A rave is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music. DJs at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, house, drum & bass and post-industrial. Live performers have been known to perform, in addition to other types of performance artists such as go-go dancers and fire dancers; the music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system with large subwoofers to produce a deep bass sound. The music is accompanied by laser light shows, projected coloured images, visual effects and fog machines. While some raves may be small parties held at nightclubs or private homes, some raves have grown to immense size, such as the large festivals and events featuring multiple DJs and dance areas; some electronic dance music festivals have features of raves, but on a larger commercial scale.
Raves may last for a long time, with some events continuing for twenty-four hours, lasting all through the night. Law enforcement raids and anti-rave laws have presented a challenge to the rave scene in many countries; this is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA, LSD, GHB, methamphetamine and cannabis. In addition to drugs, raves make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars; these concerns are attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture. In the late 1950s in London, England the term "rave" was used to describe the "wild bohemian parties" of the Soho beatnik set. Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers". In 1958, Buddy Holly recorded the hit "Rave On", citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it never to end; the word "rave" was used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general.
People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers". Pop musicians such as Steve Marriott of The Small Faces and Keith Moon of The Who were self-described "ravers". Presaging the word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-1960s garage rock and psychedelia bands. Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback, it was part of the title of an electronic music performance event held on 28 January 1967 at London's Roundhouse titled the "Million Volt Light and Sound Rave". The event featured the only known public airing of an experimental sound collage created for the occasion by Paul McCartney of The Beatles – the legendary Carnival of Light recording. With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage.
During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday" by David Bowie which includes the line, "It's a crash course for the ravers." Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy". The perception of the word "rave" changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica. In the mid to late 1980s, a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music, most notably acid house music, emerged from acid house music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States. After Chicago acid house artists began experiencing overseas success, acid house spread and caught on in the United Kingdom within clubs and free-parties, first in Manchester in the mid-1980s and later in London. In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture that grew out of the acid house movement.
Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Greek and German youth on vacation, who would hold raves and dance parties. By the 1990s, genres such as acid, breakbeat hardcore, happy hardcore, post-industrial and electronica were all being featured at raves, both large and small. There were mainstream events. Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Genesis P-Orridge during a television interview. In 1990, raves were held "underground" in several cities, such as Berlin and Patras, in basements and forests. British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend. Politicians began to fine promoters who held unauthorized parties. Police crackdowns on these unauthorized parties drove the rave scene into the countryside; the word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at vario
Spin is an American music magazine founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. The magazine stopped running in print in 2012 and runs as a webzine, owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group division of Valence Media. Spin was established in 1985. In its early years, the magazine was known for its broad music coverage with an emphasis on college rock, indie rock, the ongoing emergence of hip-hop; the magazine was bold, if sometimes haphazard. It pointedly provided a national alternative to Rolling Stone's more establishment-oriented style. Spin prominently placed newer artists such as R. E. M. Prince, Run-D. M. C. Eurythmics, Beastie Boys, Talking Heads on its covers and did lengthy features on established figures such as Bob Dylan, Keith Richards, Miles Davis, Lou Reed, Tom Waits, John Lee Hooker—Bart Bull's article on Hooker won the magazine its first major award. On a cultural level, the magazine devoted significant coverage to punk, alternative country, electronica and world music, experimental rock, jazz of the most adventurous sort, burgeoning underground music scenes, a variety of fringe styles.
Artists such as the Ramones, Patti Smith, Blondie, X, Black Flag, the former members of the Sex Pistols, The Clash, the early punk and New Wave movements were featured in Spin's editorial mix. Spin's extensive coverage of hip-hop music and culture that of contributing editor John Leland, was notable at the time. Editorial contributions by musical and cultural figures included Lydia Lunch, Henry Rollins, David Lee Roth and Dwight Yoakam; the magazine reported on cities such as Austin, Texas, or Glasgow, Scotland, as cultural incubators in the independent music scene. A 1990 article on the contemporary country blues scene brought R. L. Burnside to national attention for the first time. Coverage of American cartoonists, Japanese manga, monster trucks, the AIDS crisis, outsider artists, Twin Peaks, other non-mainstream cultural phenomena distinguished the magazine's dynamic early years. In late 1987, publisher Bob Guccione Jr.'s father, Bob Guccione Sr. abruptly shut the magazine down despite the fact that the two-year-old magazine was considered a success, with a newsstand circulation of 150,000.
