European Broadcasting Union
The European Broadcasting Union is an alliance of public service media entities, established on 12 February 1950. As of 2015, the organisation comprises 73 active members in 56 countries, most EU states are part of this organisation and therefore EBU has been subject to supranational legislation and regulation. It hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the institution itself and it is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest. EBU is a member of the International Music Council, Members of the EBU are radio and television companies, most of which are government-owned public service broadcasters or privately owned stations with public service missions. Active Members come from as far north as Iceland and as far south as Egypt, from Ireland in the west and Azerbaijan in the east, Associate Members are from countries and territories beyond Europe, such as Canada, Mexico and Hong Kong. Associate Members from the United States include ABC, CBS, NBC, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Time Warner, and the only individual station, Chicago-based classical music station WFMT.
Active Members are those paying EBU members meeting all technical criteria for full membership, syria is an example of a country within the EBA not complying with all technical criteria for full membership, and thus it is currently only granted Associated Membership. The EBUs highest profile production is the Eurovision Song Contest, organised by its Eurovision Network, the countries represented in the EBU co-operate to create documentaries and childrens programming. Most EBU broadcasters have a deal to carry the Olympics. Another annually recurring event which is broadcast across Europe through the EBU is the Vienna New Years Concert, the theme music played before EBU broadcasts is Marc-Antoine Charpentiers Prelude to Te Deum. It is well known to Europeans as it is played before and after the Eurovision Song Contest, the EBU was a successor to the International Broadcasting Union that was founded in 1925 and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels. It fostered programming exchanges between members and mediated disputes between members that were mostly concerned with frequency and interference issues.
It was in effect taken over by Nazi Germany during the Second World War, france proposed that it would have four votes with the inclusion of its North African colonies. Great Britain felt it would have influence with just one vote. On 27 June 1946 the alternative International Broadcasting Organisation was founded with 26 members, the following day the IBU met in General Assembly and an attempt was made to dissolve it but failed, though 18 of its 28 members left to join the IBO. For a period of time in the late 1940s both the IBU and IBO vied for the role of organising frequencies but Britain decided to be in involved in neither, the BBC attempted but failed to find suitable working arrangements with them. However, for practical purposes the IBO rented the IBU technical centre in Brussels, in August 1949 a meeting took place in Stresa, Italy but it resulted in disagreement between delegates on how to resolve the problems. One proposal was for the European Broadcasting Area to be replaced by one that would exclude Eastern Europe, after Stresa, a consensus emerged among the Western Europeans to form a new organisation and the BBC proposed it be based in London
Frankie Valli is an American singer, known as the frontman of The Four Seasons beginning in 1960. He is known for his powerful falsetto voice. Valli scored 29 Top 40 hits with The Four Seasons, one Top 40 hit under The Four Seasons alias The Wonder Who. and nine Top 40 hits as a solo artist. As a member of The Four Seasons, Vallis number-one hits included Sherry, Big Girls Dont Cry, Walk Like a Man, Rag Doll, Vallis recording of the song Cant Take My Eyes Off You reached number two in 1967. Youre Ready Now, a Valli solo recording from 1966, became a hit in the UK as part of the Northern soul scene. As a solo artist, Valli scored number-one hits with the songs My Eyes Adored You and Grease. Valli, Tommy DeVito, Nick Massi and Bob Gaudio – the original members of The Four Seasons – were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990 and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. Valli was born Francesco Stephen Castelluccio, the eldest of three sons to an Italian family in the First Ward of Newark, New Jersey.
His father, Anthony Castelluccio, was a barber and display designer for Lionel model trains, his mother, Mary Rinaldi, was a homemaker and beer company employee. He was inspired to take up a career at the age of seven after his mother took him to see the young Frank Sinatra at the Paramount Theater in New York City. One of his favorite singers was Texas Jean Valli, from whom he obtained his last name. Until he could support himself with music, he worked as a barber, Vallis birth year has been called into question. Valli never addressed the issue himself, until the 2007 posting at the Official Frankie Valli Site, sponsored by his current record label, much of the previous official publicity surrounding his career used 1937 as the birth year. Other sources, such as the Bear Family Records release, titled The Four Lovers, as well as a 1965 mug shot, available through The Smoking Gun, Valli began his singing career in the early 1950s with the Variety Trio. Vallis desire to sing in public was granted when, having heard Valli sing.
