Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Variations of basketball
Variations of basketball are games or activities based on, or similar in origin, to the game of basketball, in which the player utilizes common basketball skills. Some are identical to basketball, with only minor rules changes, while others are more distant and arguably not simple variations but distinct games. Other variations include children's games, contests or activities intended to help the player practice or reinforce skills, which may or may not have a competitive aspect. Most of the variations are played in informal settings, without the presence of referees or other officials and sometimes without strict adherence to official game rules. A competitive game of basketball can be played with as few as two people; the game may be referred to by the number of people on each team, for example a six-player game can be referred to as "three-on-three" or "3-v-3". Each team's roster is the same size, but an odd number of players may force one team to play with one less player. Sometimes the odd player will be designated as a "switch" player, so that the offensive team always has the extra player.
Roster sizes above five players per team are uncommon in informal games, as the court becomes too crowded to allow movement and space to develop between players. Six-on-six basketball was a form of basketball played in the twentieth century among high school girls. Three-on-three basketball remains competitively played by amateurs. More FIBA has created a formalized version of three-on-three known as FIBA 33 and now called 3x3. "Twenty-one" is a game. Each player has their own score, with the winner being the first to reach 21 points. No player has any teammates at any time in the game; the player with the ball may shoot at any time, may collect his own rebound and shoot again. Whenever a basket is scored, that player receives two points and goes to the free throw line, where each made free throw tacks on another one point to their score; the player is allowed to shoot free throws until he misses, or until he has made 3 in a row, at which point the ball is put back in play, the sequence starts again.
Twenty-one is nearly always played in a half court game. Spin-offs from basketball that are now separate sports include: Ringball is a traditional South African sport that stems from basketball and has been played since 1907; the sport is now promoted in South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Mauritius to establish Ringball as an international sport. Korfball is now played worldwide. Korfball is a mixed gender team ball game, similar to mixed basketball. Netball is a limited-contact team sport in which two teams of seven try to score points against one another by placing a ball through a high hoop. Netball was called "women's basketball" but now includes men's teams as well. Slamball is full-contact basketball, with trampolines. Points are scored by playing the ball through the net, as in basketball, though the point-scoring rules are modified; the main differences from the parent sport is the court. The rules permit some physical contact between the members of the four-player teams; the game H. O. R.
S.E is played by two or more players. The order of turns is established; the first player with possession of the ball attempts to make a basket from a certain spot and in a particular way, explaining to the other players beforehand what the requirements of the shot are. If that player is successful, every subsequent player must make the same basket in the same way as they did. If a player fails to duplicate the shot, they acquire a letter, starting with H. After all players have made an attempt, the next player after the original shooter gets control and can attempt any shot he or she wants, the others will attempt that shot, so on. If a player who has control misses their shot, there is no letter penalty and control moves to the next player. Whenever any player has all of the letters, spelling out "Horse", they are eliminated from the game; the last player in the game is declared the winner. The game is played as P-I-G for a shorter version; this game can be played by as many players as needed.
The first shooting line is the foul line. Each player has an order for; the first shooter takes their shot from the foul line. If they miss the ring and backboard or Airball on the shot they are eliminated, this is applied to any shot by any player during the game. If they miss the shot but hit either the ring or backboard the next player in line must retrieve the ball after it has bounced once but before it bounces twice take the shot from wherever they retrieved the ball. If the ball bounces twice, the player is eliminated. If the shot is made the shooter must retrieve the ball before it bounces twice, they take another shot, if they make 3 shots in a row they are able to eliminate another player by hitting them with the ball; the remaining players are able to run away from the shooter but must stop and remain frozen, when the shooter has retrieved the ball after the 3 shot and yelled "STOP". The shooter must take 7 steps and throw the ball from wherever they have reached. Any player, touched by the ball is eliminated.
The game is restarted from the Free Throw line from the next player in line. The game is continued; some special techniques used are to start running away from the ring once a shooter has made two sho
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Basketball moves are individual actions used by players in basketball to pass by defenders to gain access to the basket or to get a clean pass to a teammate to score a two pointer or three pointer. This is an art within basketball; that allows you to be a great ball player. To have handles you do not have to be slasher. Instead, you can just be fundamental. Becoming a great ball-handler takes time and practice but if you have a basic understanding of skill you can do preferably plenty of moves. If you can shoot and you want to learn how to dribble better that will great for you it will compliment your shooting, this being said will make a more dynamic type player that can shake off defenders with dribble moves. If you are an aggressive slasher however this will open your chances of getting an open shot at the rack. Meaning you will have more open lanes to take; these are great for slashers considering. No matter your playing style, dribble moves could make a player more valued, more durable, more unpredictable.
In a crossover dribble, the ball handler changes the ball from one hand to the other using a single dribble. The crossover is a fundamental dribbling technique in basketball used to keep the ball in the hand farthest from the defender while maintaining a desired speed and orientation on the court, it is efficient when executing a drive. Make the crossover, get around your defender, drive to the basket. A crossover functions best when the ball handler looks and acts like they are headed in one direction, before crossing over to the other direction; this can be achieved by a simple head fake, or a step in that intended direction. Some of the players famous for their crossover dribble include Tim Hardaway, Allen Iverson, Kyrie Irving, Stephen Curry, Kobe Bryant; this is a used variation of the crossover in which the ball-handler bounces the ball off of the floor between his/her legs and catches it with the other hand on the opposite side of his/her body. It is used as a safer way to cross over while directly facing a defender, but requires more slowing of forward momentum than the crossover dribble.