Guccione Jr. was able to rally much of his staff, partner with former MTV president and David H. Horowitz, locate additional new investors and offices and after missing a month's publication, returned with a combined November–December issue. During this time, it was published by Camouflage Associates. In 1997, Guccione sold Spin to Miller Publishing. In 1994, two journalists working for the magazine were killed by a landmine while reporting on the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A third, William T. Vollmann, was injured. In February 2006, Miller Publishing sold the magazine to a San Francisco-based company called the McEvoy Group LLC, the owner of Chronicle Books; that company formed Spin Media LLC as a holding company. The new owners replaced editor-in-chief Sia Michel with a former editor at Blender; the first issue to be published under his brief command was the July 2006 issue—sent to the printer in May 2006—which featured Beyoncé on the cover. Pemberton and Spin parted ways the next month, in June 2006.
The following editor, Doug Brod, was executive editor during Michel's tenure. For Spin's 20th anniversary, it published a book chronicling the prior two decades in music; the book has essays on grunge and emo, among other genres of music, as well as pieces on musical acts including Marilyn Manson, Tupac Shakur, R. E. M. Nirvana, Nine Inch Nails, Limp Bizkit, the Smashing Pumpkins. In February 2012, Spin relaunched the magazine in a larger, bi-monthly format and expanded its online presence, which covered reviews, extended editorials and features on up-and-coming talent. In July 2012, Spin was sold to Buzzmedia, which renamed itself SpinMedia; the September/October 2012 issue of Spin was the magazine's last print edition. In December 2016, Eldridge Industries acquired SpinMedia via the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group for an undisclosed amount. In 1995, Spin produced its first book, entitled Spin Alternative Record Guide, it compiled writings by 64 music critics on recording artists and bands relevant to the alternative music movement, with each artist's entry featuring their discography and albums reviewed and rated a score between one and ten.
According to Pitchfork Media's Matthew Perpetua, the book featured "the best and brightest writers of the 80s and 90s, many of whom started off in zines but have since become major figures in music criticism," including Rob Sheffield, Byron Coley, Ann Powers, Simon Reynolds, Alex Ross. Although the book was not a sales success, "it inspired a disproportionate number of young readers to pursue music criticism." After the book was published, its entry on 1960s folk artist John Fahey, written by Byron Coley, helped renew interest in Fahey's music, leading to interest from record labels and the alternative music scene. Contributors to Spin have included: SPIN began compiling year-end lists in 1990. Note: The 2000 album of the year was awarded to "your hard drive", acknowledging the impact that filesharing had on the music listening experience in 2000. Kid A was listed as the highest ranking given to an actual album. 1994 roadside attack on Spin magazine journalists Anon.. "Bibliography". In Ray, Michael.
Alternative, Hip-Hop and More: Music from the 1980s to Today. Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 1615309101. Mazmanian, Adam. "Library Journal". In White, William. Buyer's Guide. Bowker. Johnston, Maura. "Never Mind The Anglophilia, Here's The Queens Brothers". Idolator. Retrieved Jul
Intelligent dance music
Intelligent dance music is a form of electronic music originating in the early 1990s, regarded as "cerebral" and better suited to "home listening" than dancing. Emerging from electronic and rave music styles such as techno, acid house, ambient music, breakbeat, IDM tended to rely upon individualistic experimentation rather than adhering to characteristics associated with specific genres. Prominent artists associated with the genre include Aphex Twin, μ-Ziq, the Black Dog, the Orb, the Future Sound of London, Luke Vibert, Venetian Snares and Boards of Canada; the term "intelligent dance music" has been criticised and rejected by artists associated with the style, including Aphex Twin and µ-Ziq, as elitist and derogatory towards other genres. The term is said to have originated in the US in 1993 with the formation of the "IDM list", an electronic mailing list chartered for the discussion of a number of prominent English artists appearing on the 1992 Warp compilation Artificial Intelligence. In 2014, music critic Sasha Frere-Jones observed that the term "is reviled but still used".
