Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. that opened on April 28, 2003, as a result of Steve Jobs' push to open a digital marketplace for music. As of January 2017, iTunes offered over 35-40 million songs, 2.2 million apps, 25,000 TV shows, 65,000 films. When it opened, it was the only legal digital catalog of music to offer songs from all five major record labels; as of June 2013, iTunes Store possessed 575 million active user accounts, served over 315 million mobile devices, including Apple Watches, iPods, iPhones, Apple TV and iPads. Steve Jobs saw the opportunity to open a digital marketplace for music due to the rising popularity of downloadable tracks. In 2002, Jobs made an agreement with the five major record labels to offer their content through iTunes. ITunes Store was introduced by Jobs at the company's Worldwide Developers Conference in April 2003, it was available on Mac computers and the iPod, was expanded to Microsoft Windows in October 2003.
In April 2008, the iTunes Store was the largest music vendor in the United States, in February 2010, it was the largest music vendor in the world. ITunes Store's revenues in the first quarter of 2011 totaled nearly US$1.4 billion. By May 28, 2014, the store had sold 35 billion songs worldwide. In 2016, it was reported, it was reported that iTunes-style digital download sales had dropped 24% as streaming sales continued to increase. In April 2018, the iTunes app was added to the Microsoft Windows 10 app store. Beginning in the spring of 2019, the iTunes app became available on Samsung Smart TVs. Following the introduction of iTunes Store, individual songs were all sold for the same price, though Apple introduced multiple prices in 2007. Music in the store is in the Advanced Audio Coding format, the MPEG-4-specified successor to MP3. Songs were only available with DRM and were encoded at 128 kbit/s. At the January 2009 Macworld Expo, Apple announced that all iTunes music would be made available without DRM, encoded at the higher-quality rate of 256 kbit/s.
This model, known as "iTunes Plus", had been available only for music from EMI and some independent labels. Users can sample songs by listening to previews, ninety seconds in length, or thirty seconds for short tracks. In addition, iTunes Store offers apps, which are applications used for various purposes that are compatible with the iPod Touch, iPhone, iPad, although some apps are for the iPhone or iPad only; some Apps cost money and some are free. Developers can decide which prices they want to charge for apps, from a pre-set list of pricing tiers, from free to several hundred dollars; when someone downloads an App, 70 percent of the purchase goes to the developer, 30 percent goes to Apple. At the Macworld 2008 keynote, Steve Jobs, Apple's CEO at the time, announced iTunes movie rentals. Movies are available for rent in iTunes Store on the same day they are released on DVD, though iTunes Store offers for rental some movies that are still in theaters. Movie rentals are only viewable for 48 hours after users begin viewing them.
ITunes Store offers one low-priced movie rental a week: in the United States, this rental costs 99 cents. Movie rentals are not yet available in all countries but it is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. There is a weekly promotion in which one to three songs are available to download for free to logged-in users. Free downloads are available on Tuesdays, remain free until the following Tuesday, when the store gets refreshed with new content; some artists choose to have select songs available for no charge. This is not available at all iTunes Stores; some iTunes television programs have begun the same technique to encourage brand loyalty. In fact, iTunes Store has a "Free TV Episodes" page where free episodes are organized by length, either as "featurettes" or full length episodes. Free content can vary from a preview of a show to bonus content to pilot episodes and entire seasons of TV shows; some networks, such as ABC and NBC, have their own pages of "Free Season Premieres".
While the US iTunes Store has offered as many as three free songs each week in recent years, the store has instead replaced the three aforementioned categories with a unified "Single of the Week" banner, with the week's single being from a new up and coming artist. In 2015, Apple discontinued the "Single of the Week" program. A song costs 99¢. By default, songs that are more than 10 minutes are considered "Album Only". For special offers, song prices can be free. By default, music albums cost $9.99 or the price of all the songs combined if it is less than $9.99. However, the music album's distributor can set a higher price for the album, which happens on popular music albums. For special offers, prices of music albums can be dropped to $5.99, $6.99, or $7.99. On June 30, 2015 Apple launched Apple Music as a subscription service available in 110 countries. New subscribers are offered a three-month free trial with ongoing subscriptions priced from $9.99/month in the US and £9.99 in the UK. By default, H
Carl Wilhelm Eugen Stenhammar was a Swedish composer and pianist. Stenhammar was born in Stockholm, was the brother of architect Ernst Stenhammar, he received his first musical education in Stockholm. He went to Berlin to further his studies in music, he became a glowing admirer of German music that of Richard Wagner and Anton Bruckner. Stenhammar himself described the style of his First Symphony in F major as "idyllic Bruckner", he subsequently sought to emancipate himself and write in a more "Nordic" style, looking to Carl Nielsen and Jean Sibelius for guidance. The latter's Symphony No. 2 had a great effect on him, leading him to change his style and refuse to refer to his First Symphony as anything but a trivial piece. From 1906 to 1922 he was Artistic Director and chief conductor of the Gothenburg Symphony, the first full-time professional orchestra in Sweden. In this capacity, he organised many performances of music by contemporary Scandinavian composers. In 1909, he held the position of director of music at Uppsala University, where he was succeeded the following year by Hugo Alfvén.
