St. Louis is an independent city and major U. S. port in the state of Missouri, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River, on the border with Illinois. Prior to European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture. The city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, in 1764, following Frances defeat in the Seven Years War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase, during the 19th century, St. Louis developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the 1870 Census, St. Louis was ranked as the 4th-largest city in the United States and it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics, the economy of metro St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism.
This city has become known for its growing medical, pharmaceutical. St. Louis has 2 professional sports teams, the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the city is commonly identified with the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in Downtown St. Louis. The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture and their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the Mound City and these mounds were mostly demolished during the citys development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane. The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years War, Pierre Laclède, the early French families built the citys economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe, French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River, before then, Laclede had been a very successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The counterpart term for such a church in German is Dom from Latin domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis, Italian Duomo, Dutch Domkerk, when the church at which an archbishop or metropolitan presides is specifically intended, the term kathedrikos naos is used. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within formerly Protestant lands for converts, consequently, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations. In the Catholic tradition, the term cathedral correctly applies only to a church houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy serves the same function, the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral, usually while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction and this designation applies only as long as the temporary use continues. A co-cathedral is a cathedral in a diocese that has two sees. A proto-cathedral is the cathedral of a transferred see.
The cathedral church of a bishop is called the metropolitan cathedral. The term cathedral actually carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building, most cathedrals are particularly impressive edifices. The building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title Christ Cathedral in 2018, in the ancient world the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishops role as teacher. A raised throne within a hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate. The history of cathedrals starts in the year 313, when the emperor Constantine the Great personally adopted Christianity, in the third century, the phrase ascending the platform, ad pulpitum venire, becomes the standard term for Christian ordination. During the siege of Dura Europos in 256, a complete Christian house church, or domus ecclesiae was entombed in a bank, surviving when excavated. Otherwise the large room had no decoration or distinctive features at all, in 269, soon after Dura fell to the Persian army, a body of clerics assembled a charge sheet against the bishop of Antioch, Paul of Samosata, in the form of an open letter.
Characteristically a Roman magistrate presided from a throne in a large, richly decorated and aisled rectangular hall called a basilica. The earliest of these new basilican cathedrals of which remains are still visible is below the Cathedral of Aquileia on the northern tip of the Adriatic sea. The three halls create a courtyard, in which was originally located a separate baptistery
An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University is a private Roman Catholic four-year research university with campuses in St. Louis, United States and Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 by the Most Reverend Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, It is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River and it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges, SLUs athletic teams compete in NCAAs Division I and are a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference. It has an enrollment of 13,505 students, including 8,687 undergraduate students and 4,818 graduate students, representing all 50 states and its average class size is 23.8 and the student-faculty ratio is 12,1. For nearly 50 years the university has maintained a campus in Madrid, the campus has 675 students, a faculty of 110, an average class size of 15 and a student-faculty ratio of 7,1. Fred Pestello is the President, serving as the 33rd President of SLU since July 1,2014 and its first location was in a private residence located near the Mississippi River in an area now occupied by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial within the Archdiocese of St.
Louis. In 1827 Bishop Dubourg placed Saint Louis College in the care of the Society of Jesus, in 1829 it moved to Washington Avenue and Ninth at the site of todays Americas Center by the Edward Jones Dome. In 1867 after the American Civil War the University purchased Lindells Grove to be the site of its current campus, Lindells Grove was the site of the Civil War Camp Jackson Affair. While the Militia was arrested without violence, angry local citizens rushed to the site, Jackson led a Missouri Confederate government-in-exile, dying of cancer in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1862. The first building on campus, DuBourg Hall, began construction in 1888, St. Francis Xavier College Church moved to its current location with the completion of the lower church in 1884. During the early 1940s, many priests, especially the Jesuits, began to challenge the segregationist policies at the citys Catholic colleges. After the Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, ran a 1944 expose on St. Louis Archbishop John J, by summer of 1944, Saint Louis University had opened its doors to African Americans, after its president, Father Patrick Holloran, secured Glennons reluctant approval.