In the late 1980s, riding the wave of the acid house and early rave party scenes, UK-based groups such as The Orb and The KLF produced ambient house, a genre that fused house music with ambient music. By the early 1990s, the distinct music associated with dance music experimentation had gained prominence with releases on a variety of UK-based record labels, including Warp, Black Dog Productions, R&S Records, Carl Craig's Planet E, Rising High Records, Richard James's Rephlex Records, Kirk Degiorgio's Applied Rhythmic Technology, Eevo Lute Muzique, General Production Recordings, Soma Quality Recordings, Peacefrog Records, Metamorphic Recordings. In 1992, Warp released Artificial Intelligence, the first album in the Artificial Intelligence series. Subtitled "electronic listening music from Warp", the record was a collection of tracks from artists such as Autechre, B12, The Black Dog, Aphex Twin and The Orb, under various aliases; this would help establish the ambient techno sound of the early 1990s.
Steve Beckett, co-owner of Warp, has said the electronic music that the label was releasing was targeting a post-club, home-listening audience. Following the success of the Artificial Intelligence series, "intelligent techno" became the favored term, although ambient—without a qualifying house or techno suffix, but still referring to a hybrid form—was a common synonym. In the same period, other names were used, such as "art techno," "armchair techno," and "electronica", but all were attempts to describe an emerging offshoot of electronic dance music, being enjoyed by the "sedentary and stay at home". At the same time, the UK market was saturated with frenetic breakbeat and sample-laden hardcore techno records that became formulaic. Rave had become a "dirty word," so as an alternative, it was common for London nightclubs to advertise that they were playing "intelligent" or "pure" techno, appealing to a "discerning" crowd that considered the hardcore sound to be too commercial. In 1993, a number of new "intelligent techno"/"electronica" record labels emerged, including New Electronica, Mille Plateaux, 100% Pure, Ferox Records.
In November 1991, the phrase "intelligent techno" appeared on Usenet in reference to Coil's The Snow EP. Off the Internet, the same phrase appeared in both the U. S. and U. K. music press in late 1992, in reference to Jam & Spoon's Tales from a Danceographic Ocean and the music of The Future Sound of London. Another instance of the phrase appeared on Usenet in April 1993 in reference to The Black Dog's album Bytes, and in July 1993, in his review of an ethno-dance compilation for NME, Ben Willmott replaced techno with dance music, writing "...current'intelligent' dance music owes much more to Eastern mantra-like repetition and neo-ambient instrumentation than the disco era which preceded the advent of acid and techno."Wider public use of such terms on the Internet came in August 1993, when Alan Parry announced the existence of a new electronic mailing list for discussion of "intelligent" dance music: the "Intelligent Dance Music list", or "IDM List" for short. The first message, sent on 1 August 1993, was entitled "Can Dumb People Enjoy IDM, Too?".
A reply from the list server's system administrator, Brian Behlendorf, revealed that Parry wanted to create a list devoted to discussion of the music on the Rephlex label, but they decided together to expand its charter to include music similar to what was on Rephlex or, in different genres but, made with similar approaches. They picked the word "intelligent" because it had appeared on Artificial Intelligence and because it connoted being something beyond just music for dancing, while still being open to interpretation. Artists that appeared in the first discussions on the list included Autechre, Atom Heart, LFO and Rephlex Records artists such as Aphex Twin, µ-ziq and Luke Vibert. By the end of 1996, Boards of Canada and the Schematic Records label were among the usual topics of discussion, alongside perennial favorites like Aphex Twin and the Warp repertoire; as of 2015, the mailing list is still active. Warp's second Artificial Intelligence compilation was released in 1994; the album featured fragments of posts from the IDM mailing list incorporated into typographic artwork by The Designers Republic.
