Giessen, spelled Gießen in German (German pronunciation: ], is a town in the German federal state of Hesse, capital of both the district of Giessen and the administrative region of Giessen. The population is 86,000, with 24,000 university students; the name comes from Giezzen, as it was first referred to in 1197, which refers to the position of the town between several rivers and streams. The largest river in Giessen is the Lahn, which divides the town in two parts 50 kilometres north of Frankfurt am Main. In 1969, the town hosted the ninth Hessentag state festival. Giessen came into being as a moated castle in 1152 built by Count Wilhelm von Gleiberg, although the history of the community in the northeast and in today's suburb called "Wieseck" dates back to 775; the town became part of Hesse-Marburg in 1567, passing to Hesse-Darmstadt in 1604. The University of Giessen was founded in 1607. Giessen was included within the Grand Duchy of Hesse created in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. After the First World War, it was part of the People's State of Hesse.
During the Second World War, a subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp was in the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt Licher Straße. Heavy bombing destroyed about 75 percent of Gießen in 1944, including most of the town's historic buildings, it became part of the modern state of Hesse after the war. In 1977, Giessen was merged with the neighbouring city Wetzlar to form the new city of Lahn. However, this attempt to reorganize the administration was reversed in 1979, it was bounded to Darmstadt between 1945 and 1981 until Giessen was founded on 1 January 1981. A U. S. military base was located in Giessen after the Second World War. The U. S. Army Garrison of Gießen had a population of 800 Americans; the base is a converted German Army Air Field, reflected in some of the buildings including the housing area. A theatre, known as the Keller Theatre, is a converted German Army Officers' Club; as of 28 September 2007, the Giessen Depot and all other U. S. facilities in the greater Giessen area were turned back to local German authorities.
The former U. S. Army buildings were used to house refugees after the large intake of 2016. After the war, the city was twinned with Winchester, UK. Giessen is twinned with: Akademischer Forstgarten Gießen, botanical gardens Botanischer Garten Gießen, established in 1609, is the oldest botanical garden in Germany still at its original location. Old Cemetery, is the resting place of Hugo von Ritgen. Liebig-Museum was established in 1920 to honor the chemist Justus von Liebig. Mathematikum was established in 2002. University of Giessen Rubber Island is a residential area near the Lahn River. Giessen is home to the basketball club Giessen 46ers, five-time champion of the Basketball Bundesliga, its home games take place at the Sporthalle Gießen-Ost. Giessen has an American football team called Giessen Golden Dragons. In Giessen the Catholic Scouts of Europe were founded in 1975. Samuel Adler, a noted rabbi in the United States, attended the University of Giessen Annika Beck, professional tennis player Stefan Bellof, Formula One and Sportscar driver, killed during a race held in Spa-Francorchamps Christa Blanke, founder of Animals' Angels e.
V. Volker Bouffier, politician Georg Büchner studied two years at the University of Gießen Daniel Davari, Iranian footballer. Walter Dornberger, rocket scientist Peter Düttmann, Luftwaffe Ace Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt, Electress Palatine, ancestress of most of today's royals Charles Friedek, triple jumper, gold medallist at the 1999 World Championships in Athletics Adolph Hansen and professor at University of Giessen Fritz Heichelheim, economic historian Juli, rock band Friedrich Kellner, Chief Regional Auditor in Giessen 1948-1950, Chief Justice Inspector of Laubach, where he wrote his secret WWII diary; the Holocaust Research Unit of Justus Liebig University of Giessen has established the Kellner Project Karl Kling, Racing driver and head of Mercedes-Benz Motorsport Jonathan Koch, rower Chris Liebing techno/electronic music producer and DJ Justus von Liebig, professor. The official name of the University of Giessen is now Justus Liebig University Wilhelm Liebknecht, founder of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, was born on March 29, 1826 in Giessen Sigmund Livingston, American lawyer and first president of the Anti-Defamation League Christopher Ludwick Baker General for the American Revolutionary War Army - Philadelphia Wangari Maathai, Nobel Laureate 2004 Alfred Milner, British statesman Demis Nikolaidis, Greek footballer James J. O'Donnell, American scholar and University administrator, born in Giessen Albert Osswald, politician Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, professor of physics from 1879 until 1888 at the University of Giessen.
