Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans; the urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco–Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it Singidūn, it was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
It passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918. In a fatally strategic position, the city was razed 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006. Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia and it is one of the five statistical regions that make up the country, its metropolitan territory is divided into each with its own local council. The city of Belgrade covers 3.6% of Serbia's territory, around 24% of the country's population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta-Global City. Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras; some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans.
Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC. There are several Starčevo sites including the eponymous site of Starčevo; the Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and named for a site in the Belgrade region. The Vinča culture is known for its large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe. Associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe, a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890.
The skull is dated to before 5000 BC. Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends; the ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. In the time of antiquity, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings. Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi. In 34–33 BC, the Roman army, led by Silanus, reached Belgrade, it became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia by the end of the century. While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I known as Constantine the Great—was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus, was born in Singidunum.
Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum. In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun. In 471, it was taken by king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy; as the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines. In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region; the Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582. Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands. In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.
The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in
Romanization of Serbian
The romanization of Serbian or latinization of Serbian is the representation of the Serbian language using Latin letters. Serbian is written in two alphabets, the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, a variation of Cyrillic and the Serbian Latin alphabet, a variation of the Latin alphabet; the Serbian language is an example of Digraphia. However, Gaj's Latin alphabet is very used in Serbia as the second alphabet; the two are directly and interchangeable. Romanization can be done with no errors, but in some cases knowledge of Serbian is required to do proper transliteration from Latin back to Cyrillic. Standard Serbian uses both alphabets currently. A survey from 2014 showed that 47% of the Serbian population favors the Latin alphabet whereas 36% favors the Cyrillic one. Apart from Serbian, Gaj's Latin alphabet is used in Bosnian and Croatian standards of Serbo-Croatian. Another standard of Serbo-Croatian, uses a modified version of it. Serbo-Croatian was regarded as a single language since the 1850 Vienna Literary Agreement, to be written in two forms: one in the adapted Serbian Cyrillic alphabet.
The Latin alphabet, was not taught in schools in Serbia when it became independent in the 19th century. After a series of efforts by Serbian writers Ljubomir Stojanović and Jovan Skerlić, it became part of the school curriculum after 1914. During World War I, Austria-Hungary banned the Cyrillic alphabet in Bosnia and its use in occupied Serbia was banned in schools. Cyrillic was banned in the Independent State of Croatia in World War II; the government of socialist Yugoslavia made some initial effort to promote romanization, use of the Latin alphabet in the Orthodox Serbian and Montenegrin parts of Yugoslavia, but met with resistance. The use of latinica did however become more common among Serbian speakers. Still, in 1993 the authorities of Republika Srpska under Radovan Karadžić and Momčilo Krajišnik decided to proclaim Ekavian and Serbian Cyrillic to be official in Republika Srpska, considered grotesque both by native Bosnian Serb writers at the time and the general public, that decision was rescinded in 1994.
It was reinstated in a milder form in 1996, today still the use of Serbian Latin is discouraged in Republika Srpska, in favor of Cyrillic. Article 10 of the Constitution of Serbia adopted by a referendum in 2006 defined Cyrillic as the official script in Serbia, while Latin was given the lower status of "Script in official use". Today Serbian is more to be romanized in Montenegro than in Serbia. Exceptions to this include Serbian websites where use of Latin alphabet is more convenient, increasing use in tabloid and popular media such as Blic and Svet. More established media, such as the state-run Politika, Radio Television of Serbia, or foreign Google News, Voice of Russia and Facebook tend to use Cyrillic script; some websites offer the content in both scripts, using Cyrillic as the source and auto generating Romanized version. In 2013 in Croatia there were massive protests against official Cyrillic signs on local government buildings in Vukovar. Serbian place names are spelled in latinica using the mapping that exists between the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet and Gaj's Latin alphabet.
Serbian personal names are romanized the same way as place names. This is the case with consonants which are common to other Slavic Latin alphabets - Č, Ć, Š, Ž, Dž and Đ. A problem is presented by the letter Đ/đ that represents the affricate, still sometimes represented by "Dj"; the letter Đ was not part of the original Gaj's alphabet, but was added by Đuro Daničić in the 19th century. A transcribed "Dj" is still sometimes encountered in rendering Serbian names into English, though Đ should be used. In Serbian, foreign names are phonetically transliterated into both Latin and Cyrillic, a change that does not happen in Croatian and Bosnian. For example, in Serbian history books George Washington becomes "Džordž Vašington" or Џорџ Вашингтон, Winston Churchill becomes "Vinston Čerčil" or Винстон Черчил and Charles de Gaulle "Šarl de Gol" or Шарл де Гол; this change happens in some European languages that use the Latin alphabet such as Lithuanian and Latvian. The name Catherine Ashton for instance gets transliterated into "Ketrin Ešton" in Serbian.
