Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds, it belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life, it is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon; the best known are graphite and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary with the allotropic form.
For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest occurring material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor. Under normal conditions, carbon nanotubes, graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure, they are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react with oxygen. The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes; the largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with ten million compounds described to date, yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions.
For this reason, carbon has been referred to as the "king of the elements". The allotropes of carbon include graphite, one of the softest known substances, diamond, the hardest occurring substance, it bonds with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with suitable multivalent atoms. Carbon is known to form ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds. Carbon has the highest sublimation point of all elements. At atmospheric pressure it has no melting point, as its triple point is at 10.8±0.2 MPa and 4,600 ± 300 K, so it sublimes at about 3,900 K. Graphite is much more reactive than diamond at standard conditions, despite being more thermodynamically stable, as its delocalised pi system is much more vulnerable to attack. For example, graphite can be oxidised by hot concentrated nitric acid at standard conditions to mellitic acid, C66, which preserves the hexagonal units of graphite while breaking up the larger structure.
Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc, which has a temperature of about 5800 K. Thus, irrespective of its allotropic form, carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than the highest-melting-point metals such as tungsten or rhenium. Although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more than elements such as iron and copper, which are weaker reducing agents at room temperature. Carbon is the sixth element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s22s22p2, of which the four outer electrons are valence electrons, its first four ionisation energies, 1086.5, 2352.6, 4620.5 and 6222.7 kJ/mol, are much higher than those of the heavier group-14 elements. The electronegativity of carbon is 2.5 higher than the heavier group-14 elements, but close to most of the nearby nonmetals, as well as some of the second- and third-row transition metals. Carbon's covalent radii are taken as 77.2 pm, 66.7 pm and 60.3 pm, although these may vary depending on coordination number and what the carbon is bonded to.
In general, covalent radius decreases with higher bond order. Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earth, the carbon–nitrogen cycle provides some of the energy produced by the Sun and other stars. Although it forms an extraordinary variety of compounds, most forms of carbon are comparatively unreactive under normal conditions. At standard temperature and pressure, it resists all but the strongest oxidizers, it does not react with hydrochloric acid, chlorine or any alkalis. At elevated temperatures, carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon oxides and will rob oxygen from metal oxides to leave the elemental metal; this exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel industry to smelt iron and to control the carbon content of steel: Fe3O4 + 4 C → 3 Fe + 4 COCarbon monoxide can be recycled to smelt more iron: Fe3O4 + 4 CO → 3 Fe + 4 CO2with sulfur to form carbon disulfide and with steam in the coal-gas reaction: C + H2O → CO + H2. Carbon combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides, such as the iron carbide cementite in steel and tungsten carbide used as an abrasive and for making hard tips for cutting tools.
The system of carbon allotropes spans a range of extremes: Atomic carbon is a ver
Chrome plating referred to as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object. The chromed layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, ease cleaning procedures, or increase surface hardness. Sometimes, a less expensive imitator of chrome may be used for aesthetic purposes. Chrome plating a component includes these stages: Degreasing to remove heavy soiling Manual cleaning to remove all residual traces of dirt and surface impurities Various pretreatments depending on the substrate Placement into the chrome plating vat, where it is allowed to warm to solution temperature Application of plating current for the required time to attain the desired thicknessThere are many variations to this process, depending on the type of substrate being plated. Different substrates need different etching solutions, such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. Ferric chloride is popular for the etching of nimonic alloys. Sometimes the component enters the chrome plating vat.
Sometimes the component has a conforming anode made from platinized titanium. A typical hard chrome vat plates at about 1 mil per hour. Various finishing and buffing processes are used in preparing components for decorative chrome plating; the chrome plating chemicals are toxic. Disposal of chemicals is regulated in most countries; some common industry specifications governing the chrome plating process are AMS 2460, AMS 2406, MIL-STD-1501. Hexavalent chromium plating known as hex-chrome, Cr6+, chrome plating, uses chromium trioxide as the main ingredient. Hexavalent chromium plating solution is used for decorative and hard plating, along with bright dipping of copper alloys, chromic acid anodizing, chromate conversion coating. A typical hexavalent chromium plating process is: activation bath, chromium bath and rinse; the activation bath is a tank of chromic acid with a reverse current run through it. This removes any scale. In some cases the activation step is done in the chromium bath; the chromium bath is a mixture of chromium trioxide and sulfuric acid, the ratio of which varies between 75:1 to 250:1 by weight.