Wilhelm Stenhammar died of a stroke at 56 years of age in Jonsered in the historic province of Västergötland. He is buried in Gothenburg, his works were quite varied and included two completed symphonies, a substantial Serenade for Orchestra, two piano concertos, four piano sonatas, a violin sonata, six string quartets, many songs and other vocal works, including several large-scale works for chorus or voices and orchestra: the early ballad Florez och Blanzeflor, Op. 3, written around 1891, Ithaka, Op. 21, from 1904, the cantatas Ett folk from 1905 and Sången, Op. 44, from 1921. Writing in The Chamber Music Journal, R. H. R. Silvertrust notes that Stenhammar's six string quartets are the most important written between those of Johannes Brahms and Béla Bartók. Whether or not this is so, there is no denying that Stenhammar's quartets represent a important development during the twenty-five years he was writing chamber music. Tonally, they range from the middle late Romantics to a style akin to mature Sibelius.
Though not unknown by the Swedish chamber music public, his string quartets have been neglected elsewhere. In 2008 Musikaliska konstföreningen published the world premiere edition of his Allegro Brillante for piano quartet composed in 1891 and his Allegro non tanto for piano trio composed in 1895. Stenhammar was considered the finest Swedish pianist of his time. Pianists who venture into the realm of the string quartet wind up writing compositions which sound as though they were composed at, are better played on, the piano; that Stenhammar's works show no such trait is because for nearly half of his life, he worked intimately with the Aulin Quartet, the top Swedish string quartet of his day and one of the best performing in Europe. In fact, he toured throughout Europe with them for many years and a piano quintet was nearly always featured on their programmes, thus it is no accident that his quartets show a fine grasp of instrumental technique. The part writing is always idiomatic and evenly distributed.
Stenhammar recorded five piano rolls for Welte-Mignon on 21 September 1905. Orchestral works Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Op. 1 Excelsior! Concert Overture, Op. 13 Symphony No. 1 in F major Piano Concerto No. 2 in D minor, Op. 23 Two Sentimental Romances for violin and orchestra, Op. 28 Serenade in F major, Op. 31 Symphony No. 2 in G minor, Op. 34 Symphony No. 3 in C major Opera and choral works Florez and Blanzeflor, Op. 3 Gildet på Solhaug, Op. 6 Tirfing, Op. 15 Ithaka, Op. 21 Ett Folk, Op. 22 Midvinter, Op. 24 Sången, Op. 44 Around 60 songs Chamber music String Quartet No. 1 in C major, Op. 2 String Quartet No. 2 in C minor, Op. 14 String Quartet No. 3 in F major, Op. 18 String Quartet in F minor String Quartet No. 4 in A minor, Op. 25 String Quartet No. 5 in C major, Op. 29 String Quartet No. 6 in D minor, Op. 35 Violin Sonata in A minor, Op. 19 Allegro ma non tanto in A major, for piano trio Allegro brillante in E-flat major, for piano quartet Piano music Sonata No. 1 in C major Sonata No. 2 in C minor Sonata No. 3 in A-flat major Sonata No. 4 in G minor Three Fantasies, Op. 11 Sonata in A-flat major, Op. 12 Late Summer, 5 piano pieces, Op. 33 Incidental music Lodolezzi sjunger, Op. 39 The Chamber Music Journal, V: 1,4.
Riverwoods, IL: Cobbett Association. ISSN 1535-1726; some information in the above article appears on the website of Edition Silvertrust. Permission to use, copy and distribute has been given to Wikipedia under the GNU License and GFDL. Works by or about Wilhelm Stenhammar at Internet Archive Wilhelm Stenhammar Complete String Quartets, Violin Sonata Op.19 & Allegro Brillante for Piano Quartet Soundbites & Information Biography on the site of the Swedish Music Information Centre Listen to Tre Körvisor - free MP3 recordings of: September, I Seraillets Have och Havde jeg en Dattersøn with Umeå Akademiska Kör. Listen to a free MP3 recording of Vårnatt with Hemavans Sommarkör 2006. Free scores by Stenhammar at the International Music Score Library Project
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Duvall is a city in King County, United States, located on SR 203, halfway between Monroe and Carnation. The population consists of 7,674 people as of 2015; the area that became known as Duvall was the home of the Snoqualmie and other ancestral Tulalip Native American tribes. Following their relocation under the Treaty of Point Elliott, the area was homesteaded by veterans of the Civil War; the center of present-day town was located on a hillside homesteaded by Francis and James Duvall, loggers who arrived in 1871. An early milestone in the settlement of Duvall proper was the relocation of the town of Cherry Valley. Around 1909, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad agreed to move Cherry Valley homes and businesses to Duvall in order to continue the construction of a railroad line along the Snoqualmie River; the newly relocated town named Cosgrove after Samuel G. Cosgrove, underwent a real estate boom; this was followed by construction of a movie house, a drug store, a new schoolhouse, several hotels.