At the time, board chairman Fr. Paul Reinert, SJ, the board shifted to an 18 to 10 majority of laypeople. From 1985 to 1992 the Chairman of the Board of Trustees was William H. T. Bush, the younger Bush taught classes at the school. Since the move to lay oversight, debate has erupted many times over how much influence the Roman Catholic Church should have on the affairs of the university. The decision by the University to sell its hospital to Tenet Healthcare Corp. in 1997 met much resistance by local and national Church leaders, but went ahead as planned. In 2016 St. Louis University hospital found its present owner, SLUs campus consists of over 235 acres of land and 7.2 million GSF, with 131 buildings on campus. Saint Louis University has four libraries, pius XII Memorial Library is the general academic library
St. Francis Xavier College Church
St. Francis Xavier College Church is a Catholic church in the Midtown neighborhood of St. Louis, United States. The church was founded by the Society of Jesus and serves as a church in the Archdiocese of St. Louis. It is a property in the Midtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. The parish was established in 1836 when St. Louis Bishop Joseph Rosati and it was St. Louis first English-speaking parish. The congregation initially met in the student chapel, which was dedicated to St. Aloysius Gonzaga. The chapel was located on Washington Avenue between Ninth and Tenth Streets, as the parish grew plans for its own building were begun. The cornerstone for the first church was laid on April 12,1840 by Bishop Rosati and it was located at the intersection of Ninth Street and Christy Avenue. While from its beginning the church was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier it has always been called the College Church. Saint Louis University moved to its present location on Grand Boulevard in 1867, Archbishop Peter Richard Kenrick gave permission in 1879 for the College Church to move to the new campus.
Plans for the current church were drawn up by St. Louis architect Thomas Walsh and he had previously designed DuBourg Hall, which served as the only university building for several years. Excavation for the new church began on June 8,1884 and he was assisted by Bishops William H. Gross, C. Ss. R. of Savannah and Joseph Dwenger, C. Pp. S. of Fort Wayne. By the end of the year the church was completed. It served the parish as its church until the church was completed. The upper church was built as finances allowed, the original architect, died before it could be built. Bronsgeest, S. J. the parish pastor, hired Chicago architect Henry Switzer to complete the church, bronsgeest had the upper church modeled after St. Colmans Cathedral in Cobh, Ireland. The church was completed in 1898, with the exception of the spire on top of the tower and it was completed in 1914 and bells were placed in the tower at the same time. The church was listed as a City Landmark in St. Louis in 1976 and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a contributing property in the Midtown Historic District in 1978
Society of Saint Vincent de Paul
The Society of St. Vincent de Paul was founded in 1833. to help impoverished people living in the slums of Paris, France. The primary figure behind the founding was Blessed Frédéric Ozanam, a French lawyer, author. Frédéric collaborated with Emmanuel Bailly, editor of the Tribune Catholique and he was 20 years old when the society was founded and was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1997. Emmanuel Bailly was chosen as the first President, the Society took Saint Vincent de Paul as its patron under the influence of Sister Rosalie Rendu, D. C. Sister Rosalie was a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul and she guided Frédéric and his companions in their approach towards those in need. It was Father Ignatius Spencer who first brought to the attention of Catholics in England, on a number of visits to Paris he had met members of the original conference and had been impressed with their commitment to the poor. In September 1842 he received a visit from Monsieur Baudon who became the Societys President- General in 1847.
Today there are more than 10,000 members in more than 1,000 Conferences in the United Kingdom and it is estimated that this amounts to well over one million hours of voluntary service. The Society’s first Conference in the United States was established in 1845 in St. Louis, Missouri at the Basilica of St. Louis, King of France, popularly called The Old Cathedral. John Timon, CM, at time a Vincentian Provincial of the Seminary, had recently returned from a conference with his congregation superiors in Paris. While there he learned about the St. Vincent de Paul Society and brought copies of the Rule of the Society back from Dublin, Ireland, to St. Louis. On November 16,1845 Bishop Peter Richard Kenrick dedicated the new St. Vincent de Paul church on South Eighth Street, Timon discussed the Society in his sermon. A number of prominent laymen of St. Louis attended the church dedication, the first meeting of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul in the United States was held on November 20,1845 and chaired by Judge Bryan Mullanphy.