An exception to this are place names which are so well known as to have their own form: just as English has "Vienna, Austria" so Croatian and romanization of Serbian have "Beč, Austrija." Incomplete romanization of Serbian is written using the English alphabet known as ASCII Serbian, by dropping diacritics. It is used in SMS messages, comments on the Internet or e-mails because users don't have available Serbian keyboard installed. Serbian is a phonetic language with 30 sounds that can be represented with 30 Cyrillic letters, or 27 Gaj's Latin letters and three digraphs. In its ASCII form, the number of used letters drops down to 22, as the letters "q", "w", "x" and "y" are not used; some words morph into the same written form and a good knowledge of Serbian and a sentence context is required for proper understanding of the written text. Using incomplete romanization does not allow for easy transliteration back to Cyrillic without significant manual work. Google tried using machine learning approach to solving this problem and developed an interactive text input tool that enables typing Serbian in ASCII and auto-converting to Cyrillic.
Aleksinac is a town and municipality located in the Nišava District of the southern Serbia. According to 2011 census, the town has a population of 17,978 inhabitants, while the municipality has 51,863 inhabitants; the name of the town derives from the given name Aleksandar. In standard Serbian, Aleksinac is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable, but locals tend to pronounce it with the stress on the second syllable; the territory of the municipality of Aleksinac has been inhabited since the neolithic age. Most of the settlements in the area belong to the Vinča cultural group, are located on the western side of the South Morava river. After the fall to the Romans this territory was included in the province Upper Moesia and after 293 AD it was in the Mediterranean province Dacia. A Roman military road was built in 1st century AD across the territory. There were two stations for rest and change of horses along the road on the territory of Aleksinac: Praesidium Pompei and Rappiana, their location is still unknown.
Few fortresses are known to existed in this period, but their names are not known, except for the Castell Milareca on Gradiste hill. From the year 476 this territory was under Byzantine rule. There are evidences of settlements from this time, however their names still remain unknown. During the reigns of emperors Phocas and Heraclius Slavic peoples inhabit Balkan peninsula. In 614 they razed Niš; the Via Militaris was renamed Medieval Military Road and it was used by the crusaders of first four Crusades to reach Constantinople thus passing through the territory of Aleksinac municipality. During the reign of the Nemanjić dynasty this territory was under direct control of the state. After the death of Uroš V this territory was included in the territory of Moravian Serbia under the Prince Lazar and his successors. Two medieval towns and Lipovac, date from this period. Aleksinac is first mentioned in 1516 in "Kruševački Tefter", a list of towns and its residents were made by Turks to keep an eye on taxes, as the village belonging to Bolvan province and Kruševac sanjak.
It remained village up to the end of the 16th century. In the middle of the 17th century, Aleksinac was town with more than 100 shops in it, because of its strategic location on the road to Istanbul it became important travel and caravan station, its importance can be supported by the fact that Turks built fortress to protect it from outlaws in 1616. The development of Aleksinac was stopped during the so-called Great Turkish War. Aleksinac was conquered by Austrian army, burned to the ground by the soldiers of Jegen-Osman Pasha. Serbian inhabitants of Aleksinac joined Great Serb Migrations to Habsburg Monarchy and some of them settled down in Budim. Aleksinac was destroyed again by fire during the second Austro-Turkish war when grand vizier Hallil Pasha was defeated beneath the walls of Belgrade. In retreat he burned down all settlements all the way to Niš. After the third Austro-Turkish War Aleksinac developed into significant handcraft center. Many caravans passed through it exchanging wares from entire Ottoman central Europe.
At the same time it became center of Aleksinac county. There were 160 houses in Aleksinac at 120 of them Christian and 40 Turkish. After the fourth Austro-Turkish War Aleksinac was burned down again by the Turkish outlaws led by Osman Pazvantoğlu. Aleksinac and its surrounding area joined the First Serbian Uprising in January 1806; this included villages on the right bank of the South Morava river which were liberated by the army of Petar Dobrnjac. The settlements on the left bank were liberated by Mladen Milovanović and Stanoje Glavaš; as soon as the town was liberated, Captain Vuča Žikić built the famous Deligrad trenches on the north side of Aleksinac which earned fame in battles with the Turks in 1806. After the fall on the First Serbian Uprising, Aleksinac remained under Turkish rule up to December 1832 when it became integral part of Prince Miloš's Serbia. During his first reign Aleksinac became the economic centre of the south-east Serbia with numerous trade and handicrafts shops and it developed into important government centre.