In late 1952, the Variety Trio disbanded and Valli, along with Tommy DeVito, became part of the band at The Strand in New Brunswick. For his part, Valli played bass and sang and he cut his first single, My Mothers Eyes, in 1953 as Frankie Valley, a variation on a name he adopted from Texas Jean Valli, a female hillbilly singer as discussed in a 2014 article. Frankie said in 2010 that Jean took him to music publishers Paul and Dave Kapp
Kool & the Gang
Kool & the Gang is an American funk and rhythm and blues band that was popular in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1964, thirteen-year-old Robert Bell, his brother Ronald, and five friends in Jersey City, New Jersey. They changed their name to Kool & the Flames in 1967, the band consisted of Robert Kool Bell, Ronald Bell, Robert Mickens, Dennis Thomas, Ricky West, George Brown, and Charles Smith. The Bell brothers father Bobby and uncle Tommy were boxers and they moved to New York to train and lived in the same apartment building as Thelonious Monk, who became Roberts godfather when he was born. Miles Davis would drop by because he wanted to be a boxer and they played occasionally with McCoy Tyner, Pharoah Sanders, and Leon Thomas. The bands debut album and the Gang, produced three hit singles on the pop and R&B charts of Billboard magazine. Wild and Peaceful gave the three more hits, Funky Stuff in the Top 40 pop chart and Jungle Boogie and Hollywood Swinging in the Top 10. The latter two songs sold over one million copies and were certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America, the band remained productive, with albums coming out in 1974 and 1975.
In 1979, James J. T. Taylor joined as lead singer and the Gang starting working with Brazilian fusion musician Eumir Deodato as producer, and they moved away from funk and closer to rhythm & blues and pop music. The songs Ladies Night and Too Hot were hits and the album was certified platinum by the RIAA. Even more successful was the album Celebration, produced by Deodato, certified platinum, giving Kool and the Gang its first number one hit, more international hits followed in the early 1980s, including Big Fun, Get Down on It, and Joanna. The album Emergency yielded four Top 20 pop hits, including Fresh and Cherish, in 1988, Taylor left the group to pursue a solo career. He was replaced by three vocalists, Skip Martin, Odeen Mays, and Gary Brown and he returned for State of Affairs. Rick West, the original keyboardist, who left in 1976 to form his own band. Guitarist Charles Smith died after an illness in 2006 and was replaced by the Bells youngest brother, Amir Bayyan. Original trumpet player Robert Spike Mickens, who retired in 1986 due to health, died at the age of 59 on November 2,2010, at a nursing home in Far Rockaway.
Kool and the Gang added Larry Gittens in 1975 from the Stylistics, Jungle Boogie was featured on the soundtracks for the movies Pulp Fiction and Undercover Brother. Summer Madness was in the movie Rocky, Hollywood Swinging was featured in the movie Roll Bounce
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Zachary David Alexander Zac Efron is an American actor and singer. He began acting professionally in the early 2000s, and rose to prominence in the late 2000s for his role in the High School Musical franchise. During this time, he starred in the musical film Hairspray. He has since appeared in films like New Years Eve, The Lucky One, Dirty Grandpa, Efron was born in San Luis Obispo and moved to Arroyo Grande, California. His father, David Efron, is an engineer at a power station. Efron has a brother and had, as he has described and he was raised in an agnostic household and did not practice any religion as a child. His surname, Efron, is an Ashkenazi Jewish surname, taken from a Biblical place name, Efron has said that he would flip out if he got a B and not an A in school, as well as that he was a class clown. His father encouraged him to acting when Zac was eleven years old. Efron subsequently appeared in productions at his high school, worked in the theater The Great American Melodrama and Vaudeville.
He performed in such as Gypsy, Peter Pan, or, The Boy Who Wouldnt Grow Up, Little Shop of Horrors. He was recommended to an agent in Los Angeles by his drama teacher, Efron was signed to the Creative Artists Agency. Efron graduated from Arroyo Grande High School in 2006 and was accepted into the University of Southern California. Efron began acting in the early 2000s with guest roles on television series including Firefly, ER. In 2004, he began appearing as a character in the first season of the WB series Summerland. For the show’s second season, which aired in 2005, he was promoted to the main cast. He appeared in films, including the Lifetime television film Miracle Run. Efron’s career reached a point with the teen musical television film High School Musical. The film, which starred Ashley Tisdale, Lucas Grabeel, Corbin Bleu, the film’s soundtrack was certified quadruple platinum by the RIAA, making it one of the best-selling albums of the year in the United States
Mikkel Johan Imer Sigvardt better known as Remee, is a Danish producer and songwriter. Throughout his career Remee has written more than 60 hits around the world and has sold over 25 million records and he has co-written several songs with Thomas Troelsen. In 2003, he helped write Jamelias international hit Superstar, which was released by Danish singer Christine Milton. Later that year, he co-hosted the first Junior Eurovision Song Contest alongside Camilla Ottesen, in 2005, Remee and Nicolai Seebach and Rasmus Seebach composed the tribute song for the victims of the Boxing Day tsunami. Remee, along with several Danish celebrities, performed the song Hvor små vi er, the song went 13 times platinum and raised more than 3 million Danish kroner for the tsunami victims. In 2008, he one of the original judges with Thomas Blachman. He mentored the Under 25s category, which consisted of Martin Hoberg Hedegaard, Laura Arensbak Kjaergaard, all of his acts reached the semi-final, with Hedegaard and Kjaergaard finishing as winner and runner-up respectively.