Sleeve notes by David Toop acknowledged the genre's multitude of
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Drum and bass
Drum and bass, is a genre and branch of electronic music which emerged from rave and jungle scenes in Britain during the early 1990s. The style is characterised by fast breakbeats with heavy bass and sub-bass lines, sampled sources, synthesizers; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. Drum and bass incorporates a number of styles. A major influence on jungle and drum and bass was the original Jamaican reggae sound. Another feature of the style is the complex syncopation of the drum tracks' breakbeat. Drum and bass subgenres include breakcore, ragga jungle, darkstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk, jump up, drumfunk, sambass and drill'n' bass. From its roots in the UK, the style has established itself around the world. Drum and bass has influenced many other genres like hip hop, big beat, house, trip hop, ambient music, jazz and pop. Drum and bass is dominated by a small group of record labels.
The major international music labels had shown little interest in the drum and bass scene, until BMG Rights Management acquired RAM in February 2016. Drum and bass remains most popular in the UK although it has developed scenes all around the world, in countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, the Czech Republic and Australia. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a growing nightclub and overnight outdoor event culture gave birth to a new electronic music style in the rave scene, which combined sampled syncopated beats or breakbeats, other samples from a wide range of different musical genres and samples of music and effects from films and television programmes. A faster subgenre was known as "hardcore" but from as early as 1991, some musical tracks made up of these high-tempo break beats, with heavy basslines and samples of older Jamaican music, were referred to as "jungle techno", a genre influenced by Jack Smooth and Basement Records, just "jungle", which became recognised as a separate musical genre popular at raves and on pirate radio in Britain.
It is important to note when discussing the history of drum and bass that prior to jungle, the music was getting faster and more experimental. Professional DJ and producer C. K. states, "There was a progression. Anyone buying vinyl every week from 1989 to 1992 noticed this." By 1994, jungle had begun to gain mainstream popularity and fans of the music became a more recognisable part of youth subculture. The genre further developed and fusing elements from a wide range of existing musical genres, including the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, MC chants, dub basslines, complex edited breakbeat percussion. Despite the affiliation with the ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle inherited some associations with violence and criminal activity, both from the gang culture that had affected the UK's hip-hop scene and as a consequence of jungle's aggressive or menacing sound and themes of violence. However, this developed in tandem with the positive reputation of the music as part of the wider rave scene and dancehall-based Jamaican music culture prevalent in London.
By 1995, whether as a reaction to, or independently of this cultural schism, some jungle producers began to move away from the ragga-influenced style and create what would become collectively labelled, for convenience, as drum and bass. As the genre became more polished and sophisticated technically, it began to expand its reach from pirate radio to commercial stations and gain widespread acceptance, it began to split into recognisable subgenres such as jump-up and Hardstep. As a lighter and jazz-influenced style of drum and bass gained mainstream appeal, additional subgenres emerged including techstep which drew greater influence from techno music and the soundscapes of science fiction and anime films; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. But towards the turn of the millennium its popularity was deemed to have dwindled as the UK garage style known as speed garage yielded several hit singles.
Speed garage shared high tempos and heavy basslines with drum and bass, but otherwise followed the established conventions of "house music", with this and its freshness giving it an advantage commercially. London DJ/producer C. K. says, "It is forgotten by my students that a type of music called "garage house" existed in the late 1980s alongside hip house, acid house and other forms of house music." He continues, "This new garage of the mid 90s was not a form of house or a progression of garage house. The beats and tempo that define house are different; this did cause further confusion in the presence of new house music of the mid-1990s being played alongside what was now being called garage." Despite this, the emergence of further subgenres and related styles such as liquid funk brought a wave of new artists incorporating new ideas and techniques, supporting continual evolution of the genre. To this day drum and bass makes frequent appearances in mainstream media and popular culture including in television, as well as being a major reference point for subsequent genres such as grime and dubstep and successful artists including Chase & Status and Australia's Pendulum
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of sub-genres have been built. In Detroit, techno resulted from the melding of black styles including Chicago house, funk and electric jazz with electronic music by artists such as Kraftwerk, Giorgio Moroder, Yellow Magic Orchestra. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes relevant to life in American late capitalist society, with Alvin Toffler's book The Third Wave being a notable point of reference. Pioneering producer and DJ Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create; this unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism.