Twenty names appear on the list of founding members, dr. Moses Linton was elected President, Bryan Mullanphy, Vice President, and Dennis Galvin, Second Vice President. The president appointed a committee to meet with Bishop Kenrick, who appointed Father Ambrose Heim the groups Spiritual Advisor. Father Gerald Ward was born in London 1806 and arrived in Australia on 7 September 1850 after being recruited to work in the Melbourne mission by the pioneer priest Fr Patrick Geoghegan. Fr Ward became the first president of the St Francis Conference in Melbourne, one of his accomplishments was establishing the St Vincent de Paul orphanage in South Melbourne. The Society was established in Sydney by the engineer and parliamentarian Charles ONeill, Rev Fr Chataigner S. M. established the first conference of New Zealand on 7 July 1876
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis
The Archdiocese of St. Louis is the Roman Catholic archdiocese that covers the City of St. Louis and the Missouri counties of Franklin, Lincoln, Saint Charles, Saint Francois, Ste. Genevieve, St. Louis and Washington and it is the metropolitan see to the suffragan sees of the Diocese of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, the Diocese of Jefferson City, and the Diocese of Kansas City-St. It is currently led by Robert James Carlson, the former Bishop of Saginaw, who was named the Archbishop-elect on April 21,2009, by Pope Benedict XVI, Archbishop Carlson is assisted by Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus Robert Joseph Hermann. His predecessor was Archbishop Raymond Burke until Burkes transfer to the position of Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura on June 27,2008, the archdiocesan cathedral is the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis. The original cathedral and mother church is the Basilica of St. Louis, the Archdiocese is one of two in the world that has both an Archbishop and a Cardinal, as Raymond Burkes See remains St.
Louis, and represents the Archdiocese in the College of Cardinals. The first parish of Saint Louis was established in 1770 and it was incorporated into the Diocese of Louisiana, the diocese originally encompassed the entire Louisiana Purchase, from the Gulf of Mexico to British North America, as well as the Florida peninsula and the Gulf Coast. The date of its establishment makes it the second-oldest diocese in the present-day United States, at the time of its establishment, the territory of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Two Floridas was part of the Archdiocese of San Cristobal de la Habana, based in Havana, Cuba. The diocese was divided into smaller dioceses several times, and many dioceses in the central United States were originally part of the Diocese of Louisiana. The city of Saint Louis was sold to the United States in 1803, the areas first bishop was Louis William Valentine Dubourg, who on September 24,1815, was appointed Bishop of Louisiana and the Two Floridas by Pope Pius VII.
He was the Bishop of the Louisiana Territory from 1815-1826, unlike his predecessor, who set up his see in New Orleans, DuBourg chose to set up his episcopal see in St. Louis. When founded, it included the state of Missouri, the half of Illinois. It was the largest American diocese, equaling in extent all of the nine dioceses. Its first bishop, Joseph Rosati, led the Roman Catholic Churchs expansion of its presence in these areas and he was the Bishop of St. Louis from 1826-1843. On July 28,1837, territory in Iowa, until 1840, the Old Cathedral was the only church in the city. By 1850, there were 10, Cathedral of St. Louis, St. Mary of Victories, St. Francis Xavier, St. Patrick, St. Joseph, St. Vincent de Paul, St. John the Apostle, Sts. Peter and Paul, Holy Trinity, and St. Michael, the St. Louis Diocese was elevated to an Archdiocese on July 20,1847, by Pope Pius IX. Because of its strong Catholic identity and having been the diocese of many dioceses in the midwest. It is dedicated to Saint Louis IX and has as its copatrons Saints Vincent de Paul, St.
Louis IX, the patron of the archdiocese, represents the ideal Christian knight- a fervent layman, a man of honor and a leader unafraid of exhibiting his ardent spirituality
The first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhards early 9th Century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros, there are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar, multicolor (i. e. in contrast to the mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba, plain + Basque herri, the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a tribe who populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, not so the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks ever completely subjugated the area, the Vascones included neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century.