This results in an acidic bath. The temperature and current density in the bath affect final coverage. For decorative coating the temperature ranges from 35 to 45 °C, but for hard coating it ranges from 50 to 65 °C. Temperature is dependent on the current density, because a higher current density requires a higher temperature; the whole bath is agitated to keep the temperature steady and achieve a uniform deposition. One functional disadvantage of hexavalent chromium plating is low cathode efficiency, which results in bad throwing power; this means it leaves a non-uniform coating, with less in inside corners and holes. To overcome this problem the part may be over-plated and ground to size, or auxiliary anodes may be used around the hard-to-plate areas. From a health standpoint, hexavalent chromium is the most toxic form of chromium. In the U. S. the Environmental Protection Agency regulates it heavily. The EPA lists hexavalent chromium as a hazardous air pollutant because it is a human carcinogen, a "priority pollutant" under the Clean Water Act, a "hazardous constituent" under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Due to its low cathodic efficiency and high solution viscosity, a toxic mist of water and hexavalent chromium is released from the bath. Wet scrubbers are used to control these emissions; the discharge from the wet scrubbers is treated to precipitate the chromium from the solution because it cannot remain in the waste water. Maintaining a bath surface tension less than 35 dynes/cm requires a frequent cycle of treating the bath with a wetting agent and confirming the effect on surface tension. Traditionally, surface tension is measured with a stalagmometer; this method is, however and suffers from inaccuracy, is dependent on the user's experience and capabilities. Additional toxic waste created from hexavalent chromium baths include lead chromates, which form in the bath because lead anodes are used. Barium is used to control the sulfate concentration, which leads to the formation of barium sulfate, a hazardous waste. Trivalent chromium plating known as tri-chrome, Cr3+, chrome plating, uses chromium sulfate or chromium chloride as the main ingredient.
Trivalent chromium plating is an alternative to hexavalent chromium in certain applications and thicknesses. A trivalent chromium plating process is similar to the hexavalent chromium plating process, except for the bath chemistry and anode composition. There are three main types of trivalent chromium bath configurations: A chloride- or sulfate-based electrolyte bath using graphite or composite anodes, plus additives to prevent the oxidation of trivalent chromium to the anodes. A sulfate-based bath that uses lead anodes surrounded by boxes filled with sulfuric acid, which keeps the trivalent chromium from oxidizing at the anodes. A sulfate-based bath that uses insoluble catalytic anodes, which maintains an electrode potential that prevents oxidation; the trivalent chromium-plating process can plate the workpieces at a similar temperature and hardness, as compared to hexavalent chromium. Plating thickness ranges from 0.005 to 0.05 mils. The functional advantages of trivalent chromium are higher cathode efficiency and better throwing power.
Better throwing power means better production
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Bronze is an alloy containing copper, but instead of zinc it has tin. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium and silicon; the distinction is historical. Modern practice in museums and archaeology avoids both terms for historical objects in favour of the all-embracing "copper alloy". Brass is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance, it is used in zippers. Brass is used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than zinc; the low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.
The density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre. Today 90% of all brass alloys are recycled; because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are extruded into the desired form and size; the general softness of brass means that it can be machined without the use of cutting fluid, though there are exceptions to this. Aluminium makes brass more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide to be formed on the surface, thin and self-healing. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. To enhance the machinability of brass, lead is added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a lower melting point than the other constituents of the brass, it tends to migrate towards the grain boundaries in the form of globules as it cools from casting.
