A minor basilica is a Catholic church building, granted the title of basilica by the Holy See or immemorial custom. Presently, the authorising decree is granted by the Pope through the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. In relation to churches, writers on architecture use the term "basilica" to describe a church built in a particular style; the early Christian purpose-built cathedral basilica of the bishop was in this style, constructed on the model of the semi-public secular basilicas, its growth in size and importance signalled the gradual transfer of civic power into episcopal hands, under way in the 5th century. In the 18th century, the term took on a canonical sense, unrelated to this architectural style. Basilicas in this canonical sense are divided into minor basilicas. Today all in Rome, are classified as major basilicas. Privileges attached to the status of basilica included a certain precedence before other churches, the right of the conopaeum and the bell, which were carried side by side in procession at the head of the clergy on state occasions, the wearing of a cappa magna by the canons or secular members of the collegiate chapter when assisting at the Divine Office.
In the case of major basilicas these umbraculae were made of cloth of gold and red velvet, while those of minor basilicas were of yellow and red silk—the colours traditionally associated with both the Papal See and the city of Rome. These external signs, except that of the cappa magna, are sometimes still seen in basilicas, but the latest regulations of the Holy See on the matter, issued in 1989, make no mention of them; the status of being a basilica now confers only two material privileges: the right to include the papal symbol of the crossed keys on a basilica's banners and seal, the right of the rector of the basilica to wear a distinctive mozzetta over his surplice. The other privileges now granted concern the liturgy of the celebration of the concession of the title of basilica, the granting of a plenary indulgence on certain days to those who pray in the basilica; the document imposes on basilicas the obligation to celebrate the liturgy with special care, requires that a church for which a grant of the title is requested should have been liturgically dedicated to God and be outstanding as a center of active and pastoral liturgy, setting an example for others.
It should be sufficiently large and with an ample sanctuary. It should be renowned for history, relics or sacred images, should be served by a sufficient number of priests and other ministers and by an adequate choir. Many basilicas are notable churches, receive significant pilgrimages. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico set a record with 6.1 million pilgrims in two days for the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe. As of November 15, 2017, there were 1,757 minor basilicas in the world. Of these 1,757 minor basilicas, three have the title of papal minor basilica and four the title of pontifical minor basilica; the three papal minor basilicas are Saint Lawrence outside the Walls and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi and the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, both in Assisi. The four pontifical minor basilicas are the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, the Basilica of the Holy House in Loreto, the Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua, the Shrine of the Virgin of the Rosary of Pompei.
All but the Paduan basilica were for some years jointly under the care of a Cardinalatial Commission for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Bari, suppressed in 1996 to establish the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii and the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of the Holy House of Loreto. All four pontifical minor basilicas now have individual pontifical delegates. For the Bari basilica, a dependency of the Secretariat of State, the pontifical delegate is the local metropolitan archbishop. For the basilicas of Loreto and Pompei, which are within their own territorial prelatures, the pontifical delegate is the local territorial prelate. Only for the Paduan basilica is the pontifical delegate distinct from the local bishop; the remaining 1,750 minor basilicas are all classified as such. In Torre del Greco is the Pontifical Basilica of the Holy Cross, called by that name not only on its own site, which recalls the visits to it of Pope Pius IX in 1849 and Pope John Paul II in 1990, but in the list of the world's minor basilicas, however, calls it a minor basilica.
Another such Italian church, recognized as a minor basilica, but not as a pontifical minor basilica, is the Pontificia Reale Basilica di S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Naples; this name, qualifying it as both royal, is confirmed by several other sources. One pontifical basilica in Spain listed not as a pontifical minor basilica, but as a minor basilica, is the Pontifical Basilica of St. Michael, the ownership of, since 1892 vested in the Apostolic Nunciature to the Kingdom of Spain; the description "pontifical basilica" is sometimes given without canonical justification to some churches that, whether pontifical or not, are not in the list of those with a right to the title of basilica. One in the town of Grumo Nevano in the province of Naples is called on the Italian Wikipedia the Pontifical Basilica of Saint Tammaro the Bishop, a designation confirmed by the inscription "Basilica Pontifica" o
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Thrissur is a revenue district of Kerala situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,032 km2, Thrissur district is home to over 10% of Kerala’s population. Thrissur district is bordered by the districts of Palakkad and Malappuram to the north, the districts of Ernakulam and Idukki to the south; the Arabian Sea lies to the west and Western Ghats stretches towards the east. Thrissur district was formed on July 1949, with the headquarters at Thrissur City. Thrissur is known as the cultural capital of Kerala, the land of Poorams; the district is known for its ancient temples and mosques. Thrissur Pooram is the most colourful temple festival in Kerala; the name Thrissur is derived from'Thiru-Shiva-Perur', which translates to "The city with the name of the Lord Siva". Thrissur was known as "Vrishabhadripuram" and "Then Kailasam" in ancient days. Another interpretation is'Tri-shiva-peroor' or the big land with three Shiva temples, which refers to the three places where Lord Shiva resides – namely Vadakkunnathan temple, Asokeswaram Siva temple and Irattachira Siva temple.