To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is a central preoccupation. In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness". Stylistically, techno is repetitive instrumental music produced for use in a continuous DJ set; the central rhythmic component is most in common time, where time is marked with a bass drum on each quarter note pulse, a backbeat played by snare or clap on the second and fourth pulses of the bar, an open hi-hat sounding every second eighth note. The tempo tends to vary between 120 to 150 beats per minute, depending on the style of techno; the creative use of music production technology, such as drum machines and digital audio workstations, is viewed as an important aspect of the music's aesthetic. Many producers use retro electronic musical devices to create what they consider to be an authentic techno sound. Drum machines from the 1980s such as Roland's TR-808 and TR-909 are prized, software emulations of such retro technology are popular among techno producers.
Music journalists and fans of techno are selective in their use of the term. The initial blueprint for techno developed during the mid-1980s in Belleville, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May, all of whom attended school together at Belleville High, with the addition of Eddie Fowlkes, Blake Baxter and James Pennington. By the close of the 1980s, the pioneers had recorded and released material under various guises: Atkins as Model 500, Magic Juan. There were a number of joint ventures, including Kevin Saunderson's group Inner City, which saw collaborations with Atkins, vocalist Paris Grey, fellow DJs James Pennington and; the Electrifying Mojo was the first radio DJ to play music by Atkins and Saunderson. Mojo refused to follow pre-established radio formats or playlists, he promoted social and cultural awareness of the African American community. In exploring techno's origins writer Kodwo Eshun maintains that "Kraftwerk are to Techno what Muddy Waters is to the Rolling Stones: the authentic, the origin, the real."
Juan Atkins has acknowledged that he had an early enthusiasm for Kraftwerk and Giorgio Moroder Moroder's work with Donna Summer and the producer's own album E=MC2. Atkins mentions that "around 1980 I had a tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, I'd ride around in my car playing it." Atkins has claimed he was unaware of Kraftwerk's music prior to his collaboration with Richard "3070" Davis as Cybotron, two years after he had first started experimenting with electronic instruments. Regarding his initial impression of Kraftwerk, Atkins notes that they were "clean and precise" relative to the "weird UFO sounds" featured in his "psychedelic" music. Derrick May identified the influence of Kraftwerk and other European synthesizer music in commenting that "it was just classy and clean, to us it was beautiful, like outer space. Living around Detroit, there was so little beauty... everything is an ugly mess in Detroit, so we were attracted to this music. It, ignited our imagination!".
May has commented that he considered his music a direct continuation of the European synthesizer tradition. He identified Japanese synthpop act Yellow Magic Orchestra member Ryuichi Sakamoto, British band Ultravox, as influences, along with Kraftwerk. YMO's song "Technopolis", a tribute to Tokyo as an electronic mecca, is considered an "interesting contribution" to the development of Detroit techno, foreshadowing concepts that Atkins and Davis would explore with Cybotron. Kevin Saunderson has acknowledged the influence of Europe but he claims to have been more inspired by the idea of making music with electronic equipment: "I was more infatuated with the idea that I can do this all myself." Prior to achieving notoriety, Saunderson and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians, "mix" tape traders, aspiring DJs. They found musical inspiration via the Midnight Funk Association, an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations, including WCHB, WGPR, WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid-1980s by DJ Charles "The Electrifying Mojo" Johnson.
Elliot John Gleave, better known by his stage name Example, is an English musician, singer and record producer. His name arose due to his initials being E. G., an abbreviation of the Latin phrase exempli gratia. Example first found success with the release of his second studio album, Won't Go Quietly, which peaked at number four on the UK Albums Chart and peaked at number one on the UK Dance Chart. and followed his debut album "What We Made", hip-hop influenced due to Example only knowing a hip-hop record producer at the time. The album had two top 10 singles, "Won't Go Quietly" and "Kickstarts", his third album Playing in the Shadows was released on 4 September 2011. The album topped the charts with two number one singles, "Changed the Way You Kiss Me" and "Stay Awake", his fourth album, The Evolution of Man was released on 19 November 2012 and peaked at number 13 on the UK Albums Chart and peaked at number one on the UK Dance Chart. Since The Evolution of Man, Example has released the lead single from his next album, entitled "All the Wrong Places", produced by Alfie Bamford and co-produced by Example and Steve Hill.