The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available lead surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching. In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface; these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content. In October 1999 the California State Attorney General sued 13 key manufacturers and distributors over lead content. In laboratory tests, state researchers found the average brass key, new or old, exceeded the California Proposition 65 limits by an average factor of 19, assuming handling twice a day. In April 2001 manufacturers agreed to reduce lead content to 1.5%, or face a requirement to warn consumers about lead content. Keys plated with other metals are not affected by the settlement, may continue to use brass alloys with higher percentage of lead content. In California, lead-free materials must be used for "each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes and pipe fittings, plumbing fittings and fixtures."
On January 1, 2010, the maximum amount of lead in "lead-free brass" in California was reduced from 4% to 0.25% lead. The so-called dezincification resistant brasses, sometimes referred to as CR brasses, are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present, or deviating water qualities play a role. DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems; this brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures. The high malleability and workability good resistance to corrosion, traditionally attributed acoustic properties of brass, have made it the usual metal of choice for construction of musical instruments whose acoustic resonators consist of long narrow tubing folded or coiled for compactness. Collectively known as brass instruments, these include the trombone, trumpet, baritone horn, tenor horn, French horn, many other "horns", many in variously-sized families, such as the saxhorns.
Other wind instruments may be constructed of brass or other metals, indeed most modern student-model flutes and piccolos are made of some variety of brass a cupronickel alloy similar to nickel silver/German silver. Clarinets low clarinets such as the contrabass and subcontrabass, are sometimes made of metal because of limited supplies of the dense, fine-grained tropical hardwoods traditionally preferred for smaller woodwinds. For the same reason, some low clarinets and contrabassoons feature a hybrid construction, with long, straight sections of wood, curved joints, and/or bell of metal; the use of metal avoids the risks of exposing wooden instruments to changes in temperature or humid
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as a confraternities of tradesmen, they were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, a secret society. They depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other authority to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating on the public would be banned from the guild. An important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna and Paris. A type of guild was known in Roman times. Known as collegium, collegia or corpus, these were organised groups of merchants who specialised in a particular craft and whose membership of the group was voluntary. One such example is the corpus naviculariorum, the college of long-distance shippers based at Rome's La Ostia port.
The Roman guilds failed to survive the collapse of the Roman Empire. In medieval cities, craftsmen tended to form associations based on their trades, confraternities of textile workers, carpenters, glass workers, each of whom controlled secrets of traditionally imparted technology, the "arts" or "mysteries" of their crafts; the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices. There were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but the frith guild and religious guild. Guilds arose beginning in the High Middle Ages as craftsmen united to protect their common interests. In the German city of Augsburg craft guilds are being mentioned in the Towncharter of 1156; the continental system of guilds and merchants arrived in England after the Norman Conquest, with incorporated societies of merchants in each town or city holding exclusive rights of doing business there. In many cases they became the governing body of a town. For example, London's Guildhall became the seat of the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation, the world’s oldest continuously elected local government, whose members to this day must be Freemen of the City.
The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, was only bestowed upon members of a Guild or Livery. Early egalitarian communities called "guilds" were denounced by Catholic clergy for their "conjurations" — the binding oaths sworn among the members to support one another in adversity, kill specific enemies, back one another in feuds or in business ventures; the occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, the pagan feast of Jul —in 858, West Francian Bishop Hincmar sought vainly to Christianise the guilds. In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and glassmakers the people that had local skills. Gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of transmitted journeymanship.
In France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, "Within the guild itself there was little division of labour, which tended to operate rather between the guilds. Thus, according to Étienne Boileau's Book of Handicrafts, by the mid-13th century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris, a figure which by the 14th century had risen to 350." There were different guilds of metal-workers: the farriers, knife-makers, chain-forgers, nail-makers formed separate and distinct corporations. In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society: a shoemakers' guild is recorded in 1208. In England in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as livery companies, survive today, with the oldest more than a thousand years old. Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently. Membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
The guild system reached a mature state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century, with some special privileges for certain occupations remaining today. In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, Lübeck 70; the latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain: Toledo. Not all city economies were controlled by guilds. Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor and trade. In order to become a master, a journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called journeyman years; the practice of the journeyman years still exists in France. As production became more specialized, trade guilds were divided and subdivided, eliciting the squabbles over jurisdiction that produced the paperwork by which economic historians trace their development: The
Felt is a textile material, produced by matting and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pulp-based rayon. Blended fibers are common. Felt from wool is considered to be the oldest known textile. Many cultures have legends as to the origins of felt making. Sumerian legend claims; the story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters while fleeing from persecution. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks. Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia, where rugs and clothing are made; some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. In the Western world, felt is used as a medium for expression in both textile art and contemporary art and design, where it has significance as an ecologically responsible textile and building material.