The same year, he co-wrote the German entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2008, Disappear, in 2009, Remee returned to the judging panel alongside Blachman and Rafn for the shows second season. Remee mentored the Groups category for his season, which consisted of Alien Beat Club, Asian Sensation. Alien Beat Club reached the final, but lost out to Rafns last act Linda Andrews, Remee continued as a judge for the third season, with Soulshock and Pernille Rosendahl replacing Blachman and Rafn. He mentored the Under 25s category, which consisted of Tine Midtgaard Madsen, Jesper Boesgaard, Nygaard was eliminated in week 5 of the live shows, Boesgaard was eliminated in week 6 and Nygaard lost out to Thomas Ring Petersen, mentored by Rosendahl. Remee confirmed his departure after the final of season 3 and his replacement for the season was Cutfather. In September 2013, it was confirmed that Remee would return as a judge for the season of X Factor alongside fellow original judges Thomas Blachman and Lina Rafn.
For his fourth year on the show, Remee was given the Over 23s category, Gilmartin was eliminated in week 4, Nortorp was eliminated in week 6 and Mardou lost out in the final to Anthony Jasmin, mentored by Blachman. O. C. / Niarn Gravøl Martin Hoberg Hedegaard Show the World, Report to the Dancefloor S. O. A. P,2008 BMI Awards for Corbin Bleu Deal with It. 2008 Comet Awards Germany Song of the Year for Monrose Hot Summer,2008 Eurovision Winner Germany for No Angels Disappear. 2008 TV Awards Denmark - TV show of the year for X-factor
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health.
Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition.
The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relatives
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Eurovision Song Contest 2014
The Eurovision Song Contest 2014 was the 59th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Copenhagen, following Emmelie de Forests win at the 2013 contest in Malmö and this was the third time that Denmark hosted the contest, the most recent previous occasion being in 2001. The two semi-finals took place on 6 May and 8 May 2014, and the final on 10 May 2014, the shows were presented by Lise Rønne, Nikolaj Koppel and Pilou Asbæk. The host broadcaster, DR, chose the B&W Hallerne as the host venue after considering several bids from cities and venues across Denmark, thirty-seven countries participated, this includes the return of Poland after a two-year absence and Portugal after a one-year absence. Overall, there were two countries competing compared to the previous year, making thirty-seven participants, the smallest number since 2006. Bulgaria, Croatia and Serbia announced their withdrawal from the 2014 Contest, San Marino and Montenegro both qualified for the final for the first time.
The winner was Conchita Wurst with the song Rise Like a Phoenix, written by Charley Mason, Joey Patulka, Ali Zuckowski and this was Austrias first win in the competition since 1966. Jokes made about Wurst had sparked controversy, whilst Russia were booed several times during the contest, the Netherlands and Sweden finished second and third respectively with the former achieving their best result since their victory in the 1975 Contest. Armenia finished fourth, which equals their best result to date, while Hungary finished fifth, of the Big Five, only Ruth Lorenzo of Spain achieved a place in the top ten. A new record of 195 million viewers for the Eurovision Song Contest was reported, the host broadcaster, DR, and the EBU won the International TV Award at the Ondas Awards for their production of the contest. On 2 September 2013, Danish public broadcaster DR announced that it had chosen Copenhagen as the host city for the 2014 contest, the contest was held at the former shipyard Refshaleøen, in the B&W Hallerne, with the social networking hashtag #JoinUs as the motto.
The mayor of Copenhagen, Frank Jensen, declared in late August that the city would contribute to the budget with 40 million. He announced that the aim was to make the Eurovision 2014 into the greenest contest to date since Copenhagen had been elected European Green Capital for 2014. Five cities had been considered as host city of the contest, including Herning and Copenhagen, later and Aalborg entered the phase with the Messe C and Gigantium venues, respectively. The fifth city to join the phase was Horsens, with the venue being the courtyard of the former Horsens State Prison, in the event that Horsens had been chosen to host the contest, the courtyard would have been covered by a permanent glass roof. The contest was set to take place on 13,15 and 17 May 2014, however. On 17 June 2013, the municipality executive of Aalborg decided not to bid for hosting the contest due to the lack of sufficient hotel capacity. On 25 June 2013, the Municipality of Fredericia announced that the Triangle Region had withdrawn its bid on hosting the contest, DR required the hosting venue to have no pillars blocking any views and an interior height of at least 16 metres
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982 and co-developed by Philips and Sony. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. The first commercially available Audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan, standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres, they are used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio. At the time of the introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive. By 2010, hard drives commonly offered as much space as a thousand CDs. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs, by 2007,200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time.
American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record information on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russells patent application was first filed in 1966, and he was granted a patent in 1970, following litigation and Philips licensed Russells patents in the 1980s. The compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Philips and Sony independently in the late 1970s, although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled. In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980, after their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were extremely popular.
Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984, by 1988 CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, and by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes. The success of the disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, who came together to agree upon and develop compatible hardware. The unified design of the disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company. In 1974, L. However, due to the performance of the analog format