In AD778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass and that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of King Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, and even a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided between his sons and it never fully recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom throughout the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads. The native line of kings came to an end in 1234, the Navarrese kept most of their strong laws and institutions. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but keeping a separate status. A Chartered Government was established, and the managed to keep home rule.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a version of home rule was passed in 1839. The relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade, amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in Navarre and the rest of the Basque provinces. The end of the Third Carlist War saw a wave of Spanish centralization directly affecting Navarre. In 1893-1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrids governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat
Peter Richard Kenrick
Peter Richard Kenrick was Bishop of St. Louis and the first Catholic archbishop west of the Mississippi River. He was born and educated in Dublin, and Maynooth College, prior to entering the seminary he worked with and befriended James Clarence Mangan the poet. In his early years as a priest in Philadelphia, Father Kenrick wrote several works relating to Catholic theology, one of his works, Validity of Anglican Ordinations examined, published in 1841, was not challenged for over a century. He held a number of posts in the Philadelphia church, until he was appointed bishop of St. Louis. At the time, the diocese included the area of the Louisiana Purchase, except for Iowa, Louisiana. In 1847, when the became an archdiocese, he became the first archbishop of the newly created archdiocese. The city itself would grow almost thirtyfold over the term of his residency, during his tenure in St. Louis, he visited many parts of the state of Missouri and actively encouraged the development of Catholicism and Catholic institutions in his diocese.
He started a Catholic journal, opened a seminary in the then-independent city of Carondelet, during the period of the American Civil War and its aftermath, Kenrick maintained a neutral position in a city and state whose residents were of widely divergent opinions on the matter. One of these priests, the Reverend John A. Cummings, filed the case which the United States Supreme Court heard and prompted them to rule the ironclad oath unconstitutional. He took part in the second Plenary Council of Baltimore, where he advocated that the affairs of the Catholic Church in the United States be handled locally wherever possible and this position earned him a number of detractors and opponents. During the First Vatican Council, he opposed the centralization of authority in Rome. When it was defined dogmatically, he accepted the opinion of the majority and his failure to support this issue increased the number and prominence of his detractors. After harassment by his detractors and members of the curia made life difficult for him, he turned over the administration of the archdiocese to his bishop, Patrick John Ryan.
Upon Ryan being made the Archbishop of Philadelphia, the diocese which Kenricks brother had previously headed, Kenrick took back active administration of his diocese. During the period when the Knights of Labor, a strongly Roman Catholic labor union, the higher-ranking Cardinal James Gibbons, the Archbishop of Baltimore, overruled his objections. In 1893, Kenricks attempt to name his coadjutor bishop failed when his nominee did not win the support of his fellow bishops, John Joseph Kain was appointed to fill the role instead. His conflicts and failed communication with Kain lent a note of discord to his final years, in 1896, he was canonically deposed by Pope Leo XIII because of physical incapacitation due to infirmity. He died on March 4,1896, and is buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. Louis, the seminary of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, Kenrick-Glennon Seminary, formerly known as Kenrick Theological Seminary, is named in his honor
Pope John XXIII
Pope Saint John XXIII reigned as Pope from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy. He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, including papal nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice, Roncalli was elected pope on 28 October 1958 at age 76 after 11 ballots. His selection was unexpected, and Roncalli himself had come to Rome with a train ticket to Venice. Pope John XXIII surprised those who expected him to be a caretaker pope by calling the historic Second Vatican Council and his passionate views on equality were summed up in his famous statement, We were all made in Gods image, and thus, we are all Godly alike. Pope John XXIII did not live to see the Vatican Council to completion and he died of stomach cancer on 3 June 1963, four and a half years after his election and two months after the completion of his final and famed encyclical, Pacem in terris.
In addition to being named Venerable on 20 December 1999, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 by Pope John Paul II alongside Pope Pius IX and three others. Following his beatification, his body was moved on 3 June 2001 from its place to the altar of Saint Jerome where it could be seen by the faithful. He was canonised alongside Pope Saint John Paul II on 27 April 2014, John XXIII today is affectionately known as the Good Pope and in Italian, il Papa buono. This is understandable, since the Council was his idea and it was he that had convened it, on Thursday,11 September 2014, Pope Francis added his optional memorial to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints feast days, in response to global requests. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was born on 25 November 1881 in Sotto il Monte and he was the eldest son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli and his wife Marianna Giulia Mazzolla, and fourth in a family of 13. Roncallli was nonetheless a descendant of an Italian noble family, albeit from a secondary, in 1889, Roncalli received both his First Communion and Confirmation at the age of 8.
