The Basque conflict known as the Spain–ETA conflict, was an armed and political conflict from 1959 to 2011 between Spain and the Basque National Liberation Movement, a group of social and political Basque organizations which sought independence from Spain and France. The movement was built around the separatist organization ETA, which had launched a campaign of attacks against Spanish administrations since 1959. ETA had been proscribed as a terrorist organization by the Spanish, British and American authorities at different moments; the conflict took place on Spanish soil, although to a smaller degree it was present in France, used as a safe haven by ETA members. It was the longest running violent conflict in modern Western Europe, it has been sometimes referred to as "Europe's longest war". The terminology is controversial. "Basque conflict" is preferred by Basque nationalist groups, including those opposed to ETA violence. Others, such as a number of Basque academics and historians commissioned to draft a report on the subject by the Basque government, reject the term, seeing it as legitimate state agencies fighting a terrorist group, responsible for the vast majority of deaths.
The conflict had both military dimensions. Its participants included politicians and political activists on both sides, the abertzale left and the Spanish government, the security forces of Spain and France fighting against ETA and other small organizations involved in the kale borroka. Far-right paramilitary groups fighting against ETA were active in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the debate on Basque independence started in the 19th century, the armed conflict did not start until ETA was created in 1959. Since the conflict resulted in the deaths of more than 1,000 people, including police and security officers, members of the armed forces, Spanish politicians and civilians and some ETA members. There were thousands of people injured, dozens kidnapped and a disputed number going into exile, either to flee from the violence or to avoid capture by Spanish or French police or by Europol/Interpol. On 20 October 2011, ETA announced a "definitive cessation of its armed activity". Spanish premier Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero described the move as "a victory for democracy and reason".
The term "Basque conflict" is used either to define the broad political conflict between a part of Basque society and the Francoist and Constitutional model of the Spanish decentralized state, to describe the armed confrontation between the separatist group ETA and the Spanish state, or to describe a mixture of both perspectives. France was not involved in the conflict with ETA nor was it targeted by the organization, the French only began to cooperate with Spanish law enforcement, beginning in 1987, regarding the conflict. Unlike the British participation in the conflict in Northern Ireland, the Spanish armed forces were never deployed or involved in the Basque conflict, although they represented one of ETA's major targets outside the Basque Country. José Luis de la Granja, Santiago de Pablo and Ludger Mees argue that the term Basque conflict, while technically correct in several languages as equivalent of'question' or'problem', should not give the impression of a war between Euskal Herria and the states of Spain and France, preferring the terms problema or cuestión, that would encompass both the problems in the integration of the Basque territories in the contemporary Spanish state and the secular problems of cohabitation among the Basques themselves.
According to Paddy Woodworth in a 2009 article in the New York Times, The core issue is whether there is a “Basque conflict” at all. Spanish public opinion, on both left and right denies that there is, sees the problem as akin to smashing a criminal mafia, but Basque nationalists, including a big majority who abhor ETA’s methods, believe there is a deep underlying political conflict about Basque self-determination. They want this question to be addressed with the same imagination and courage as the British and Irish governments used in talking to the IRA; however raising this issue has become taboo among most Spaniards. They regard the Basque country, in the words of one pro-Spanish Basque politician I have interviewed, as “not just a part of Spain, but the heart of Spain.” According to Gaizka Fernández Soldevilla, the narrative of the existence of a secular conflict between Basques and Spaniards has been one of the most used tropes by ETA and the abertzale left as pretext for the activity of the former.