This advanced form of crossover involves the ball handler bouncing the ball off of the floor behind his feet and catching it with the other hand while his/her feet are no more than shoulder-width apart. If there are no defensive players around the ball handler except one directly facing him/her, that defender does not expect this type of dribble, it can be an safer way of crossing over compared to a between-the-legs. In all other cases, it is a dangerous move that can result in the ball bouncing off of the dribbler's feet or a steal; this dribble is useful for when the offensive player is close to their defender and needs to change dribble hands, but doesn't have space to use a regular crossover. The wraparound is similar to a behind-the-back except; this move is used when a defender lunges toward one side of the ballhandler's body for a steal. The ballhandler would simply throw the ball around his body and pass his defender. An in and out dribble is used as a counter move to a crossover, whereby the ball handler fakes the crossover, pushes the ball back out on the same hand.
This technique involves dribbling the ball in different heights. This is combined with other dribbling techniques to make it more effective, it is effective on players smaller or taller than the dribbler but not quite as much on players that are the same height as the dribbler. If you are facing a shorter opponent, you can lure them by pretending to bring the ball low and suddenly turning the ball high. If the opponent is taller than you, you can lure them by pretending to bring the ball high and lowering the height of the dribble. If your opponent does not bite on your lure/trap, maintain the height of your dribble, you can drive past them with more speed. If you're going to pass or shoot after your dribble, make sure that you will go back to your usual pace to maintain the momentum for your dribbling; this is. Players' collapsing due to this occurs under normal circumstances; this happens when a defender loses balance, trips over their own feet, or slips. An offensive player can't control whether the defender falls, but using speed, body momentum, body contact and sharp changes of direction make it much more to happen.
The player makes a dash posture but does not apply force on the foot for one moment, dash full speed. The Euro step is a move developed in European basketball in which a player, after picking up his dribble, takes a step in one direction, quickly takes a second step in the other direction before they attempt a layup, it is an attempt to evade at least one defender before attacking the basket. Šarūnas Marčiulionis, a Lithuanian, Manu Ginóbili, Argentine who arrived in the NBA from the Italian league, are credited with bringing the move to the NBA. It has since been used by many US-born players, such as Dwyane Wade, James Harden, Russell Westbrook The combination of a euro step and a jump-stop, the pro-hop is a move in which a player picks up their dribble with a synchronized right hand dribble/right foot step, or... a synchronized left hand dribble with left foot step. The player rips
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
Forward–center or Bigman is a basketball position for players who play or have played both forward and center on a consistent basis. This means power forward and center, since these are the two biggest player positions on any basketball team, therefore more overlap each other. Forward–center came into the basketball jargon as the game evolved and became more specialized in the 1960s; the five positions on court were known only as guards and the center, but it is now accepted that the five primary positions are point guard, shooting guard, small forward, power forward, center. A forward–center is a talented forward who came to play minutes at center on teams that need help at that position; the player could be a somewhat floor-bound center, under seven feet tall at the NBA level, whose skills suit him to a power forward position if that team has a better center. One such player is Marcus Camby of the New York Knicks. At 6'11", he plays as a center, but when he played for the New York Knicks earlier in his career, he played power forward because his team had one of the best pure centers in the league in 7'0" Patrick Ewing.
Ewing himself was used as a forward–center early in his career to complement the then-incumbent Knicks center, 7'1" Bill Cartwright. Ralph Sampson, at 7'4", was another notable forward–center who played center his rookie year in 1983. In 1984, he moved to power forward. Most forward-centers range from 6' 9" to 7' 0" in height. Other notable forward-centers include: Kevin Garnett, Tim Duncan, Pau Gasol, Chris Bosh, LaMarcus Aldridge, Anthony Davis, Al Horford, Draymond Green. Tweener
A jump ball is a method used to begin or resume play in basketball. It is similar to a face-off in ice hockey and field lacrosse and a ball-up in Australian rules football. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after an official tosses it into the air between them. In the NBA, WNBA, competitions operated by Euroleague Basketball, a jump ball occurs at the start of the game, the start of any extra period, to settle special situations where penalties cancel out and neither team is entitled to the ball, to settle any held balls. Held balls occur when two opposing players both lay equal claim to the ball, after trying to wrestle it from each other, end up in a stalemate. A jump ball may be called if there are different calls by two or more referees. However, most competitions other than the NBA, WNBA, Euroleague Basketball use the alternating possession rule to settle all jump ball situations after the opening tip; this uses a possession arrow on the scorekeeper's table. Whenever such a jump ball situation occurs, possession of the ball is awarded to the team, moving in the direction of the possession arrow on offense.
The arrow swaps to point to the other team. At the start of the game, the arrow points to the team; the alternating possession arrow rule went into effect in college basketball in 1981. Since, it has been controversial. Supporters of the possession arrow believe that jump balls give the team with taller players and better leapers an unfair advantage over the other, plus the possession arrow gives another element of strategy, but those who oppose the possession arrow believe that it has undone a trailing team's defensive effort because it is the other team's turn to get the ball. FIBA, with recommendation by NCAA Men's Supervisor of Officials Hank Nichols, on the FIBA World Technical Commission at the time, adopted the alternating possession rule in 2003, with a major difference. In overtime periods, play begins with the arrow. In other organizations, another jump ball is conducted. FIBA mandated that ULEB, which operated the EuroLeague and Eurocup before handing responsibility to the Euroleague Company, adopt the FIBA rule in 2005, as part of FIBA's rules being used by the EuroLeague, effective the 2005-06 season.
The EuroLeague used the NBA jump ball rules. However, the Euroleague Company reinstated the jump ball rule in 2013. Uniquely, 3x3, a formalized version of halfcourt three-on-three basketball overseen by FIBA, does not use a jump ball at any time in a game. Under current rules, the first possession is based on the result of a pregame coin toss. During the game, held balls are automatically awarded to the defensive team. Rules of basketball Moran, Malcolm. "Possession arrow creates hoops impasse". USA Today