The algaita is a double reed wind instrument from West Africa among the Hausa and Kanuri peoples. Its construction is similar to the zurna; the algaita is distinguished from these other instruments by its larger, trumpet-like bell. Instead of keys, it has open holes for fingering, similar to the zurna. Music from the Villages of Northeastern Nigeria "Music of the Cameroon - The Fulani of the North" Yusef Lateef, In Nigeria, Yusef Lateef, The African-American Epic Suite H. G. Farmer, "The Arab Influence on the Western Soudan." The Musical Standard, 15 November, 1924. Oboe Rhaita Shawm Zurna Alghaita page Algaita page
The tangmuri, ka tangmuri in the Khasi language, is a double-reed conical-bore wind-instrument used by the Hynniew Trep people of Meghalaya State in North-East India. The tangmuri is used by musicians playing for traditional dances, for other traditional rituals, such as cremations performed according to the indigenous religion, Niam Khasi; the tangmuri delivers a high pitched sound when played by the musician. The instrument consists of a turned conical-bore wooden chanter, about 20cm long, with seven finger-holes on the front, a separate flared turned 15cm long wooden bell, attached to the chanter by a push-fit; the double-reed is tied onto a thin conical-bore metal tube c.3cm long, wound with thread to hold it in place in the chanter
The Rothphone is a metal double reed instrument similar to the sarrusophone built in saxophone form. It was invented by Ferdinando Roth and is known as the rothophone, rothaphone, or saxsarrusophone; the bore of this instrument is narrower than that of either the saxophone. "Rothphone or Saxorusophone"
The cornamuse is a double reed instrument dating from the Renaissance period. It is similar to the crumhorn in having a windcap over the cylindrical bore. In Syntagma musicum II, Michael Praetorius writes: "Die CornaMuse sind gleich aus/und nicht mit doppelten/sondern mit einer einfachen Röhre/gleich den Bassanelli" This statement differentiates it from double bore instruments of the period like the sordun and curtal. Praetorius did not include a woodcut of the cornamuse, but his depiction of the bassanello has a single bore and double reed. Another clue to its appearance is given in his description of the schryari: Assertions by some modern writers about the cornamuse having a single reed stem from the misreading of "Röhre" as "Rohr". Since the paragraph by Praetorius is the only clear description of the cornamuse and no period specimen has been found, all reconstructions of the instrument rely on a certain amount of conjecture; the name is not to be confused with cornemuse, the French word for bagpipes.
Musica Antiqua Cornamuse Page Building a Cornamuse in F
The nadaswaram, nagaswaram, or nathaswaram is a double reed wind instrument from Tamilnadu. It is used as a traditional classical instrument in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala; this instrument is "among the world's loudest non-brass acoustic instruments". It is a wind instrument similar to the North Indian shehnai but much longer, with a hardwood body and a large flaring bell made of wood or metal. In Tamil culture, the nadaswaram is considered to be auspicious, it is a key musical instrument played in all Hindu weddings and temples of the South Indian tradition, it is part of the family of instruments known as mangala vadyam. The instrument is played in pairs, accompanied by a pair of drums called thavil. Nadaswaram is referred in many ancient Tamil texts. Silappatikaram refers to an instrument called "vangiyam"; the structure of this instrument matches that of Nadaswaram. Since there are seven holes played with seven fingers this was called as "Ezhil"; this instrument, too, is played in Tamil Nadu and popular among the Tamil Diaspora.
The nadaswaram contains three parts namely, kuzhal and anasu. It is a double reed instrument with a conical bore which enlarges toward the lower end; the top portion has a metal staple into, inserted a small metallic cylinder which carries the mouthpiece made of reed. Besides spare reeds, a small ivory or horn needle is attached to the instrument, used to clear the reed of saliva and other debris and allows free passage of air. A metallic bell forms the bottom end of the instrument. Traditionally the body of the nadaswaram is made out of a tree called aacha, although nowadays bamboo, copper, brass and ivory are used. For wooden instruments, old wood is considered the best, sometimes wood salvaged from demolished old houses is used; the nadaswaram has seven finger-holes, five additional holes drilled at the bottom which can be stopped with wax to modify the tone. The nadaswaram has a range of two and a half octaves, similar to the Indian bansuri flute, which has a similar fingering. Unlike the flute where semi and quarter tones are produced by the partial opening and closing of the finger holes, in the nadaswaram they are produced by adjusting the pressure and strength of the air-flow into the pipe.