It became a centre of county court. The third post office in Serbia was opened in Aleksinac for both Serbian and Austrian post as well as the place where English courier sent and received the post from Turkey. At that time Customs office and quarantine station were built in Aleksinac. Aleksinac was the site of major battles with Turks in First Serbo-Turkish war in 1876, with only true victory won on Šumatovac, 3 kilometers from Aleksinac. From 1929-41, Aleksinac was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Aleksinac was damaged during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. Aside from the town of Aleksinac, the municipality includes the following settlements: According to the last official census done in 2011, the municipality of Aleksinac has 51,863 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: Main industry in Aleksinac is metal industry, but large parts of municipality consists of arable land near the Morava river, used for grain and peppers. Coal industry was dominant before fire accident in November 1989.
Municipality of Aleksinac is rich in natural resources in black coal, bitumen schist, gravel and limestone. Drilling for shale gas will begin in the near future, with a tender underway for contract rig
Lazarevac is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. As of 2011, the town has a total population of 25,526 inhabitants, while the municipal area has a total of 58,622 inhabitants, its name stems from the name of medieval Serbian ruler Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. During the Interbellum, there was an auxiliary military airfield in Lazarevac, part of the air defense of the state capital, Belgrade. On 7 April 1941, during the German bombing of Belgrade, air force unit "Arad", employing 60 Štuka airplanes bombed the airfield in an effort to destroy as many Yugoslav planes as possible. A majority of planes, used for training flights, were either demolished; the Memorial Church of St. Demetrius, with ossuary, was damaged in the attack; the area of the former airfield is today occupied by the health center "Dr Đorđe Kovačević" and the Special Hospital for the endemic nephropathy, but neither the location nor the graves are marked in memory of the 1941 events. In 1984 one of the town streets was named after the killed airmen, albeit erroneously: instead of "Nine airmen", the street was named "Six airmen".
In January 2018, dedication of the memorial plaque on the location of the former airfield was announced. In 1971, the municipality of Lazarevac, along with Mladenovac, was annexed to the city of Belgrade. Aside from the town of Lazarevac, the municipality comprises of the following settlements: The municipality of Lazarevac has a total population of 58,622 inhabitants, according to the 2011 census results; the ethnic composition of the municipality: Lazarevac is the home to the Serbian largest coal mining and smelting complex RB Kolubara. The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: One of the main attaractions in Lazarevac is the Church of St. Demetrius, it is a mausoleum, a main memorial built in the memory of Serbian and Austro-Hungarian army soldiers that were killed at the Battle of Kolubara. 40,000 killed soldiers, both Serbian and Austro-Hungarian, were buried in the memorial ossuary of the church's crypt. It is the largest World War. "The Committee to raise a memorial church and crypt in Lazarevac" was established in order the build the church.
In the 1937 Committee was disbanded and "The Society for raising a memorial church with crypt in Lazarevac" was formed instead, led by a priest Borivoje Đorđević. The temple was built by the Russian émigré architect Ivan Afanasjevič Rik between 1938 and 1941. In the architectural and urban environment of Lazarevac, the temple stands as a significant achievement of interwar Serbian church architecture. There is a Modern gallery in the town, with the rich collection of paintings and sculptures, the "Kamengrad", a park enriched with the stone sculptures chiseled by Bogosav Živković, a Cultural Center. Outside of the town there are three wooden churches from the 18th century, a spring of natural mineral water and several archaeological finds. Other touristic features in the vicinity of Lazarevac include the Ćelije monastery and the Vrače hill, where Dimitrije Tucović, Serbian socialist theorist, was killed in November 1914 during the Battle of Kolubara. In Baroševac on the bank of the Kolubara grow a grove of giant sequoia trees which were brought from California to be studied and planted in Europe.