José Antonio Pérez Pérez points out that the perception of a war between an occupying Spain and a basque people defender of the basque liberties and victim of genocide would have served as justifying framework of the ETA armed activity. According to Luis Castells and Fernando Molina the formulation of the existence of two symmetric violences, that would allow for a split of responsibilities between ETA and the states of Spain and France, carrying therefore a dilution of the responsibility of ETA, is a narrative espoused by the Abertzale left, that would present ETA as an inevitable historic response to the secular conflict. According to Fernández Soldevilla, in spite of the end of the armed activity, the narrative of the basque conflict and divulgated by abertzale organic intellectuals such as historians Francisco Letamendia and Jose Mari Lorenzo, publicists such as Iñaki Egaña or Eduardo Renobales or journalists such as Luis Núñez Astrain, would be still useful as suggestive message in order to delegitimize the current democratic system, mixing victims with victimaries and equating the B
Crouchen is a white South African and Australian wine grape variety that originated in the western Pyrenees of France but is now extinct in France due to its high susceptibility to fungal diseases like powdery and downy mildew. The grape is known under a wide variety of synonyms including Clare Riesling and Cape Riesling though it is not related to the well known international variety Riesling. Recent European Union regulation aimed at standardizing wine labelling laws has encouraged wineries to move away from these synonyms but their use still persists. Records indicate that Crouchen was first shipped from France to the Clare Valley in South Australia in 1850. From there the grape became misidentified as both Semillon and Riesling before being considered by the Australians to be a new variety known as Clare Riesling. In 1976 ampelographer Paul Truel positively identified the vines growing in Australia as the French variety Crouchen. In the early 1990s, there over 1,000 acres of Crouchen growing throughout Australia but its numbers have been declining over the past few decades.
Here is it is used as a blending variety to enhance the aromas of white wines. It is still grown in South Africa, accounting for 3% of all of South Africa's vineyards, with more than 7,900 acres planted in the Paarl and Stellenbosch regions. Here the variety is known as Cape Riesling but is simply called Riesling as opposed to the German wine grape Riesling, known in South Africa as Weisser or White Riesling. Wine expert Jancis Robinson notes that some examples of Cape Riesling do have the potential to age and improve in the bottle. Oz Clarke notes that some the best examples of Crouchen can be "fairly steely". Crouchen is known under the synonyms Basque, Cape Riesling, Cheri Cerratia, Clare Riesling, Crochenta, Crouchen Blanc, Cruchen Blanc, Cruchenton Blanc, Grand Blanc, Kaapse Riesling, Messanges Blanc, Navarre Blanc, Paarl Riesling, Riesling Vert, S. A. Riesling, Sable Blanc, Sales Blanc, Trouchet Blanc, Zurizerratia
The Basques are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are indigenous to and inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country, a region, located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France; the English word Basque may be pronounced or and derives from the French Basque, derived from Gascon Basco, cognate with Spanish Vasco. These, in turn, come from plural Vascones; the Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity. Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes; the place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones.
Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". In Basque, people call themselves singular euskaldun, formed from euskal - and - dun. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" and the suffix -ara, thus euskara would mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, he records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.
In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko. On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi is still used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Since the Basque language is unrelated to Indo-European, it has long been thought to represent the people or culture that occupied Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages there. A comprehensive analysis of Basque genetic patterns has shown that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula, about 7,000 years ago, it is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani, others.
There is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that at that time and they spoke old varieties of the Basque language. In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, a vaguely defined ethnic area and political entity struggling to fend off pressure from the Iberian Visigothic kingdom and Arab rule to the south, as well as the Frankish push from the north. By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries; the Kingdom of Pamplona, a central Basque realm known as Navarre, underwent a process of feudalization and was subject to the influence of its much larger Aragonese and French neighbours. Castile deprived Navarre of its coastline by conquering key western territories, leaving the kingdom landlocked.
The Basques were ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies. However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in 1620; the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution and the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants. On either side of the Pyrenees, the Basques lost their native institutions and laws held during the Ancien régime. Since despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment, sometimes by acts
A basque is an item of women's clothing. The term, of French origin referred to types of bodice or jacket with long tails, in usage a long corset, characterized by a close, contoured fit and extending past the waistline over the hips, it is so called because the original French fashion for long women's jackets was adopted from Basque traditional dress. In contemporary usage it refers only to a long item of lingerie, in effect a brassiere that continues down, stopping around the waist or the top of the hips, the lower part decorative rather than providing support or indeed warmth. In Victorian fashion, basque refers to a fitted bodice or jacket extending past the waistline over the hips. A basque bodice could be referred to as a "corset waist", because of its close fit; the modern French-language usage is different, much closer to the historic original, used in the plural. In 20th century and contemporary attire, the term is used to refer to certain articles of lingerie a type of corset known as a torsolette, or alternately a torso-hugging camisole that resembles a corset, but of more delicate construction and offering little or no figure-moulding compression.