Due to its intense volume and strength it is an outdoor instrument and much more suited for open spaces than for indoor concerts. Some of the greatest early nadaswaramists include Thirumarukal Nadesa Pillai Thiruvavaduthurai Rajarathnam Pillai Thiruvengadu Subramania Pillai, Vedaranyam Vedamoorthy Karukurichi Arunachalam Pillai Thirucherai Sivasubramanian Pillai Thiruvarur S Latchappa Pillai Kulikkarai Pichaiyappa Andankoil A V Selvarathnam Pillai Thiruvizha Jayashankar Brother teams of Keeranur and Thiruveezhimizhalai, Semponnarkoil Brothers S R G Sambandam and Rajanna. Dharumapuram S. Abiramisundaram Pillai and his son Dharumapuram A Govindarajan Sheik Chinna Moulana Namagiripettai Krishnan Madurai M. P. N. Sethuraman - Ponnusamy brothers Alaveddy N. K. Pathmanathan Dr. MSK Shankaranarayanan Injikudi E. M. Subramaniam Thirumalam T. S. Pandian Bangalore Ramadasappa Tiruvalaputtur T K Venupilla Kulikkarai Brothers K. M DaksahaMoorthi Pillai & K. M Ganeshan PillaiAmerican composers such as Lewis Spratlan have expressed admiration for the nadaswaram, a few jazz musicians have taken up the instrument: Charlie Mariano is one of the few non-Indians able to play the instrument, having studied it while living in India.
Vinny Golia, J. D. Parran, William Parker have performed and recorded with the instrument; the German saxophonist Roland Schaeffer plays it, having studied from 1981 to 1985 with Karupaia Pillai. Among the Tamil movies, two released in 1960s,namely Konjum Salangai starring Gemini Ganesan and Thillana Mohanambal starring Sivaji Ganesan, featured nadaswaram playing characters. For the Konjum Salankai movie, Karukurichi Arunasalam Pillai provided the nadaswaram music. Madurai Sethuraman and Ponnusamy brothers were employed for the nadaswaram playing duo characters Sivaji Ganesan and A. V. M. Rajan for the Thillana Mohanambal movie. Tavil Images from The Beede Gallery Shawms, Southern India, ca. 1900-1940. National Music Museum, University of South Dakota
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; the term bagpipe is correct in the singular or plural, though pipers refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag; the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air.
In these pipes, sometimes called "cauld wind pipes", air is not heated or moistened by the player's breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. Such pipes include the Irish uilleann pipes; the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More bags made of synthetic materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the synthetic bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning, with the associated danger of lung infection. An advantage of a synthetic bag is that it has a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam and stitched or glued to reduce leaks.
Holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. In the case of bags made from intact animal skins, the stocks are tied into the points where the limbs and the head joined the body of the whole animal, a construction technique common in Central Europe; the chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. All bagpipes have at least one chanter. A chanter can be bored internally so that the inside walls are parallel for its full length, or it can be bored in a conical shape; the chanter is open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a legato sound where there are no rests in the music; because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, take many years of study to master. A few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the player's leg, so that when the player "closes" the chanter becomes silent.
A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or "to sing", much like the modern French word chanteur; the note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top. The reed may be a double reed. Double reeds are used with both conical- and parallel-bored chanters while single reeds are limited to parallel-bored chanters. In general, double-reed chanters are found in pipes of Western Europe while single-reed chanters appear in most other regions. Most bagpipes have at least one drone: a pipe, not fingered but rather produces a constant harmonizing note throughout play. Exceptions are those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist; the drone is designed in two or more parts with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be adjusted.
Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter. Some drones have a tuning screw, which alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches; the tuning screw may shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. Additional drones add the octave below and a drone consonant with the fifth
The kèn bầu is one of several types of kèn, a double reed wind instrument used in the traditional music of Vietnam. It is similar in construction and sound to the Korean taepyeongso, it comes in various sizes and is a primary instrument of the music of the former royal court music of Huế. The instrument has a conical hardwood body with seven finger holes. Unlike its Chinese and Korean counterparts, the kèn bầu has a detachable bell made of jackfruit wood, carved in the shape of a gourd. Into the playing end is fitted a small brass tube onto; the instrument's technique involves the use of circular breathing as well as a wide variety of ornamentation including wide vibrato and sliding tones. Kèn means bầu means gourd, referring to the instrument's bell; the Vietnamese monochord zither called đàn bầu, which formerly had a gourd as part of its construction, shares the use of this word in its name. One of the most prominent kèn bầu players is Trần Thảo, who leads the nhã nhạc group of Hue and has toured internationally.
He is part of a hereditary lineage of court musicians. Kèn bầu page Video of four kèn bầu, with percussion