The trees had only reached a height of 30m as of 2011, are continuing to be studied as they develop in this manufactured habitat. There is a game hunting ground "Kolubara" in the municipality. Subdivisions of Belgrade List of Belgrade neighbourhoods and suburbs Official website
KK Crvena zvezda
Košarkaški klub Crvena zvezda referred to as KK Crvena zvezda or Crvena zvezda, is a men's professional basketball club based in Belgrade, the major part of the Red Star multi-sports club. KK Crvena zvezda is a part of the Adriatic Basketball Association and competes in the ABA League, the EuroCup and in the Basketball League of Serbia; the Crvena zvezda squads have won 19 National League championships, including in 10-in-a-row and current 4-in-a-row sequences. They have played three different National Leagues since 1945, including Yugoslav First Federal League, First League of Serbia and Montenegro and Serbian League, they have won 9 National Cup titles, 3 Adriatic League Championships, one Adriatic Supercup and one FIBA Saporta Cup. The team play. Zvezda's supporters are known as Delije; some of the club's star players over the years have included: Aleksandar Gec, Nebojša Popović, Aleksandar Nikolić, Borislav Stanković, Srđan Kalember, Ratomir Vićentić, Sreten Dragojlović, Vladimir Cvetković, Ljubodrag Simonović, Zoran Slavnić, Dragan Kapičić, Dragiša Vučinić, Žarko Koprivica, Rajko Žižić, Slobodan Nikolić, Predrag Bogosavljev, Zoran Radović, Boban Janković, Saša Obradović, Nebojša Ilić, Aleksandar Trifunović, Milenko Topić, Zlatko Bolić, Igor Rakočević, Milan Gurović, Nemanja Bjelica, Boban Marjanović, Stefan Jović and Marko Simonović.
The club was founded on March 1945, as a basketball section of the Crvena zvezda Sports Society. By winning the first of ten consecutive championship titles after the Second World War, the golden age of Crvena zvezda began. No domestic national selection could be imagined without seven or eight Zvezda's players and the first five featured Nebojša Popović, Tullio Rochlitzer, Aleksandar Gec, Ladislav Demšar and Srđan Kalember, their style was unique, they made basketball popular in Serbia and achieved first international results for former Yugoslavia, playing in an open-air court at Kalemegdan fortress. The greatness of this team cannot be disputed, they were pioneers of Yugoslavian basketball who achieved amazing results, entertaining the audience with their game style, just as with their squad harmony both on and off the court. After a decade filled with nothing but success, game scores started to decline, generation shift arrived and it took Crvena zvezda fourteen long years to win another trophy.
That long-awaited eleventh title was won in the 1968–69 season, when Crvena zvezda won all six games against Jugoplastika and Partizan, therefore proving to be better than all three fierce rivals. Led by Vladimir Cvetković, the title was won by Dragan Kapičić, Zoran Lazarević, Ivan Sarjanović, Ljubodrag Simonović, Srđan Skulić, Zoran Slavnić, Tihomir Pavlović, Nemanja Đurić, Miroslav Todosijević, Dragiša Vučinić and Dubravko Kapetanović. At that time, they were the youngest championship winning team in Yugoslavian basketball; the twelfth title was won in the 1971–72 season, after which Zvezda's league success deteriorated gradually. In the 1970s the club won the Yugoslav Cup three times, most of the work in those years was done by Slavnić, Simonović, Kapičić, Vučinić and Živković; this generation of players failed to certify their talent by winning only two national championships and three national cups, although they were considered capable of achieving much more. Crvena zvezda had significant international success, having played in five continental cup finals so far.
They lost the first European Cup Winners' Cup finals to Italian powerhouse Simmenthal Milano in 1972 by a score of 70–74. In 1974, they defeated Spartak ZJŠ Brno from Czechoslovakia by a score of 86–75; this team's third finals in the European Cup Winners' Cup were lost to Spartak Leningrad by a score of 62–63 in 1975. In the club's first Korać Cup finals, in Paris in 1984, the French Orthez won by a score of 97–73. In the Korać Cup second finals in 1998, Zvezda played, they triumphed in the away match with 74–68 score, but lost the home match by 64–73. With the total score being 138–141, the precious trophy wasn't won; the 1990s started promisingly. Throughout the 1991–92 season, the last one in Yugoslavia, Crvena zvezda played some inspired basketball, reaching the play-off finals versus arch-rival Partizan that coached by Željko Obradović won the EuroLeague that season. In a twist of fate, Crvena zvezda was led that season by the legendary Partizan coach Duško Vujošević. Though they lost the finals series, the young Crveno-beli team showed plenty of promise.
The thirteenth championship title was won after a gap of no less than 21 years, in 1993. In the fifth match of the play-off finals Crvena zvezda beat fierce rivals and Pionir Hall co-tenants Partizan; the players who won that championship title are: Saša Obradović, Nebojša Ilić, Zoran Jovanović, Mile Marinković, Nikola Jovanović, Mileta Lisica, Dejan Tomašević, Dragoljub Vidačić, Aleksandar Trifunović, Rastko Cvetković, Slobodan Kaličanin, Predrag Stojaković and Srđan Jovanović. In the next season, Crvena zvezda won its fourteenth national championship title without any problems. In the play-off finals Partizan was beaten by 4–1 overall; the Zvezda won the championship for the fifteenth time in 1998. The main star of that team was without any doubt Yugoslavian national team power forward Milenko Topić, other influential players were Igor Rakočević, Oliver Popović and Zlatko Bolić. In the early part of 2002, the club got a complete new management. Individuals from the political and business milieu close to ruling Democratic Party, such as Živorad Anđelković, Goran Vesić and Igor Žeželj, took over key positions in the club.
