academic hall owned by the convent of Littlemore until it was purchased by Merton College in 1548 following the dissolution of the convent and it continued as a separate institution until it was finally annexed by the college in 1881. During the English Civil War, Merton was the only Oxford college to side with Parliament, the reason for this was Mertons annoyance with the interference of their Visitor William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This included the Kings French wife, Queen Henrietta Maria, who was housed in or near what is now the Queens Room, the room above the arch between Front and Fellows Quads. Differences were quickly settled after the war, and a portrait of Charles I hangs near the Queens Room as a reminder of the role it played in his court.
The college was consolidated on this site by 1274, when Walter made his final revisions to the college statutes, the initial acquisition included the parish church of St John and three houses to the east of the church which now form the north range of Front Quad. Walter obtained permission from the king to extend from these properties south to the old city wall to form a square site. The college continued to other properties as they became available on both sides of Merton Street. At one time, the college owned all the land from the site that is now Christ Church to the eastern corner of the city. The land to the east eventually became the current Fellows garden, by the late 1280s the old church of St John the Baptist had fallen into a ruinous condition, and the college accounts show that work on a new church began in about 1290. The present choir, with its enormous east window, was complete by 1294, the window is an important example of how the strict geometrical conventions of the Early English Period of architecture were beginning to be relaxed at the end of the 13th century
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2015 population of 168,270, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, the city is situated 57 miles from London,69 miles from Bristol,65 miles from both Southampton and Birmingham and 25 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as the city of dreaming spires, a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold, Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a number of information technology and science-based businesses. Oxford was first settled in Saxon times and was known as Oxenaforda, meaning Ford of the Oxen. It began with the establishment of a crossing for oxen around AD900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes, Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066.
Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert DOyly, the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. DOyly set up a community in the castle consisting of a chapel. The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britains oldest places of formal education and it was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place and we have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation, a grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order, and friars of various orders all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century, the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort, these documents are often regarded as Englands first written constitution.
Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events, the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, what put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxfords earliest colleges were University College and Merton and these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain.
Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected
Encaenia is an academic or sometimes ecclesiastical ceremony, usually performed at colleges or universities. It generally occurs some time near the annual ceremony for the conferral of degrees to students. In most British universities, it corresponds to part of Graduation, the most famous Encaenia is the ceremony at the University of Oxford, which usually takes place on the Wednesday of the ninth week of Trinity Term. Preceding the ceremony is a procession of some of the participants to the Sheldonian Theatre, inside which the main event takes place. The Encaenia is depicted in the film Shadowlands and in the Morse episode Twilight of the Gods, and is depicted in the Jeffrey Archer novel, Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less. In the case of Fordham University, the graduates in turn bid farewell in the persons of the valedictorian and, in a humorous yet loving way. Newdigate Prize Media related to Encaenia at Wikimedia Commons
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, copy editing, production and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher.
Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title.
An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
Last Exit to Brooklyn
Last Exit to Brooklyn is a 1964 novel by American author Hubert Selby Jr. The novel has become a classic because of its harsh, uncompromising look at lower class Brooklyn in the 1950s and for its brusque. It was the subject of an important obscenity trial in the United Kingdom and was banned in Italy, last Exit to Brooklyn is divided into six parts that can, more or less, be read separately. Each part is prefaced with a passage from the Bible, Another Day, Another Dollar, A gang of young Brooklyn hoodlums hang around an all-night cafe and get into a vicious fight with a group of US Army soldiers on leave. The Queen Is Dead, Georgette, a sassy transvestite hooker, is out of the family home by her brother. And Baby Makes Three, An alcoholic father tries to keep spirits and maintain his family’s marriage traditions after his daughter becomes pregnant and marries Tommy. Tralala, The title character of an earlier Selby short story, she is a young Brooklyn prostitute who makes a living propositioning sailors in bars, in perhaps the novel’s most notorious scene, she is brutally gang-raped after a night of heavy drinking.
Strike, Harry, a machinist in a factory, becomes an official in the union. A closeted homosexual, he abuses his wife, molests his infant son and he gains a temporary status and importance during a long strike, and uses the unions money to entertain the young street punks and buy the company of drag queens. Landsend, Described as a coda for the book, this presents the intertwined. Last Exit to Brooklyn was written in a style that ignores most conventions of grammar. Selby wrote most of the prose as if it were a story told from one friend to another at a bar rather than a novel, using coarse and he used slang-like conjunctions of words, such as tahell for to hell and yago for you go. The paragraphs were often written in a stream of consciousness style with many parentheses, Selby often indented new paragraphs to the middle or end of the line. Last Exit to Brooklyn started as The Queen is Dead, one of short stories Selby wrote about people he had met around Brooklyn while working as a copywriter.
