Avalon is the only incorporated city on Santa Catalina Island of the California Channel Islands, the southernmost city in Los Angeles County. The city is a resort community with the waterfront dominated by tourism-oriented businesses; the older parts of the town on the valley floor consist of small houses and two and three-story buildings in various traditional architectural styles. In 1919, William Wrigley, Jr. gained control of Avalon and oversaw much of the development of Avalon, including the construction of the landmark Catalina Casino. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, several different developers tried to develop Avalon into a resort destination community, but most before Wrigley went bankrupt; the population was 3,728 at the 2010 census. Avalon attracts about 1 million visitors a year and is visited by cruise ships. Before European colonization, the island was inhabited by the Tongva people. Prior to the modern era, Avalon Bay was inhabited by people of the Gabrielino/Tongva tribe.
The island was a major source of soapstone to the Tongva, who used the material to make stone vessels for cooking. The Tongva referred to themselves as the Pimugnans. However, by the 1830s, the entire island's native population had either died off, or had been relocated to the mainland to work in the missions or as ranch hands for the many private land owners. In the 1860s, German immigrant Augustus William Timms ran a sheep herding business on Catalina Island. One of his vessels, the Rosita, would ferry pleasure seekers across the channel to Avalon Bay for bathing and fishing; the settlement in Avalon was referred to as Timms's Landing in his honor. By the summer of 1883, there were three wooden buildings at Timms's Landing; the first owner to try to develop Avalon Bay into a resort destination was George Shatto, a real estate speculator from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Shatto purchased the island for $200,000 from the estate of James Lick at the height of a real estate boom in Southern California in 1887.
Shatto created the settlement that would become Avalon, can be credited with building the town's first hotel, the original Hotel Metropole, pier. Though early maps labeled the town Shatto, Shatto's sister-in-law Etta Whitney came up with the permanent name of Avalon in reference from a poem by Lord Tennyson called "Idylls of the King" about the legend of King Arthur. Shatto laid out Avalon's streets, introduced it as a vacation destination to the general public. Despite Shatto's efforts, in a few years he had to default on his loan and the island went back to the Lick estate; the sons of Phineas Banning bought the island in 1891 from the Lick estate and established the Santa Catalina Island Company to develop it as a resort. The Banning brothers fulfilled Shatto's dream of making Avalon a resort community, they built a dance pavilion in the center of town, made additions to the Hotel Metropole and steamer-wharf, built an aquarium, created the Pilgrim Club. Just as the Bannings were anticipating the construction of a new, Hotel Saint Catherine, their efforts were set back on November 29, 1915, when a fire burned half of Avalon's buildings, including six hotels and several clubs.
In 1919, due to debt related to the 1915 fire and a general decline in tourism during World War I, the Bannings were forced to sell the island in shares. In February 1919, chewing gum magnate William Wrigley, Jr. bought a controlling interest in Santa Catalina Island and its associated properties from the Banning Brothers. Wrigley devoted himself to preserving and promoting it, investing millions in needed infrastructure and attractions, including the construction of the new Catalina Casino, completed May 29, 1929. In order to encourage growth, Wrigley purchased additional steamships to service Avalon, including the SS Virginia and the SS Catalina, launched on the morning of May 3, 1924. Wrigley brought attention to the town of Avalon by having his Chicago Cubs use the island for the team's spring training from 1921 to 1951, absent the war years of 1942–45; the ball field was between Tremont Street and the golf course. Following the death of William Wrigley, Jr. in 1932, his son Philip K. Wrigley took over the Santa Catalina Island Company.
Philip continued his father's work in the improvement of the infrastructure of the City of Avalon. During World War II, the island was closed to tourists and used for military training facilities, including a U. S. Maritime Service training facility in Avalon. Catalina's steamships were expropriated for use as troop transports, the U. S. Maritime Service set up a training facility in Avalon; the Maritime Service announced on September 19, 1945, that the facility would soon be abandoned and all apprentice seaman on the west coast trained aboard three ocean-going vessels at Long Beach. In 1975, Philip Wrigley deeded the Wrigley shares in the Santa Catalina Island Company to the Catalina Island Conservancy that he had helped create; the Conservancy now stewards 88 percent of the island outside of the City of Avalon. The Santa Catalina Island Company maintains control of much of its resort properties and operations within the City of Avalon, it still owns and operates many of the main tourist attractions in Avalon, including the Catalina Visitors Country Club, Catalina Island Golf Course, Descanso Beach Club and the Casino Ballroom.