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Zemun is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. Zemun was a separate town, absorbed into Belgrade in 1934; the development of New Belgrade in the late 20th century affected the expansion of the continuous urban area of Belgrade. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Zemun has a population of 168,170 inhabitants. In ancient times, the Celtic and Roman settlement was known as Taurunum; the Frankish chroniclers of the Crusades mentioned it as a toponym from the 9th century. This was a period when the Slavic name Zemln was recorded for the first time. Believed to be derived from the word zemlja, meaning soil, it was a basis for all other future names of the city: modern Serbian Земун or Zemun, Hungarian Zimony and German Semlin; the area of Zemun has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. Baden culture graves and ceramics like bowls and anthropomorphic urns were found in the town. Bosut culture graves were found in nearby Asfaltna Baza; the first Celtic settlements in Taurunum area originate from the 3rd century BC when the Scordisci occupied several Thracian and Dacian areas of the Danube.
The Scordisci founded both Singidunum across the Sava, predecessor of modern Belgrade. The Romans came in the 1st century BC, Taurunum became part of the Roman province of Pannonia around 15 AD, it served as a harbour for the Pannonian fleet of Singidunum. The pen of Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso was said to be found in Taurunum. After the Great Migrations the area was under the authority of various peoples and states, including the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids and the Bulgarian Empire; the town was conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th century and in the 15th century it was given as a personal possession to the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. After the nearby Serbian Despotate fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, Zemun became an important military outpost. In 1521, the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, 500 šajkaši led by Croatian Marko Skoblić, Serbs fought against the invading Ottoman army of Suleyman the Magnificent. Despite hard resistance, Zemun fell on July Belgrade soon afterwards.
In 1541, Zemun was integrated into the Syrmia sanjak of the Budin pashaluk. Zemun and the southeastern Syrmia were conquered by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1717, after the Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Peterwardein and through the Treaty of Požarevac became a property of the Schönborn family. In 1736, Zemun was the site of a peasant revolt, its strategic location near the confluence of the Sava and the Danube placed it in the center of the continued border wars between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires. The Treaty of Belgrade of 1739 fixed the border, the Military Frontier was organized in the region in 1746, the town of Zemun was granted the rights of a military commune in 1749. In 1754, the population of Zemun included 1,900 Orthodox Christians, 600 Catholics, 76 Jews, about 100 Romani. In 1777, the population of Zemun numbered 1,130 houses with 6,800 residents, half of which were ethnic Serbs, while another half of population was composed of Catholics, Jews and Muslims. Among Catholic population, the largest ethnic group were Germans.
From this period originates the increased settlement of Germans and Hungarians in the Zemun. Zemun prospered as a border city; the town was a major fishing center. It is recorded. In 1816 it was expanded by mass resettlement of Germans and Serbs in the new town suburbs of Franzenstal and Gornja Varoš, respectively. In the 19th century, Zemun reached 1,310 houses. Zemun became important in Serbian history as the refuge for Karađorđe in 1813 as well as many other people from the nearby Belgrade and the rest of Karađorđe's Serbia which fell to the Ottoman rule. During the Revolution of 1848-1849, Zemun was one of the de facto capitals of Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within Habsburg Empire, but in 1849, it was returned under the administration of the Military Frontier. With the abolishment of the Military Frontier in 1882, Zemun and the rest of Srem was included into Syrmia County of Croatia-Slavonia, an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary; the first railway line that connected it to the west was built in 1883, the first railway bridge over the Sava followed shortly thereafter in 1884.
During World War I, Zemun changed hands between Serbia and Austria-Hungary ending up in Serbia on November 5, 1918. The town became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes; the inter-war period was marked by political struggle between the city gentry and the more socialist parties supported by the ethnic Germans. In 1934 two intra-city bus lines were introduced connecting Zemun with the parts of Belgrade, the general shift of attention towards this issue was supported by the growing Serbian population of Zemun; the Zemun airbases built in 1927 were an important geostrategic objective in the Axis invasion of April 1941. Following the surrender of Yugoslavia that same month, along with the rest of Syrmia, was given to the Independent State of Croatia; the city was taken from Axis control in 1944, since it is part of Serbian region known as Central Serbia. The city is now home of the Air force command building, a monumental edifice, situated at 12 Аvijatičarski Square in Zemun, Belgrade; the Municipality ha