Basque Country (greater region)
The Basque Country is the name given to the home of the Basque people. The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century, it comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France. The region is home to the Basque people, their language and traditions; the area is neither linguistically nor culturally homogeneous, certain areas have a majority of people who do not consider themselves Basque, such as the south of Navarre. The name in Basque is Euskal Herria; the name is difficult to translate into other languages due to the wide range of meanings of the Basque word herri. It can be translated as nation; the first part, Euskal, is the adjectival form of Euskara "the Basque language". Thus a more literal translation would be "country/nation/people/settlement of the Basque language", a concept difficult to render into a single word in most other languages.
The two earliest references are in Joan Perez de Lazarraga's manuscript, dated around 1564–1567 as eusquel erria and eusquel erriau and heuscal herrian and Heuscal-Herrian in Joanes Leizarraga's Bible translation, published in 1571. The term Basque Country refers to a collection of regions inhabited by the Basque people, known as Euskal Herria in Basque language, it is first attested as including seven traditional territories in Axular's literary work Gero, in the early 17th century; some Basques refer to the seven traditional districts collectively as Zazpiak Bat, meaning "The Seven One", a motto coined in the late 19th century. The Northern Basque Country, known in Basque as Iparralde is the part of the Basque Country that lies within France as part of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques départment of France, as such it is usually known as French Basque Country. In most contemporary sources it covers the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus, but sources disagree on the status of the village of Esquiule.
Within these conventions, the area of Northern Basque Country is 2,995 square kilometres. The French Basque Country is traditionally subdivided into three provinces: Labourd, historical capital Ustaritz, main settlement today Bayonne Lower Navarre, historical capitals Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint-Palais, main settlement today Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port Soule, historical capital Mauléon However, this summary presentation makes it hard to justify the inclusion of a few communes in the lower Adour region; as emphasized by Jean Goyhenetche, it would be more accurate to depict it as the reunion of five entities: Labourd, Lower Navarre, Soule but Bayonne and Gramont. The Southern Basque Country, known in Basque as Hegoalde is the part of the Basque region that lies within Spain, as such it is also known as Spanish Basque Country, it is the largest and most populated part of the Basque Country. It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community and the Chartered Community of Navarre; the Basque Autonomous Community consists of three provinces designated "historical territories": Álava Biscay Gipuzkoa The Chartered Community of Navarre is a single-province autonomous community.
Its name refers to the Fueros of Navarre. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 states that Navarre may become a part of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country if it is so decided by its people and institutions. To date, there has been no implementation of this law. Despite demands for a referendum by minority leftist forces and Basque nationalists in Navarre, it has been opposed by mainstream Spanish parties and Navarrese People's Union; the latter has asked for an amendment to the Constitution to remove this clause. In addition to those, two enclaves located outside of the respective autonomous community are cited as being part of both the Basque Autonomous Community and the Basque Country: The Treviño enclave, a Castilian enclave in Álava Valle de Villaverde, a Cantabrian exclave in Biscay Navarre holds two small administrative strips in Aragon, organised as Petilla de Aragón; the Basque Country region is dominated by a warm and wet oceanic climate and the coastal area is part of Green Spain and by extension it affects Bayonne and Biarritz as well.
Inland areas in Navarre and the southern regions of the autonomous community are transitional with continental mediterranean climate with somewhat larger temperature swings between seasons. The list only sources locations in Spain, but Bayonne/Biarritz have a similar climate as nearby Hondarribia on the Spanish side of the border; the values do not apply to San Sebastián since its weather station is at a higher elevation than the urban core where temperatures are higher year-round and similar to those in Bilbao and Hon
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
A piebald or pied animal is one that has a pattern of pigmented spots on an unpigmented background of hair, feathers or scales. The spots are pigmented in shades of black and/or yellow as determined by the genotype controlling the color of the animal; the animal's skin underneath its coat may or may not be pigmented under the spots but the skin in the white background is not pigmented. Location of the pigmented spots is dependent on the migration of melanoblasts from the neural crest to paired bilateral locations in the skin of the early embryo; the resulting pattern appears symmetrical only if melanoblasts migrate to both locations of a pair and proliferate to the same degree in both locations. The appearance of symmetry can be obliterated if the proliferation of the melanocytes within the developing spots is so great that the sizes of the spots increase to the point that some of the spots merge, leaving only small areas of the white background among the spots and at the tips of the extremities.