From ancient times, Thrissur District has played a part in the political history of south India. As the whole of Thrissur used to come under the Madras dynasty before independence, there are many Tamil speaking families here. In Kerala and Thrissur are home to many Tamil Brahmins; the early political history of the District is interlinked with that of the Cheras of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala with their capital at Vanchi. The whole of the present Thrissur District was included in the early Chera Empire; the District can claim to have played a part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period. Kodungalloor, which had the distinction of being the "Primum Emporium India", gave shelter to all the three communities which have contributed to the prosperity of Malabar; these three communities are the Jews and the Muslims. The history of Thrissur district from the 9th to the 12th centuries is the history of Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram and the history since the 12th century is the history of the rise and growth of Perumpadappu Swarupam.
In 1790 Raja Rama Varma popularly known as Saktan Tampuran ascended the throne of Cochin. With the accession of this ruler the English or modern period in the history of Cochin and of the District began. Saktan Tampuran was responsible for the destruction of the power of the feudal Nair chieftains and increase of royal power. Another force in the public life of Trichur and its suburbs was the Namboodithiri community and Menons of royal ancestry. A large part of the Trichur Taluk was for long under the domination of the Yogiatiripppads, the ecclesiastical heads of the Vadakkunnathan and Perumanam Devaswoms; the wave of nationalism and political consciousness which swept through the country since the early decades of this century has its repercussions in the District as well. Thrissur District has been in the forefront of the country-wide movement for temple entry and abolition of untouchability; the Guruvayur Satyagraha is a memorable episode in the history of the national movement. According to the 2011 census Thrissur district has a population of 3,110,327 equal to the nation of Mongolia or the US state of Iowa.
This gives it a ranking of 113th in India. The district has a population density of 1,026 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 4.58%. Thrissur has a sex ratio of 1109 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 95.32%. Thrissur was the second highest urbanized district in Kerala after Ernakulam. According to the 2001 India census, Thrissur District had a population of 2,975,440. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Thrissur has a literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 87%, female literacy is 85%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus and Muslims constitute the bulk of the population, with Hindus as the majority, with 59.24% followed by Christians and Muslims. The Hindu community consists of Nairs and Ezhavas. Ambalavasis and Brahmins – including the local Namboodiris and migrants like Iyers and GSBs- form a percentage of the Hindu population; the Scheduled Castes, around 12% of the population of the district form a section among the Hindus of the district.
The Catholics – both Syro Malabar and Latin, Orthodox Jacobites and Chaldeans are the main sections of the Christian Community in the district. Catholics constitute 90% of the Christian population of the district spreading in 3 dioceses namely Thrissur and Kottapuram. Orthodox, Jacobites and Chaldean Syrians constitute the rest. Kunnamkulam, a small town in the northern part of the district is the center for the Orthodox and Marthomites; the Orthodox church has its Thrissur diocese centered at Mannuthy. The Kunnamkulam-Malabar diocese of The Marthoma Syrian Church is centered at Kunnamkulam. Chaldean Syrians spread around Thrissur city with 25,000 followers; the Malabar Independent Syrian Church known as Thozhiyoor church has its own headquarters at Guruvayur with 7000 followers. Muslims live predominantly in the coastal belt of the district, from north Punnayoorkkulam to South Azhikode, they are dominant in Guruvayur and Chavakkad, in good in numbers Kodungalloor and Nattika areas Sunnis are the major section in Muslim community.