He was buried at the "Alte Friedhof", where his tomb can still be found Johann Georg Rosenmüller, professor of theology at the university Til Schweiger, actor and producer. Grew up, went to school and started studying in Giessen Wilhelm Sievers, explorer, professor at the university Henrietta Skelton, social reformer, organizer, lecturer Marie Wittich, opera singer Willy Zschietzschmann, Classical archeologist and author Ernst Dieffenbach
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Saint-Dié-des-Vosges referred to as Saint-Dié, is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Saint-Dié is located in 45 km of Lunéville; this route in the valley of Meurthe was always the more frequented, first to get a rail line in 1864, so now it accommodates the primary road. Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, principal town of an arrondissement of the same name, belongs to the Vosges département of France; this commune with a little town in her center, is 50 km northeast of Épinal, connected by two roads, south through the passes of Haut-Jacques and Bruyères or north by the pass of Haut-du-Bois and the ancient land of Rambervillers. By rail, Épinal is 61 km ] from Saint-Dié; the river Meurthe flows in the Permian basin of Saint-Dié surrounded by wooded mountains, Kemberg and La Madeleine. The peaks of these mountains are 550 metres high, are composed of Triassic formations the so-called "Vosges sandstone", a kind of red sandstone; the town was nearly redesigned and rebuilt in the French Uniform Style after the fire of 1757.
A major part was destroyed in November, 1944 and was rebuilt in a material imitating red sandstone. Its cathedral has a Gothic choir designed in the 14th century. A cloister, begun in the 14th century but never finished, contains a stone pulpit, connects with the Petite-Eglise or Notre-Dame-de-Galilée, a well-preserved specimen of Romanesque architecture of the 12th century. All of the monuments were restored or rebuilt in the same manner after 1950. Since 1880, the Council House"Mairie" has held a marvelous theater, a library with some old and valuable manuscripts, a reading hall and a museum of rocks and antiquities collected by the members of the Vosges Philomatic Society; this society, which engaged in the collection and diffusion of knowledge, was founded in 1875 by Henry Bardy, soon an editor of the first local republican paper named La Gazette Vosgiennne. All this center of town was destroyed in November 1944. After 1948, a new hôtel-de-ville was built 100 metres to the west. At its west side there is now a monument by Merci to Jules Ferry, long ago in an old union place under the Cathedral.
Born in the town in 1832, Jules Ferry was a great French politician of the conservative Republic, constitutionally called Third Republic in 1875. After World War II, the right side of the Meurthe was razed and most people lived outside the town in wood cabins for decades; the radical plan created by Le Corbusier in 1945, which called for a large plaza with factories and other buildings in the heart of the city, was rejected in 1947, only one private factory belonging to Jean-Jacques Duval was built. There were no means nor materials in this terrible period and the great street called "rue Thiers" was finished only at the end of 1954; the town was industrial in nature long before the local economy reaped the benefits from a migration of Alsatians, who arrived after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871. Its industries included the spinning and bleaching of cotton, wire-drawing, metal-founding, the manufacture of hosiery, woodwork of various kinds, iron goods and wire screen. Since the world wars, major industrial activities have declined precipitously.
Now the town is a center of public services, educational institutions, a hospital, businesses in the service industries, such as supermarkets. Saint-Dié is named for Saint Deodat; this holy man, or "le bonhomme", founded a ban, a political and Christian subdivision of the royal territory called "foresta" in the 7th century. Old religious historians believed he was the episcopus of Deodatus of Nevers. Deodatus gave up his episcopal functions to retire to a desert place; some sources connect the name, with an earlier saint, Deodatus of Blois. Archeology and historic records confirms the length of time that this area has been occupied by people. One hypothesis holds that a column constructed by Romans, in a locus dedicated to Tiwaz, god of war, may explain ancient ceremonies in the old saint-Dié chapel, under the Kemberg mountain locally called Saint-Martin. Deodatus, who might have been a hiberniensis pope – and not a niverniensis pope, or a bishop from Nevers – would have lived in an old monastery or "vieux moutier" above this old chapelle and water.
Legends originating in the 11th century and popular traditions say Saint Dié dreamed of a new monastery in a little hill called "monticule des Jointures" in the other side of the river he could see. A little monastic community dedicated to saint Maurice, was founded during Carolingian times, as there is evidence of its presence since the 10th century. After 1006, the monastery took the name Saint-Dié; the little monastery was destroyed by fire in 1065 and in 1155. The date on which it became a chapter of canons is uncertain. Historians deny Brunon de Dabo-Egisheim, future Pope Leo IX, was a young monk and great provost here, but his family played a great role in the elevated status of this religious place, giving their blazon after the first crusades. Canons who subsequently held the rank of provost or dean came from rich and noble families, among those Giovanni de Medici and several princes coming from the ducal House of Lorraine. Among the extensive privileges enjoyed by them was that of coining money.