Animals with this pattern may include birds, cattle, foxes, horses and snakes. Some animals exhibit colouration of the irises of the eye that match the surrounding skin; the underlying genetic cause is related to a condition known as leucism. In medieval English "pied" indicated alternating contrasting colours making up the quarters of an item of costume or livery device in heraldry. Court jesters and minstrels are sometimes depicted in pied costume and this is the origin of the name of the Pied Piper of Hamelin; the word "piebald" originates from a combination of "pie," from "magpie", "bald", meaning "white patch" or spot. The reference is to the distinctive black-and-white plumage of the magpie. In British English piebald and skewbald are together known as coloured. In North American English, the term for this colouring pattern is pinto, with the specialized term "paint" referring to a breed of horse with American Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred bloodlines in addition to being spotted, whereas pinto refers to a spotted horse of any breed.
In American usage, horse enthusiasts do not use the term "piebald," but rather describe the colour shade of a pinto with terms such as "black and white" for a piebald, "brown and white," or "bay and white," for skewbalds, or color-specific modifiers such as "bay pinto", "sorrel pinto," "buckskin pinto," and such. Genetically, a piebald horse begins with a black base coat colour, the horse has an allele for one of three basic spotting patterns overlaying the base colour; the most common coloured spotting pattern is called tobiano, is a dominant gene. Tobiano creates spots that are large and rounded with a somewhat vertical orientation, with white that crosses the back of the horse, white on the legs, with the head dark. Three less common spotting genes are the sabino and splash overo genes, which create various patterns that are dark, with jagged spotting with a horizontal orientation, white on the head; the frame variant has minimally marked legs. The sabino pattern can be minimal adding white that runs up the legs onto the belly or flanks, with "lacy" or roaning at the edge of the white, plus white on the head that either extends past the eye, over the chin, or both.
The genetics of overo and sabino are not yet understood, but they can appear in the offspring of two solid-coloured parents, whereas a tobiano must always have at least one tobiano parent. The various types of magpie gave their name to pied coloration; the bald eagle derives its name from the word "piebald" in reference to the contrast of its white head and tail with dark body. Nadine Gordimer used the term in The Conservationist. Many other animal species may be "pied" or piebald including, but not limited to, birds and squirrels. Snakes ball pythons and corn snakes, may exhibit varying patches of pigmentless scales along with patches of pigmented scales. In 2013, a piebald blood python was discovered in Sumatra; some domesticated foxes born from the Russian Institute of Cytology and Genetics carry this coloring. Bicolor cats carry the white spotting gene; the same pattern that applies to cats applies to dogs when the white spotting gene involved is indeed piebald and not another white-causing gene found in dogs.
The piebald gene is found in cows, domestic goats, guinea pigs, hamsters and fancy rats. Dogs, in breeds that may have a spotted or multicolored coat, are called piebald if their body is white or another solid color with spotting and color patches on the head and neck. Holstein and Simmental breeds of cattle exhibit piebaldism. Horse CoatEquine coat color Equine coat color genetics Pinto horse Tricoloured PigmentationAlbinism Amelanism Dyschromia Erythrism Heterochromia iridum Leucism Melanism Piebaldism Skewbald Vitiligo Xanthochromism Schaible, R. H.. "Clonal Distribution of Melanocytes in Piebald-spotted and Variegated Mice". J Exp Zool. 172: 181–200. Schaible, R. H. & Andrews, E. J. & Ward, B. C & Alatman, N. H.. Chapter 146, Introduction to Hypopigmentation. Spontaneous Animal Models of Human Disease. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 11–16. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. "Introduction to Coat Color Genetics". School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.
Retrieved January 12, 2008. "Piebald Moose". Ontario
Basque breeds and cultivars
There are a number of Basque breeds and cultivars. These are domesticated animals that have been bred - or plant species cultivated - for particular traits and features by Basque people in the Basque Country. Some, such as the Alano Español, are not Basque but have only survived in the Basque Country; the Azpi Gorri is a breed of goat found in the Gorbeia region between Álava and Biscay, the Encartaciones and Aramotz in Biscay. With less than 100 animals, it is considered an endangered rare breed; the Basco-béarnaise is a sheep breed from Béarn. Its characteristics are long, white wool, weighing up to 80 kg, it is a dairy sheep and the milk is used to make the AOC Ossau-Iraty cheese. The Basque pig called Pie Noir du Pays basque, Euskal Xerria or Xuri eta beltza, is an indigenous breed of the Basque Country, standardized in France in 1921, today endangered; the Basque Shepherd Dog is a dog breed common throughout the Basque Country. The Betizu is a cattle breed characterised as being agile, with a large head and a rectangular profile.