On 1 March 1896, Luigi Isacchi, the director of his seminary. He professed his vows as a member of that order on 23 May 1897, in 1904, Roncalli completed his doctorate in theology and was ordained a priest in the Catholic Church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo in Piazza del Popolo in Rome on 10 August. Shortly after that, while still in Rome, Roncalli was taken to Saint Peters Basilica to meet Pope Pius X, after this, he would return to his town to celebrate mass for the Assumption. In 1905, Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, the new Bishop of Bergamo, Roncalli worked for Radini-Tedeschi until the bishops death on 22 August 1914, two days after the death of Pope Pius X. Radini-Tedeschis last words to Roncalli were Angelo, pray for peace. The death of Radini-Tedeschi had an effect on Roncalli
Yahweh was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel and Judah. By the end of the Babylonian exile, the existence of foreign gods was denied, and Yahweh was proclaimed as the creator of the cosmos. The Israelites originated as Bronze Age Canaanites, but Yahweh was not initially a Canaanite god, in this case a plausible etymology for the name could be from the root HWY, which would yield the meaning he blows, appropriate to a weather divinity. There is considerable but not universal support for the view that the Egyptian inscriptions refer to Yahweh, the question that arises is how he made his way to the north. A widely accepted hypothesis is that traders brought Yahweh to Israel along the routes between Egypt and Canaan, the Kenite hypothesis, named after one of the groups involved. Israel emerges into the record in the last decades of the 13th century BCE, at the very end of the Late Bronze Age. The milieu from which Israelite religion emerged was accordingly Canaanite and he lived in a tent on a mountain from whose base originated all the fresh waters of the world, with the goddess Asherah as his consort.
This pair made up the top tier of the Canaanite pantheon, the tier was made up of their children. Baals sphere was the thunderstorm with its life-giving rains, so that he was a fertility god, below the seventy second-tier gods was a third tier made up of comparatively minor craftsman and trader deities, with a fourth and final tier of divine messengers and the like. He subdues the ancient gods, shatters the forces of old, so Israel lives in safety, untroubled is Jacobs abode. Your enemies shall come fawning to you, and you shall tread on their backs. After the 9th century BCE the tribes and chiefdoms of Iron Age I were replaced by ethnic nation states, Judah, Moab and others, each with its national god, and all more or less equal. Thus Chemosh was the god of the Moabites, Milcom the god of the Ammonites, Qaus the god of the Edomites, the festivals thus celebrated Yahwehs salvation of Israel and Israels status as his holy people, although the earlier agricultural meaning was not entirely lost.
Sacrifice was presumably complemented by the singing or recital of psalms, prayer played little role in official worship. Shiloh, Gilgal, Mizpah and Dan were sites for festivals, the making of vows, private rituals. Yahweh-worship was famously aniconic, meaning that the god was not depicted by a statue or other image, pre-exilic Israel, like its neighbours, was polytheistic, and Israelite monotheism was the culmination of a unique set of historical circumstances. The original god of Israel was El, as the name demonstrates—its probable meaning is may El rule or some other sentence-form involving the name of El. Asherah, formerly the wife of El, was worshipped as Yahwehs consort, and various biblical passages indicate that her statues were kept in his temples in Jerusalem and Samaria
Central West End, St. Louis
It includes the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis on Lindell Boulevard at Newstead Avenue, which houses the largest collection of mosaics in the world. The Central West End is represented by three aldermen as it sits partially in the 17th, 18th, and 28th Wards, the CWEs commercial district is mainly along Euclid Avenue and stretches from Forest Park Parkway on the south to Delmar Boulevard on the north. Restaurants are primarily clustered in the Euclid/McPherson area, the Euclid/Laclede area, some residential areas of the Central West End are included in the National Register of Historic Places. Another is the place called Washington Terrace, laid out in 1892. Playwright Tennessee Williams grew up in the neighborhood, and the house of the renowned poet T. S. Eliot is located in the Central West End, beat writer William S. Burroughss childhood home sits on Pershing Avenue in the neighborhood. George Julian Zolnay the Hungarian and American sculptor known as the Sculptor of the Confederacy lived in the Central West End in the early 1900s at 4384 Maryland Avenue.
The neighborhoods boundaries are Union Boulevard and the portion of Forest Park on the west, I-64/US40 on the south, Delmar Boulevard on the north. 2. 7% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino origin