It was the first song to be released through Epic Records and did so on 8 September 2013 peaking at number 13 on the UK Singles Chart. "Kids Again", was released on 16 March 2014 and hit number 13 in the UK Single's charts. The fifth album, Live Life Living, was released on 7 July 2014; as of 2014 he was the third most downloaded artist in the Dance Music category, after Cascada. Speaking in an interview for Australian television in 2013, Example referenced that he "might do music for another five years and would like to move into film directing". Elliot John Gleave was born at West London Hospital in Hammersmith to Michael Gleave. In a 2012 interview with The Guardian, he said that "I was diagnosed with Asperger's when I was younger. I was amazing with numbers, I had a photographic memory, I hated reading fiction, preferring books on nature and history. All symptoms of mild autism." He has a younger sister, named Elise. He went on to attend ADT College in Putney. Example has claimed in interviews that the main reason he started rapping was due to his introduction to hip-hop through albums by Wu-Tang Clan and Snoop Dogg – the latter's album purchased for "the cool cover art", to the fact that he was not good at any sports, so started rapping to fit in socially.
His first experience of rapping was through a rap battle at a house party in Shepherd's Bush in 1994, when he was 12 years old. In that battle, he, in his own words, "completely destroyed a useless wanker and a fight broke out so sprinted home". Gleave went on to study BA Media Arts at Royal Holloway, University of London, graduating in 2003, it was during this period that he met Joseph Gardner, AKA Rusher, the producer whom he would go on to work with during his time releasing tracks independently through his All The Chats imprint, on Mike Skinner's label The Beats. Gleave and Gardner made a concept album in the audio booth of the University film department, he returned to the UK and became a voiceover artist and editor for the Paramount Comedy Channel working as an editor at MTV Networks. After releasing three singles through his own label "All The Chats", including the original 7" version of "I Don't Want To" in January 2006, Example received attention from Pete Tong, Zane Lowe and others at Radio 1.
After signing a deal in April 2006 with The Beats, Example put out a response to Lily Allen's number one hit "Smile" entitled "Vile" and received Radio 1 airplay from Zane Lowe, Jo Whiley and Chris Moyles. His first'proper' release on The Beats was "What We Made" in November 2006, the video for, filmed in Chernobyl, Ukraine. Example's second official Beats single entitled "You Can't Rap" was released in March 2007, followed by a re-release of "I Don't Want To" on 11 June 2007. "I Don't Want To" was followed by the single "So Many Roads" which turned out to be the opening track on Example's full-length studio debut. After the demise of The Beats label at the end of 2007 Example self-released his next single "Me + Mandy" on 10 March 2008 through his original imprint All The Chats; the video for "Me + Mandy" was shot over four days and nights in London, in over 30 locations with over 40 extras. This was done at a cost of just £1000, it was directed by Example's friend Henry Scholfield who made the promos for "Who Needs Sunshine?", "Vile", "You Can't Rap" and "I Don't Want To".
In February 2008 Example tried his hand at stand-up comedy as part of BBC2's The Culture Show. Mentored by English comic Richard Herring, Example spent six weeks writing and practising his own stand-up routine which culminated in his first stand-up show in front of 60 paying customers in a Covent Garden pub. A week he appeared on the bill under Richard Herring, Phill Jupitus and Harry Hill at the Lyric Hammersmith – Example had performed in the same venue ten years earlier whilst a student at ADT College Example made his first chart appearance in September 2009, when he released "Watch the Sun Come Up" as the lead single from his second album Won't Go Quietly through Data Records; the single debuted at number 20 on the UK Singles Chart. The single was followed by a release of "Won't Go Quietly", released on 18 January 2010; the single debuted at numb