The Enkarterriko Asto or Spanish: Asno de las Encartaciones is the smallest Iberian donkey breed with males weighing between 170 kg to 210 kg and females 140–190 kg and not much taller than 120 cm. The Euskal Antzara is the Basque breed of domestic goose, it is raised for eggs. Ganders weigh 7 -- geese about 1 kg less; the eggs weigh at least 160 g. The Euskal Oiloa is the chicken breed of the Basque Country, it has five varieties: Beltza, Lepasoila and Zilarra. At the end of 2013 a population of 10,872 birds was reported, all from the País Vasco; the Latxa encountered as lacha in the Spanish spelling is a Basque dairy sheep. They are bred in Biscay and Navarre for their milk, used in the production of Idiazábal and Roncal cheeses. A medium to small sheep with a coarse wool; the Pottoka is an endangered breed of mountain horse. They are small horses with a large head, small ears, short neck, long back, shaggy mane and small hooves; these roamed the Basque Pyrenees in a semi-feral state but today many are stabled.
The Pyrenean Mountain Dog is a large breed of dog used as a livestock guardian dog. The Alavan pinto bean is a type of common bean. Apple growing has a long history in the Basque Country, in particular for use in making Basque cider; the earliest written records on cider making and drinking go back to the 11th and 12th century, the first being a record of Sancho III of Navarre sending an envoy to the Monastery of Leire in 1014 who mentions apples and cider-making. The other is the circa 1134 diary of the pilgrim Aymeric Picaud included in the Codex Calixtinus who mentions the Basques being notable for growing apples and drinking cider; the 16th century inquisitor Pierre de Lancre refers to the Basque Country as "the land of the apple". Many varieties are used for making cider. Azkue's dictionary alone, printed in 1905, lists more than 80 Basque varieties of apples. Depending on the desired character of the finished cider, different varieties and proportions of apple varieties are used; some common varieties include: Errezila and sweet, the most common Basque apple variety Geza miña, sharp.
Pelua cherries are an early Basque black cherry cultivar. Xapata cherries are a variety of black cherry with a short fruiting season, lasting only a few weeks around June, they are cultivates in the area around the Lapurdian town of Itxassou. Several breeds of animals are common both in the Basque Country and other regions straddling the Pyrenees; the Pirenaica is a breed of cattle found in the Basque Country and Catalonia. There were more than 4,000 Pirenaicas in the Basque Autonomous Community in 1995 and the breed is not considered endangered. Basque people Cultivars List of domesticated animals Livestock in the Basque Country
Paris International Agricultural Show
The Paris International Agricultural Show is an annual agricultural show and trade fair, that takes place at the end of February or beginning of March at the Paris expo Porte de Versailles in Paris, France. It is one of the world’s largest and most important agricultural shows, drawing larger crowds than any other in Paris except the Foire de Paris; this event was first held in 1870 as the Concours général agricole. Its name was changed in 1964, but the Concours still exists and is one of the fair's main attractions. Notes This show is organised on several themed zones in different buildings at the Paris expo Porte de Versailles. In 2015 the stands were grouped into four zones: Élevages et ses filières: This zone houses a representative gathering of animals from the 360 exhibited species. At the 2014 show there was a total of more than 3,850 animals in this zone. Produits gastronomiques: This sector represents the food culture of 18 different countries from around the world as well as from the different regions of France.
Cultures et filières végétales: Here were exhibited vegetable crops from the cereal sector, important in France. This section informed the public of new trends in gardening as well as providing activities and entertainment for all ages. Services et métiers de l'agriculture: This was run by the French Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, a major player in the development of agriculture and agricultural training in France. Since 2010, the show has established thematic guided tours which varied from day to day, depending on whether they were targeted for schoolchildren or trade visitors. In 2013, ten thematic guided tours were offered to visitors, one of, a special golden jubilee tour; every two years, the Salon international du machinisme agricole is held at the Parc des expositions de Paris-Nord at Villepinte, Seine-Saint-Denis. Entrance is restricted to those working in the agriculture or forestryOn the alternate years, the Salon du fromage et des produits laitiers is held, it is the largest showcase for cheesemaking knowhow.