In May 2007, a fire ripped through 4,750 acres of land just outside Avalon's city limits. Over 200 firefighting recruits were brought over by U. S. Marine helicopter to protect the city. Only one residence and six commercial structures were destroyed
Arcadia is a city in Los Angeles County, United States located about 13 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley and at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. It is the site of the Santa Anita Park racetrack and home to the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden; the city had a population of 56,364 at the 2010 census, up from 53,248 at the 2000 census. The city is named after Greece. In 2016, Arcadia was ranked the 5th most expensive housing market in the United States by Business Insider, with an average list of $1,748,680 for a four-bedroom home. In 2012, Arcadia was ranked 7th in the nation on CNN Money magazine's list of towns with highest median home costs. Arcadia's Upper Rancho neighborhood was ranked the 23rd richest neighborhood in Southern California by Business Insider in 2014, with a mean household income of $310,779. In 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek named Arcadia as one of the "Best Places to Raise Your Kids" for the second year in a row. Located northeast of downtown Los Angeles, Arcadia is bordered by six other communities: Pasadena, Sierra Madre, El Monte, San Marino and Temple City.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles. 10.9 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Arcadia had a population of 56,364; the population density was 5,062.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcadia was 33,353 Asian, 18,191 White, 681 African American, 186 Native American, 16 Pacific Islander, 2,352 from other races, 1,585 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,799 persons; the Census reported that 55,502 people lived in households, 639 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 223 were institutionalized. There were 19,592 households, out of which 7,336 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 11,703 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,437 had a female householder with no husband present, 865 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 469 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 92 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
3,855 households were made up of individuals and 1,926 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83. There were 15,005 families; the population was spread out with 12,290 people under the age of 18, 4,102 people aged 18 to 24, 13,409 people aged 25 to 44, 17,349 people aged 45 to 64, 9,214 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There were 20,686 housing units at an average density of 1,858.0 per square mile, of which 12,371 were owner-occupied, 7,221 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 37,000 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,502 people lived in rental housing units. These were the ten neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Asian residents, according to the 2000 census: For over 8,000 years the site of Arcadia was part of the homeland of the Tongva people, a Californian Native American tribe whose territory spanned the greater Los Angeles Basin, the San Gabriel and San Fernando Valleys.
Their fluid borders stretched between: the Santa Susana Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains in the north. A Tongva settlement site within present-day Arcadia was known as Alyeupkigna; the town's site became part of the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel lands in 1771. After Indian Reductions to become Mission Indians, the Tongva were known as the Gabrieliños after the Mission's name, and under whose control these people worked during the mission period in California. There are 1,700 people self-identifying as members of the Tongva or Gabrieliño tribe; the Mexican land grant for Rancho Santa Anita was issued to Perfecto Hugo Reid and his Tongva wife, Victoria Bartolomea Comicrabit, in 1845. It was named after Anita Cota, on his wife's side. Reid documented the Gabrieliño Native Americans in a series of letters written in 1852, served as a delegate to the 1849 California Constitutional Convention. In 1847, Reid sold Rancho Santa Anita to Henry Dalton; the rancho changed owners several times before being acquired by Gold Rush immigrant and major regional land owner Elias Jackson "Lucky" Baldwin in 1875.
Baldwin purchased 8,000 acres of Rancho Santa Anita for $200,000. Upon seeing the area, he gasped “By Gads! This is paradise!” Upon buying the land, Baldwin chose to make the area his home and started erecting buildings and cultivating the land for farming and ranches. Baldwin built the Queen Anne Cottage for his fourth wife and himself in 1885-1886, now preserved within the Arboretum. In 1885, the main line of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad, in which Baldwin was a stockholder, was opened through the ranch, making subdivision of part of the land into a town site practical; this rail line became a Santa Fe Railroad line. In 1889, on a site just north of
Artesia is a city in southeast Los Angeles County, California. Artesia is one of Los Angeles County's Gateway Cities; the city has a 2010 census population of 16,522. Artesia is surrounded on the west and east sides by Cerritos, with Norwalk to the north. Artesia is the home of the East West Ice Palace, an ice rink, co-owned by Michelle Kwan, it was the childhood home of former First Lady Pat Nixon, who lived there from 1914 to 1931, though the property on which she grew up is now part of neighboring Cerritos. The village of Artesia was established upon the completion of the Artesia School District on May 3, 1875, it was named for the many flowing artesian wells in the area, which made the village ideal for farming and agriculture. In the 1920s and 1930s, Dutch and Portuguese farmers developed Artesia into one of the most important dairy districts in Southern California. After World War II, as with many other cities in the region, Artesia was pressured by developers to build residential tracts.
The city of Dairy Valley was incorporated in 1956, became the city of Cerritos. As the demand for housing continued, dairymen moved their operations further east into Chino and north into the Central Valley. Artesia incorporated on May 29, 1959. Before Artesia was incorporated, some rural areas, like Hawaiian Gardens, were considered part of Artesia for mapping and postage purposes. In 1993, the Artesia Historical Society was formed, with the mission of preserving and protecting the archives and historic sites of the city. In 2002, the Historical Society salvaged and restored one of the last remaining Spanish-styled homes in the city into a historical civic museum open to the public. One of the more familiar landmarks in the city is the Artesia water tower. Not much is known about its active past; the City of Artesia is trying to have the tower declared as a Historical Landmark and is asking its citizens for historical information and photos of the tower. The water tower can hold 50,000 gallons of water and was once owned by the Southern California Water Company before being sold to the City of Artesia in 1988.