In the wet felting process, hot water is applied to layers of animal hairs, while repeated agitation and compression causes the fibers to hook together or weave together into a single piece of fabric. Wrapping the properly arranged fiber in a sturdy, textured material, such as a bamboo mat or burlap, will speed up the felting process; the felted material may be finished by fulling. Only certain types of fiber can be wet. Most types of fleece, such as those taken from the alpaca or the Merino sheep, can be put through the wet felting process. One may use mohair, angora, or hair from rodents such as beavers and muskrats; these types of fiber are covered in tiny scales, similar to the scales found on a strand of human hair. Heat and moisture of the fleece causes the scales to open, while agitating them causes them to latch onto each other, creating felt. There is an alternative theory. Plant fibers and synthetic fibers will not wet felt. Needle felting is a method of creating felted objects without using water.
The special needles used to make 3D sculpture, adornments and 2D art have notches along the shaft of the needle that catch fibers and tangle them with other fibers to produce felt. These notches are sometimes erroneously called "barbs", but barbs are protrusions and would be too difficult to thrust into the wool and nearly impossible to pull out. There are many types of notched needles for different uses while working. Needle felting is used in industrial processes as well as in individual crafting. Needles used for crafting are very thin needles, sometimes fitted in holders that allow the user to utilize 2 or more needles at one time to sculpt wool objects and shapes; the single thin needles are used for detail and the multiple needles that are paired together are used for larger areas or to form the base of the project. At any point in time a variety of fiber colors may be added for detail and individuality, using needles to incorporate them into the project; the kawaii style of needle felting was made popular by the Japanese culture.
Kawaii means cute in Japanese and to felt in the kawaii style just means to make the object cute. Most kawaii needle felt sculptures have small, minimal detail and are brightly colored, they are more cute and playful compared to the more traditional needle felt, more rustic and earthy. Ikuyo Fujita（藤田育代 Fujita Ikuyo）is a Japanese artist who works in needle felt painting and mogol art. Needle felting can be used to create realistic 3 dimensional animals. A wire armature can be created to help the process and provide support, around which a needle felted body and coat can be added. Here are some examples; the art of needle felting is becoming popular worldwide. Invented in the mid 17th century and used until the mid-20th centuries, a process called "carroting" was used in the manufacture of good quality felt for making men's hats. Beaver, rabbit or hare skins were treated with a dilute solution of the mercury compound mercuric nitrate; the skins were dried in an oven where the thin fur at the sides turned the color of carrots.
Pelts were stretched over a bar in a cutting machine, the skin was sliced off in thin shreds, with the fleece coming away entirely. The fur was blown onto a cone-shaped colander and treated with hot water to consolidate it; the cone peeled off and passed through wet rollers to cause the fur to felt. These'hoods' were dyed and blocked to make hats; the toxic solutions from the carrot and the vapours it produced resulted in widespread cases of mercury poisoning among hatters. This may be the origin of the phrase "mad as a hatter", used to humorous effect by Lewis Carroll in the chapter "A Mad Tea Party" of the novel Alice in Wonderland. Felt is used in a wide range of industries and manufacturing processes, from the automotive industry and casinos to musical instruments and home construction, as well as in gun wads, either inside cartridges or pushed down the barrel of a muzzleloader. Many musical instruments use, it is used as a damper. On drum cymbal stands, it protects the cymbal from ensures a clean sound.