Instead the modern basque emphasizes allure, with details such as frilly lace and cutout, "peekaboo" designs, sometimes garters to join to stockings. The undergarment is similar with less compression of the ribs; the modern-day torsolette features lace-up or hook-and-eye fastening, as well as boning or vertical seams for structure and support. It though not always, has brassiere cups and is distinguished from the bustier by its length. In American English, it is sometimes known as a "merry widow". A soft torsolette is like an elongated bandeau A long torsolette is a corselette Media related to Torsolette at Wikimedia Commons
Basque Country (greater region)
The Basque Country is the name given to the home of the Basque people. The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century, it comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France. The region is home to the Basque people, their language and traditions; the area is neither linguistically nor culturally homogeneous, certain areas have a majority of people who do not consider themselves Basque, such as the south of Navarre. The name in Basque is Euskal Herria; the name is difficult to translate into other languages due to the wide range of meanings of the Basque word herri. It can be translated as nation; the first part, Euskal, is the adjectival form of Euskara "the Basque language". Thus a more literal translation would be "country/nation/people/settlement of the Basque language", a concept difficult to render into a single word in most other languages.
The two earliest references are in Joan Perez de Lazarraga's manuscript, dated around 1564–1567 as eusquel erria and eusquel erriau and heuscal herrian and Heuscal-Herrian in Joanes Leizarraga's Bible translation, published in 1571. The term Basque Country refers to a collection of regions inhabited by the Basque people, known as Euskal Herria in Basque language, it is first attested as including seven traditional territories in Axular's literary work Gero, in the early 17th century; some Basques refer to the seven traditional districts collectively as Zazpiak Bat, meaning "The Seven One", a motto coined in the late 19th century. The Northern Basque Country, known in Basque as Iparralde is the part of the Basque Country that lies within France as part of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques départment of France, as such it is usually known as French Basque Country. In most contemporary sources it covers the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus, but sources disagree on the status of the village of Esquiule.
Within these conventions, the area of Northern Basque Country is 2,995 square kilometres. The French Basque Country is traditionally subdivided into three provinces: Labourd, historical capital Ustaritz, main settlement today Bayonne Lower Navarre, historical capitals Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint-Palais, main settlement today Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port Soule, historical capital Mauléon However, this summary presentation makes it hard to justify the inclusion of a few communes in the lower Adour region; as emphasized by Jean Goyhenetche, it would be more accurate to depict it as the reunion of five entities: Labourd, Lower Navarre, Soule but Bayonne and Gramont. The Southern Basque Country, known in Basque as Hegoalde is the part of the Basque region that lies within Spain, as such it is also known as Spanish Basque Country, it is the largest and most populated part of the Basque Country. It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community and the Chartered Community of Navarre; the Basque Autonomous Community consists of three provinces designated "historical territories": Álava Biscay Gipuzkoa The Chartered Community of Navarre is a single-province autonomous community.
Its name refers to the Fueros of Navarre. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 states that Navarre may become a part of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country if it is so decided by its people and institutions. To date, there has been no implementation of this law. Despite demands for a referendum by minority leftist forces and Basque nationalists in Navarre, it has been opposed by mainstream Spanish parties and Navarrese People's Union; the latter has asked for an amendment to the Constitution to remove this clause. In addition to those, two enclaves located outside of the respective autonomous community are cited as being part of both the Basque Autonomous Community and the Basque Country: The Treviño enclave, a Castilian enclave in Álava Valle de Villaverde, a Cantabrian exclave in Biscay Navarre holds two small administrative strips in Aragon, organised as Petilla de Aragón; the Basque Country region is dominated by a warm and wet oceanic climate and the coastal area is part of Green Spain and by extension it affects Bayonne and Biarritz as well.