The piece was published in three magazines in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Tralala appeared in The Provincetown Review in 1961 and drew intense criticism. The pieces evolved into the book, which was published in 1964 by Grove Press. Critics praised and censured the publication, poet Allen Ginsberg said that it will explode like a rusty hellish bombshell over America and still be eagerly read in a hundred years
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest. A percipient witness or eyewitness is one who testifies what they perceived through his or her senses, a hearsay witness is one who testifies what someone else said or wrote. In most court proceedings there are limitations on when hearsay evidence is admissible. Such limitations do not apply to grand jury investigations, many administrative proceedings, some types of statements are not deemed to be hearsay and are not subject to such limitations. An expert witness may or may not be a percipient witness, a reputation witness is one who testifies about the reputation of a person or business entity, when reputation is material to the dispute at issue. Sometimes the testimony is provided in public or in a confidential setting, although informally a witness includes whoever perceived the event, in law, a witness is different from an informant. A confidential informant is someone who claimed to have witnessed an event or have hearsay information, the information from the confidential informant may have been used by a police officer or other official acting as a hearsay witness to obtain a search warrant. A subpoena commands a person to appear and it is used to compel the testimony of a witness in a trial.
Usually, it can be issued by a judge or by the representing the plaintiff or the defendant in a civil trial or by the prosecutor or the defense attorney in a criminal proceeding. In many jurisdictions, it is compulsory to comply, to take an oath, in a court proceeding, a witness may be called by either the prosecution or the defense. The side that calls the witness first asks questions, in what is called direct examination, the opposing side may ask their own questions in what is called cross-examination. In some cases, redirect examination may be used by the side called the witness. Recalling a witness means calling a witness, who has given testimony in a proceeding. Witness are usually permitted to testify to what they experienced first hand. In most cases, they may not testify about something they were told and this restriction does not apply to expert witnesses. Expert witnesses, may only testify in the area of their expertise, Eyewitness testimony is generally presumed to be more reliable than circumstantial evidence.
Studies have shown, that individual, separate witness testimony is often flawed and this can occur because of flaws in Eyewitness identification, or because a witness is lying. One study involved an experiment, in which subjects acted as jurors in a criminal case, jurors heard a description of a robbery-murder, a prosecution argument, and an argument for the defense
The appointment of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. It is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch, Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight, but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of the various orders. There is no counterpart to Knight Bachelor. The lowest knightly honour that can be conferred upon a woman is Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire – which, foreigners are not created Knights Bachelor, instead they are generally made honorary KBEs. It is generally awarded for service, amongst its recipients are all male judges of Her Majestys High Court of Justice in England. Sir Patrick Stewart, and Sir Tom Jones are Officers of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, like other knights, Knights Bachelor are styled Sir. Since they are not knights of any order of chivalry, there is no post-nominal associated with the award. This style is adopted by Knights Bachelor who are peers, baronets or knights of the various statutory orders, such as Sir William Boulton, Bt, Kt, or The Lord Olivier.
Until 1926 Knights Bachelor had no insignia which they could wear, the Knights Bachelor badge may be worn on all such occasions upon the left side of the coat or outer garment of those upon whom the degree of Knight Bachelor has been conferred. In 1974, Queen Elizabeth II issued a warrant authorising the wearing on appropriate occasions of a neck badge, slightly smaller in size. In 1988 a new certificate of authentication, a knights only personal documentation, was designed by the College of Arms. The Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor was founded for the maintenance and consolidation of the Dignity of Knights Bachelor in 1908, the Society keeps records of all Knights Bachelor, in their interest
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books, the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called booksellers, bookwomen, or bookmen, the founding of libraries in 300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, and Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade. The spread of Christianity naturally created a demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books. The modern system of bookselling dates from soon after the introduction of printing, in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries the Low Countries for a time became the chief centre of the bookselling world. Modern book selling has changed dramatically with the advent of the Internet, with major websites such as Amazon, eBay, and other big book distributors offering affiliate programs, book sales have now, more than ever, been put in the hands of the small business owner. Bookstores may be part of a chain, or local independent bookstores.
Stores can range in size offering from several hundred to several hundred thousands of titles and they may be brick-and-mortar stores or internet only stores or a combination of both. Sizes for the larger bookstores exceed half a million titles, bookstores often sell other printed matter besides books, such as newspapers and maps, additional product lines may vary enormously, particularly among independent bookstores. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used, a range of titles are available in used bookstores, including in print and out of print books. Book collectors tend to frequent used book stores, large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet is represented as dictating to Baruch the scribe and these scribes were the earliest booksellers, and supplied copies as they were demanded. Aristotle possessed an extensive library, and Plato is recorded to have paid the large sum of one hundred minae for three small treatises of Philolaus the Pythagorean.
When the Alexandrian library was founded about 300 BC, various expedients were used for the purpose of procuring books, in Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library as part of the household furniture. Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade and their shops were chiefly in the Argiletum, and in the Vicus Sandalarius. On the door, or on the posts, was a list of the books on sale, and Martial. In the time of Augustus the great booksellers were the Sosii, according to Justinian, a law was passed granting to the scribes the ownership of the material written, this may be the beginnings of the modern law of copyright. All references had to be certified by the local mayor, if the application was accepted, the bookseller would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the régime