It is used to wrap bass drum timpani mallets. Felt is used extensively in pianos; the density and springiness of the felt is a major part of. As the felt becomes grooved and "packed" with use and age, the tone suffers. Felt
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
Carnival of Basel
The Carnival of Basel is the biggest carnival in Switzerland and takes place annually between February and March in Basel. It has been listed as one of the top fifty local festivities in Europe; the Basler Fasnacht starts on the Monday after Ash Wednesday at 4:00 am with the so-called Morgestraich. The carnival lasts for 72 hours and, ends on Thursday morning at 4:00 am. During this time the Fasnächtler dominate the old town of central Basel, running free in the streets and restaurants. Basler Fasnacht is referred to as die drey scheenschte Dääg. Unlike the Carnival celebrations held in other cities on the Rhine, the Basel Carnival features a clear and well-maintained separation between participants and the spectators who line the streets; the 18,000 active Fasnächtler dress up in a wide variety of costumes, including a mask known as a Larve. Participants are concealed and must remain incognito while parading. Members of the various Cliques wear costumes that fit a specific theme, except during Morgestreich and on Fasnacht Tuesday.
Costumes and masks represent famous people including politicians, or comic characters or animals. More traditional masks recall Napoleonic soldiers and the famous Waggis; the parades taking place on Monday and Wednesday afternoon are called Cortège and follow two defined ring routes: the inner ring runs clockwise, the outer ring runs counterclockwise. The two routes are sometimes referred to as the blue and the red route because of their colour representation on the route map; the Fasnächtler who participate in the parade toss confetti into the crowds, hand out candy and other treats to the spectators. Most of the groups choose a Sujet for the Fasnacht; these Sujets related to recent events and are satirical. These Sujets can be seen on lanterns during Morgenstreich and in the costumes worn by Clique members during the Cortège. Most Cliques distribute Zeedel. According to some local historians, the throwing of confetti is a typical tradition from Basel that spread to the rest of the world. While there is no proof for this theory, the amount of confetti used during Basler Fasnacht is huge in comparison to other carnivals.
Sweets in the form of small sugar balls known as confetti were given away or thrown at the crowd during the parade. After this practice was prohibited in the 19th century, small shards of paper were used as a replacement; until it was banned in the second half of the 20th century, it was common to use straw instead of confetti, although wheat chaff is still sometimes thrown in some of the outlying towns and regions. In the Basel German dialect, confetti are called Räppli, only single-coloured confetti can be purchased in Basel. Confetti is never mixed; this was decided by the regional confetti manufacturers to prevent the once-common practice of reselling "used" confetti. Throwing mixed confetti is seen as bad form, since one would have picked it up from the street, an unhygienic practice. For spectators, there is the ever-present danger of being attacked from behind by a confetti-throwing Waggis if not wearing a Carnival badge known as a Blaggedde, it is an unwritten law. By the evening, the routes of the Cortège are ankle-deep in confetti.
So, Basel's sanitation department succeeds in clearing away this mess within two hours during the night, so, by the following morning, there is little evidence of the previous day's events. At the Basel Carnival there are five major groups of participants. One of the oldest formations are the Cliques, who march through the old town playing the piccolo and basler drum. A Clique consists of a Vortrab, the Pfeifer, the Tambourmajor and the Tambouren. Except on Cortège, the Cliques do not follow fixed routes, it is thus common for different Cliques to cross paths. In that case, one Clique will let the other Clique pass. Spectators, on the other hand, will be politely guided off the route by the Vortrab. Marching brass bands playing Guggenmusik are another formation present during Carnival. Although the Guggemusik groups do not participate on Morgestreich, they march and play throughout Fasnacht, starting with the Cortège on Monday, are showcased on Tuesday night when they perform in Guggekoncerts in various locations.
The Schnitzelbank singer is a bard that sings satirical verses about current events in Basel or from around the world. The verses are sung in Swiss German and the singer will show Helge to the current verse. Similar verses are distributed by the various Cliques in flyers known as Zeedel; the singers appear in the restaurants and bars on Monday and Wednesday night and in the clique-cellars on Tuesday. During the Cortège, there are many tractors with decorated trailers. In these large trailers are Waggis throwing oranges, flowers or other treats to the crowd; the Waggis shower bystanders with copious amounts of confetti. The Waggis are an affectionate spoof on the Alsatian farmers who, in the distant past rolled up to Basel markets to