Inland areas in Navarre and the southern regions of the autonomous community are transitional with continental mediterranean climate with somewhat larger temperature swings between seasons. The list only sources locations in Spain, but Bayonne/Biarritz have a similar climate as nearby Hondarribia on the Spanish side of the border; the values do not apply to San Sebastián since its weather station is at a higher elevation than the urban core where temperatures are higher year-round and similar to those in Bilbao and Hon
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
French Basque Country
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Since 1 January 2017, it constitutes the Basque Municipal Community presided over by Jean-René Etchegaray, it includes three former historic French provinces in the north-east of the traditional Basque Country totalling 2,869 km2: Lower Navarre, until 1789 nominally Kingdom of Navarre, with 1,284 km2. The population included in the Basque Municipal Community amounts to 295,970 inhabitants distributed in 158 municipalities, it is delimited in the north by the department of Landes, in the west by the Bay of Biscay, in the south by the Southern Basque Country and in the east by Béarn, the eastern part of the department. Bayonne and Biarritz are its chief towns, included in the Basque Eurocity Bayonne-San Sebastián Euroregion, it is a popular tourist destination and is somewhat distinct from neighbouring parts of either France or the southern Basque Country, since it was not industrialized as Biscay or Gipuzkoa and remained agricultural and a beach destination.
The present-day territory was inhabited by the Tarbelli and the Sibulates, tribal divisions of the Aquitani. When Caesar conquered Gaul he found all the region south and west of the Garonne inhabited by a people known as the Aquitani, who were not Celtic and are modernly regarded as Basques. In the early Roman times, the region was first known as Aquitania, when the name Aquitania was extended until the Loire river, as Novempopulania or Aquitania Tertia. After the Basque rebellions against Roman feudalism in the late 4th and 5th century, the area formed part of the independent Duchy of Vasconia, a blur ethnic polity stretching south of the Garonne River that broke up from the 8th to 9th century following the Carolingian expansion, the pressure of Norman raids and feudalism; the County of Vasconia was created extending around the Adour River. In this period northern Basques participated in the successive battles of Roncevaux against the Franks, in 778, 812 and 824. Count Sans Sancion detached from the Franks and became the independent commander of Vasconia, but got involved in the Carolingian dynastic wars over succession after taking over Bordeaux, supporting the young Pepin II to the throne of Aquitaine.
He became Duke of Vasconia after submitting to Charles the Bald. At this point, Basque language was losing ground to vulgar and written Latin and was confined to the lands around the Pyrénées. Since 963, the town Saint-Sever is mentioned as "caput vasconiae", interpreted by some as "limit of Vasconia", while others take it as "prominence of Vasconia" on account of its location on a hill overlooking the plains of Vasconia; the lands to the south of the Adour became Labourd, encompassing a bigger region than the territory around the Nive and the coast. In 1020 Gascony ceded its jurisdiction over Labourd also including Lower Navarre, to Sancho the Great of Pamplona; this monarch made it a Viscounty in 1023. The area became disputed by the Angevin Dukes of Aquitaine until 1191 when Sancho the Wise and Richard Lionheart agreed to divide the country, Labourd remaining under Angevin sovereignty and Lower Navarre under Navarrese control. Meanwhile, Soule was constituted as an independent viscounty supported by Navarre against the pretensions of the Counts of Béarn, though at times it admitted a certain Angevin overlordship.
With the end of the Hundred Years' War and Soule passed to the Crown of France as autonomous provinces. After the conquest of Upper Navarre by Castile in 1512–21, the still independent north-Pyrenean part of Navarre took the lead of the Huguenot party in the French Wars of Religion. In this time the Bible was first translated into the Basque language. Henry III of Navarre became King of France but kept Navarre as a formally independent state, until in 1620–24 this separation was suppressed. In 1634, Axular gives in his literary work Gero a rough description of the extent of Basque at the time, with the language comprising all the provinces now known as Basque Country "and so many other places". After Axular's accomplished book, other Basque writing authors followed suit in Labourd, a district thriving on whale hunting. In 1579 an important handbook for navigation was published by Martin Oihartzabal, the Navigational pilot offering guidance and useful landmarks found in Newfoundland and other Basque traditional fisheries.
In 1677 it was translated to Basque by Pierre Etxeberri. However, during the 17 and 18th century that activity saw a gradual decline as the English took over from the Basques; the three Northern Basque provinces still enjoyed considerable autonomy until the French Revolution suppressed it radically, as it did elsewhere in France creating the department of Basses-Pyrénées, half Basque and half Gascon. Third estate representatives of the Basques provinces attending the Estates-General of 1789 and the following national assemblies in Paris rejected the imposition of an alien political-administrative design, regarding the events with a blend of disbelief and indignation; the brothers Garat, representatives of Labourd, defended against a hostile audience the specificity of their province a