Source: Official Statistics 2007 Thrissur is situated in southwestern India (10.52°N 76.21°E / 1
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
Rama Varma Kunhjippilla Thampuran, or Rama Varma IX, popularly known as Sakthan Thampuran, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cochin. He was the King of the present-day southern Indian city of Kochi and his palace was in Thrissur City; the city of Thrissur is referred to as the Cultural Capital of Kerala owing to its many traditional festivals and historic temples. Sakthan Thampuran is considered the architect of the city of Thrissur; the festival Thrissur Pooram is considered to have been first started by him. Born on 26 August, 1751 AD at Vellarapally Palace to Anujan Namboodiripad of the Chennamangalam Mana and Ambika Thampuran of the Cochin Royal Family, his mother died. The prince was brought up by his maternal aunt, famously known as Chittamma Thampuran, his early education took place under the tutelage of scholars such as Kallenkara Pisharody. Sakthan Thampuran was a considered as an powerful Maharaja as his name indicates. Thampuran married twice, his first wife was a Nair lady from the reputed Vadakke Kuruppath family of Thrissur whom he married when he was 30 years old.
He is said to have had a daughter with this first wife. However, this Nethyar Amma died soon after an unhappy marriage. Thereafter the Thampuran remained unmarried for a few decades, marrying again at the age of 52; the second wife of Thampuran was Chummukutty Nethyar Amma of the Karimpatta family and was a musician and dancer of Kaikottikalli, a traditional dance form. She was 17 at the time of her marriage with the Thampuran. Thampuran died after 4 years of the marriage. At the time, widowed Nethyar Ammas did not receive monetary support from the state, so Chummukutty, at the age of 21, returned to her ancestral home. After his 55th birthday, Sakthan Thampuran fell ill and died in on 26 September, 1805, at Thrissur City, he was buried in Thrissur. His palace in Thrissur City is preserved as a monument, he is considered to be responsible for the development of Thrissur City and making it the Cultural Capital of Kerala. In 1762, ten tehsils and two Edavagas were formed in the Kochi Kingdom, but the previous feudal chieftains maintained their stronghold.
After Thampuran ascended the throne of Kingdom of Cochin, he took over the land from the feudal chieftains and consolidated the royal power. At that time, the Vadakkunnathan Temple and Peruvanam Mahadeva Temple were controlled by the Namboodiri community, called Yogiatiripppads; the Yogiatiripppads was elected from different temples in the Thrissur District. Thampuran abolished the system of Yogiatiripppads. Thampuran's strict approach with criminals earned Sakthan. During the British Raj, British authorities had good relations with Thampuran, he was a personal friend of Dharma Raja of Travancore. The modern day town of Thrissur owes its origin to Sakthan Thampuran; the reason for his love of the town was because of the fact. They belonged to the Karimpatta families of Thrissur. Sakthan Thampuran transferred his capital from Thrippunithura to Thrissur to found the city, he cleared the 60-acre teak forests around the Vadakkunnathan Temple and developed the Thekkinkadu Maidan, now at the heart of the city.
After clearing the forest, he built a circular concrete road now known as Swaraj Round. The Thrissur Pooram or "Mother of all Poorams", as it was known, was the brainchild of Sakthan Thampuran. At the time, Arattupuzha Pooram was the largest temple festival in Kerala. Temples in and around the city of Thrissur were regular participants. Once, they were denied entry to Arattupuzha Pooram. All the late participant temples went to Sakthan Thampuran Maharaja of Cochin, complained about the issue. Thampuran invited all the temples to bring their deities to Thrissur and pay obeisance to Lord Shiva, the deity of the Vadakkunnathan Temple. Thampuran classified the participants into the Western and the Eastern; the Western group consisted of the Thiruvambady, Laloor and Nethilakkavu temples while the Paramekkavu, Chembukavu and Panamukkamppilly temples came under the eastern group. Named after Shakthan Thampuran, the palace is spread over 6 acres of Thrissur and was earlier known as Vadakkechira Kovilakam.
It is one of the most historic cultural and architecturally relevant palace of the erstwhile Maharaja of Cochin, which has now been converted into a heritage museum. The palace is now a blend of traditional Kerala and Dutch architectural styles following its 1795 reconstruction. Timeline of Thrissur Thrissur Pooram Thrissur Kerala Perumpadapu Swaroopam Kingdom of Cochin SourcesAithihyamala by Kottarathil Sankunni Cochin State ManualNotes "Sakthan Thampuran's'anonymous' appearance triggers controversy - Times of India"; the Times of India. Retrieved 2019-04-05. Sreekumari Ramachandran. Sakthan Thampuran. Poorna Publications. ISBN 9788130016580
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at