The tower was intended to be used only as a point of historical interest, to provide a special identity to the community. Shortly after its purchase, the green tower was painted to its current color with the addition of the name Artesia painted on two sides, it sits on top of an artesian well. However, no record of its construction can be found. Although it may have once been a smaller wooden tower, to qualify for historic designation in California, factual documentation must be presented; the Artesia water tower was featured in the motion picture Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare in 1991 and was known in the film as the Springwood water tower. It was featured in season 1, episode 17, "Didn't Pay Taxes", of the television show My Name Is Earl, in March 2006. There are a large number of Indian-owned restaurants along Pioneer Boulevard in Artesia. Despite this concentration of Indian-owned businesses, Asian Indians made up only 7.9% of the population of Artesia in the 2010 Census. Proposals have been made to designate a portion of the city as "Little India".
Another proposal has been for a "Little India" sign at the Pioneer Boulevard exit off of the Artesia Freeway. Opposition from other ethnicities in the city, has so far balked such plans. According to the LA Times article "Artesia Thinks the World of Itself," four of five City Council members were outraged at Assemblyman Rudy Bermudez's attempt to make the designation without consulting the local council; the council members won a bill requiring local approval of proposed freeway sign designations. Mayor Larry Nelson said that Indian Americans constituted less than 1% of the city's population and that East Asian markets outnumber Indian ones 3 to 1. Thus, the name is the "International and Cultural Shopping District." Artesia is located at 33°52′2″N 118°4′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Artesia had a population of 16,522; the population density was 10,194.7 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Artesia was 6,446 White, 589 African American, 94 Native American, 6,131 Asian, 40 Pacific Islander, 2,630 from other races, 592 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,910 persons; the Census reported that 15,909 people lived in households, 69 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 544 were institutionalized. There were 4,535 households, out of which 1,933 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,673 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 670 had a female householder with no husband present, 334 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 150 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 30 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 661 households were made up of individuals and 306 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.51. There were 3,677 families; the population was spread out with 3,719 people under the age of 18, 1,680 people aged 18 to 24, 4,421 people aged 25 to 44, 4,454 people aged 45 to 64, 2,248 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4
Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 109,673, it was incorporated on February 14, 1908. The city is in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park is under construction in the city and, when completed around 2020, will be the new home of both the National Football League's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers; the city is close to Los Angeles International Airport. The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood were Native Americans who used the natural springs in today's Edward Vincent Jr. Park. Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these springs took the name Centinela from the hills that rose around them and which allowed ranchers to watch over their herds "". Waddingham traced the written history of Inglewood back to the original settlers of Los Angeles in 1781, one of whom was the Spanish soldier Jose Manuel Orchado Machado, "a 23-year-old muleteer from Los Alamos in Sinaloa".
These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission "to graze their animals on the ocean side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands." As a result, the settlers, or pobladores, drove some of their cattle to the "lush pasture lands near Centinela Springs," and the first construction there was done by one Ygnacio Avila, who received a permit in 1822 to build a "corral and hut for his herders." Avila constructed a three-room adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site, this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park, it no longer exists. In 1834, Ygnacio Machado, one of the sons of Jose Machado, built the Centinela Adobe, which sits on a rise above the present 405 San Diego Freeway and is used as the headquarters of the Centinela Valley Historical Society. Two years Waddingham writes, Ygnacio was granted the 2,220-acre Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela though this land had been claimed by Avila.
Inglewood Park Cemetery, a used cemetery for the entire region, was founded in 1905. The city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack from 1938 to 2013, one of the premier horse racing venues in the United States. Fosters Freeze, the first soft serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood. Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989 and yet again in 2009 for its visible progress. On January 12, 2016, Inglewood was selected to be the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. Ku Klux Klan activities in Inglewood during the 20th century were highlighted by the 1922 arrest and trial of 37 men, most of them masked, for a night-time raid on a suspected bootlegger and his family; the raid led to the shooting death of one of an Inglewood police officer. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict for all defendants, it was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that led to the outlawing of the Klan in California.
The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931. "No blacks had lived in Inglewood," Gladys Waddingham wrote, but by 1960, "they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the great displeasure of the predominantly white residents residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29'Negroes' among Inglewood's 63,390 residents. Not a single black child attended the city's schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks. A rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a prime target because of its history of restrictions." "Fair housing and school busing were the main problems of 1964. The schools were not prepared to handle racial incidents though any that occurred were minor. Adults held many heated community meetings, since the Blacks objected to busing as much as did the Whites." In 1969, an organization called "Morningside Neighbors" changed its name to "Inglewood Neighbors" "in the hope of promoting more integration."On February 3, 1969, Harold P. Moret became Inglewood's first black police officer.