With 150 exhibutors and 5,997 visitors, this is a major trade fair for cheesemongers and buyers of cheese and dairy products. The show is organised by the CENECA, in partnership with the French Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; the French Minister of Agriculture is responsible for decision-making. CENECA brings together various professional organizations in the agricultural world, agri-food and communities; the city of Paris and the government are the ultimate backers of the show. Although CENECA sets the general strategy, it subcontracts operational matters to Comexposium. Official visits are arranged and managed directly by the CENECA. Jean-Luc Poulain is the current president of the CENECA and of the show. Comexposium is one of Europe's leading exhibition organizers, it is a joint venture wholly owned subsidiary of the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Unibail-Rodamco, Comexposium organizes around 114 public and trade events per year, including five of the ten largest French fairs.
The mass media play an important role in publicising the show, with stands taken by Public Sénat, Campagne TV, France 3 and France Ô Visits by the French President, the leaders of the French political parties, is covered. Politicians take the opportunity to reach out to the general public to debate the issues of the day, in an attempt to seem more "down to earth", improve their party image; the media coverage increases the importance of the show in the public mind, it is keenly followed by the public. Because of this, it has become an event of international importance, it allows the French government to present the best of its agricultural sector to its European neighbours and its views on maintaining the Common Agricultural Policy, important for subsidising French farmers and for many years has paid farmers to help protect the rural environment. Berlin International Green Week Media related to Salon international de l'agriculture at Wikimedia Commons www.salon-agriculture.com www.cga-paris.com
The domestic pig called swine, hog, or pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a domesticated large, even-toed ungulate. It is variously considered a subspecies of a distinct species; the domestic pig's head-plus-body-length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m, adult pigs weigh between 50 and 350 kg, with well-fed individuals exceeding this weight range. The size and weight of a hog depends on its breed. Compared to other artiodactyls, its head is long and free of warts. Even-toed ungulates are herbivorous, but the domestic pig is an omnivore, like its wild relative; when used as livestock, domestic pigs are farmed for the consumption of their flesh, called pork. The animal's bones and bristles are used in commercial products. Domestic pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets; the domestic pig has a large head, with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and a disk of cartilage at the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food, is a acute sense organ; the dental formula of adult pigs is 126.96.36.199.1.4.3.
The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male the canine teeth can form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other. Four hoofed toes are on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground. Most domestic pigs have rather a bristled sparse hair covering on their skin, although woolly-coated breeds such as the Mangalitsa exist. Pigs possess both apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, although the latter appear limited to the snout and dorsonasal areas. Pigs, like other "hairless" mammals, do not use thermal sweat glands in cooling. Pigs are less able than many other mammals to dissipate heat from wet mucous membranes in the mouth through panting, their thermoneutral zone is 16 to 22 °C. At higher temperatures, pigs lose heat by wallowing in water via evaporative cooling. Pigs are one of four known mammalian species which possess mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom.
Mongooses, honey badgers and pigs all have modifications to the receptor pocket which prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four independent mutations. Domestic pigs have small lungs in relation to their body size, are thus more susceptible than other domesticated animals to fatal bronchitis and pneumonia; the domestic pig is most considered to be a subspecies of the wild boar, given the name Sus scrofa by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. However, in 1777, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben classified the domestic pig as a separate species from the wild boar, he gave it the name Sus domesticus, still used by some taxonomists. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin, Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Nevalı Çori being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus; those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.
There was a separate domestication in China which took place about 8000 years ago. DNA evidence from subfossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boar, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported, in turn, to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In August 2015, a study looked at over 100 pig genome sequences to ascertain their process of domestication, assumed to have been initiated by humans, involved few individuals, relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms; the study found that the assumption of reproductive isolation with population bottlenecks was not supported.
The study indicated that pigs were domesticated separately in Western Asia and China, with Western Asian pigs introduced into Europe, where they crossed with wild boar. A model that fitted the data included a mixture with a now extinct ghost population of wild pigs during the Pleistocene; the study found that despite back-crossing with wild pigs, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at DNA loci that affect behavior and morphology. The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created domestication islands in the genome; the same process may apply to other domesticated animals. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of the wild boar allowed early humans to domesticate it readily. Pigs were used for food, but early civilizations used the pigs' hides for shields, bones for tools and weapons, bristles for brushes. In India, pigs have been domesticated for a long time in Goa and some rural areas, for pig toilets.
Though ecologically logical as well as economical