Though they co-operated
Hattstatt is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin département INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Lalaye is a commune in the southwest of the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. The inhabitants are known as Lachenois. Lalaye is positioned fifteen kilometres to the west-north-west of Sélestat on the departmental road D39, one of a number of minor roads that twists across the Vosges Mountains into Lorraine, it is three kilometres upstream of the cantonal town, Villé, on the left bank of a branch of the Giessen river which tumbles down from Urbeis to the west-south-west. To the north the commune is bounded by the Honel ridge which continues at an altitude of around 600 meters to the Blanc-Noyer peak which dominates the area. To the south a line of lower peaks running from the Kohlberg to the Goutte Henri a separates the Urbeis Giessen from the "Giessen proper"; the village itself is positioned at the lower end of the valley, having an average elevation of just 310 meters, shortly before the Charbes stream and the Urbeis Giessen converge. The houses are stretched along the south facing side of the narrow Charbes valley.
The commune contains significant mineral deposits and has a long mining tradition: the oldest evidence of exploitation is in place known as La Hollée. The principal mineral here, Galena was being extracted on a daily basis at the end of the Middle Ages. Along the route to the hamlet of Charbes is another mine known by the local language name of "Haus Osterreich" and, worked during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Both these sites have been subjected to several modern investigatory excavations, during the course of which an ancient well was discovered, equipped with a water wheel and a two chamber water pump. Seams of antimony at Wolfsloch were mined during the same period, for a century between 1648 and 1748. More important was the coal mining, which provided high quality coal, principally used in forges. After lapsing for several years, mining returned to the village during the German occupation in 1901. Other mines, some better documented than others, include those at Sachelingoutte, Pransureux, Le Beheu and Ruisseau.
An old mylonite quarry, still being exploited after the Second World War is located at Molloch, on a part of the same site as the old lead mine at La Hollée. The rock extracted here was chiefly used as an underlay rock for road construction; the name Lalaye comes from the German and local dialect name "Lach" and from the Latinate patois equivalent "Lela". A range of spelling variants turns up through the centuries; the Germanic name "Lach" is recorded in 1303 and again in 1561. Following the French occupation of Alsace, francophone versions gain currency: La Ley in 1768, Lallay on Cassini's eighteenth century maps, Lalay in 1758 and Lalaye; as in the rest of Alsace, periods of German occupation between 1871 and 1918, again between 1940 and 1944, saw a return to German versions of the name. The precise age of the village is not known; the first surviving record of it appears in an inventory compiled in 1303 by a notary named Burkhard von Fricke, working for the powerful Habsburg family. In the middle of the thirteenth century the Habsburgs owned the Albrecht Valley: the notary's task was to inventory the family's rights and revenues in all the villages including "Lach".
Subsequently the village passed through several hands, either in absolute possession or else as a fiefdom. Most noteworthy among these proprietors were the Rathsamhausen zum Stein family and the noble Bollwiller family. Lalaye was one of many Alsatian villages ruined by the Thirty Years' War. After 1648 the French entrusted the Lalaye lands to Choiseul-Meuse; the village was repopulated by migrants from Lorraine. The Roman Catholic community of Lalaye was affiliated to the parish of nearby Villé: it was therefore necessary for citizens to make the four kilometre trek to Villé in order to attend Sunday Mass. In 1665, a report on "The Condition of the Parishes" in the Villé lordship mentions the lack of any chapel at Mittelscheer, but indicates the presence of a suitable building at Lalaye in good condition and dedicated to Saint Dorothy. At the time the Abbess of Andlau enjoyed the tithe while the priest from Villé administered this chapel and celebrated the mass in it. In 1777 the old chapel was demolished and work began on a church, planned by the architect Christiani and which would be built on the same spot.
The church was far larger than the chapel it replaced, which had become necessary because of immigration to the village during the eighteenth century. Between 1720 and 1750 the size of the registered congregation increased from about twenty souls to about fifty. In 1803 a vicar was assigned to Lalaye-Charbes, from 1810 he was able to reside in a newly constructed presbytery. Lalaye obtained parish status in 1820. From the nineteenth century Lalaye experienced a major population exodus due to a lack of work in the valley; some residents migrated to cities such as Paris while others crossed the Atlantic to the United States or, like the missionary Jean Gaire, to Canada. Early emigrants were joined subsequently by others from the commune. Two schools were constructed during the nineteenth century: one at Charbes in 1832 and the other at Lalaye in 1860; the village was lightly touched by the two great wars of the twentieth century. During the First World War the village lost 17 inhabitants, 14 during the Second World War.
Jean Gaire 1853 - 1925, missionary to the Canadians, was born in Lalaye. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M