A full year Jimmy Lee Worsham became the second. He was followed by Barbara Harris, the first black female officer Otis Hendricks, Melvin Lovelace and Eugene Lindsey; the 7th black officer in the history of the City of Inglewood was Jr.. He became Inglewood's first black Motorcycle Traffic Enforcement Officer, 1st Black Lieutenant and only black Deputy Chief in the history of the Department. Butts left Inglewood in September 1991 at the age of 38 to become the first person of color to command the Santa Monica Police Department as Chief of Police, the youngest to do so. Twenty years on February 1, 2011 Butts returned to Inglewood by being elected as its fourth black mayor. On July 22, 1970, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Max F. Deutz ordered Inglewood schools to desegregate in response to a suit filed by 19 parents. At least since 1965, said Deutz, the Inglewood school board had been aware of a growing influx of black families into its eastern areas but had done nothing about the polarization of its pupils into an eastern black area and a western white one.
On August 31, he rejected an appeal by four parents who said the school board was not responsible for the segregation but that the blacks "selected their places of residence by voluntary choice."The first black principal among the 18 Inglewood schools was Peter Butler at La Tijera Elementary, in 1971, Waddingham wrote, "Stormy r
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
Commerce is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 12,823 at the 2010 census, up from 12,568 at the 2000 census, it is bordered by Vernon on the west, Los Angeles on the northwest, East Los Angeles on the north, Montebello on the east and Bell Gardens on the south, Maywood on the southwest. The Los Angeles River forms part of its southwestern boundary, the Rio Hondo separates it from Downey. Commerce is served by the Long Beach and Santa Ana freeways, as well as the Metrolink commuter rail service at the Commerce station, it is referred to as the "City of Commerce" to distinguish it from the common noun. In the 19th century, the area was part of Antonio Maria Lugo's Rancho San Antonio, its conversion to an industrial area began in 1887, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built its main line through the area. The ranch remained intact until Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker, reputedly once the wealthiest woman in Los Angeles, sold some of it around the turn of the 20th century.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad both were built through what would become the community, as was the Pacific Electric Railway's Whittier Line. By the 1920s, factories had arrived. In the late 1940s, industrial leaders banded together with residents in the communities of Bandini and Laguna to encourage commerce, they changed the name to match that goal. The city was incorporated in 1960 to prevent neighboring cities such as Vernon and Los Angeles from annexing industrial land for tax revenue and elected its first city mayor, Maurice Quigley. In the 1970s and 1980s, Commerce negotiated the turbulent period of deindustrialization that hammered nearby cities such as South Gate and Norwalk, maintaining much of its manufacturing and goods-distribution base and converting former industrial land to lucrative commercial uses; the most notable example of this phenomenon is the Citadel outlet mall, which occupies the site of a former tire factory. The owner of the Citadel, Steve Craig, hosts an annual Clean Up Commerce Day and enlists other businesses to work with the city and volunteers in beautifying a specific area of the city.
With a major rail yard within its borders, Commerce has benefited from the huge expansion in international trade traffic through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, albeit at the expense of severe air pollution caused by truck congestion on the Long Beach Freeway. Chrysler had an assembly plant in Commerce from 1930 through July 1971 located at 5800 S. Eastern Avenue and Slauson Avenue, called Los Angeles Assembly, it was closed at the end of the 1971 model year, as Chrysler decided to triple-stack its transport trains for the 1972 model year. Commerce boasts a large aquatic center, Commerce Aquatics that has trained a number of successful water polo players, including four-time Olympic medallist Brenda Villa. Commerce is the site of Williams Ranch, on, the swimming hole that the Sleepy Lagoon Murder of Jose Diaz took place in 1942; the Sleepy Lagoon swimming hole was located near Slauson and Eastern Ave. Commerce is located at 34°0′2″N 118°9′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.5 square miles, over 99% of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Commerce had a population of 12,823. The population density was 1,961.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Commerce was 6,930 White, 96 African American, 161 Native American, 140 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 4,886 from other races, 601 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,114 persons; the Census reported that 12,753 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 3,382 households, out of which 1,751 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,693 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 708 had a female householder with no husband present, 308 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 248 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 559 households were made up of individuals and 326 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 2,709 families.
The population was spread out with 3,824 people under the age of 18, 1,458 people aged 18 to 24, 3,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,590 people aged 45 to 64, 1,370 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. There were 3,470 housing units at an average density of 530.8 per square mile, of which 1,619 were owner-occupied, 1,763 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 6,631 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 6,122 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Commerce had a median household income of $48,729, with 16.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 3,284 households, 2,686 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,913.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units a