By 1911, the Duvall Citizen began publishing regular editions of news events. On April 28, 1968, nearly 3,000 fans attended a rock concert at a farm in Duvall where an upright piano was dropped from a helicopter. Performances included the Fish; this concert is well-known to locals as the Piano Drop. This event inspired the Sky River Rock Festival which occurred that year; the town of Duvall has experienced a great amount of construction during the period of 2008-2009 with the aim of making the one-road town center more accessible and presentable to tourists. Community Easter Egg Hunt held every year in McCormick Park, open to everyone; the year's largest and most popular event is'Duvall Days', held the first weekend in June in downtown Duvall, with other activities at nearby locations. Saturday events include a parade, street side vendors, live entertainment, many games and activities for children. There is a car show called'The Duvall Classic Car Show' held in the Duvall Safeway parking lot, the'Duvall Run' at McCormick Park with 10-kilometer and 5-kilometer races.
2017 and 2018 included an evening fireworks display. On Sunday, the staff of Fire District 45 host their annual pancake breakfast at the downtown station. SandBlast Festival of the Arts, third weekend in July. Outdoor music in July at Summer Stage and Movies In The Park in August, all located in McCormick Park. Duvall hosts an annual ` Tree Lighting'. Duvall has a newer event called March of the Vegetables, a parade celebrating the vegetables and art of Duvall; the event is put on by people in the community. Duvall is located at 47°44′3″N 121°58′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.49 square miles, of which, 2.47 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; because of its location relative to the Northern Cascades, the surrounding Snoqualmie Valley is subject to flooding from late fall to early spring. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Duvall has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2010, there were 6,695 people, 2,224 households, 1,816 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,710.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,315 housing units at an average density of 937.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.7% White, 0.4% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 2.9% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.7% of the population. There were 2,224 households of which 52.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.2% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 18.3% were non-families. 14.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.33. The median age in the city was 34.4 years. 33.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.5% male and 50.5% female.
The year's largest and most popular event is'Duvall Days', held the first weekend in June in downtown Duvall, with other activities at nearby locations. Saturday events include a parade, street side vendors, live entertainment, many games and activities for children. There is a car show called'The Duvall Classic Car Show' held in the Duvall Safeway parking lot, the'Duvall Run' at McCormick Park with 10-kilometer and 5-kilometer races. 2017 and 2018 included an evening fireworks display. On Sunday, the staff of Fire District 45 host their annual pancake breakfast at the downtown station. City of Duvall Duvall Historical Society
EMusic is an online music and audiobook store that operates by subscription. In exchange for a monthly subscription eMusic users can download a fixed number of tracks to their MP3 players per month. EMusic was established in 1998, is headquartered in New York City with an office in London, is owned by TriPlay. EMusic is a digital music store, founded in 1998 as one of the first sites to sell DRM-free MP3s; the site features original editorial content and was expanded in March 2014 to include Wondering Sound, an online music publication which includes eMusic's archived music features, news and new long-form articles and interviews. EMusic's music store, as of March 2011, had more than 12 million tracks, up from 9 million tracks in September 2010. New subscribers can take out a seven-day trial before taking a full subscription. Refunds are possible, under certain circumstances, by contacting eMusic customer support. Subscriptions allow users to download a number of tracks per 30-day period. EMusic offers a number of Membership plans, including Basic, Plus and Fan in exchange for a monthly fee.
Every 30 days the download limit is reset. EMusic offers "booster packs" to subscribers, which expire after 90 days rather than after a month, are consumed when subscribers download tracks beyond their monthly allotments. Earlier business models prior to Dimensional Associates' ownership supported an "all-you-can-eat" download subscription. For a monthly fee, customers were able to download as many tracks. EMusic was one of the first sites to sell music in the MP3 format, beginning in 1998, it differs from other well-known music download services in that it is a download-to-own subscription service. However, in 2011 eMusic took its first, limited step into streaming in an effort to help users discover unfamiliar tracks and artists more easily. In 2006, eMusic added two European versions of its online store:'eMusic UK' and'eMusic Europe'. Current subscribers to the global site that were within the European Union had their membership transferred to the appropriate European store. EMusic UK and eMusic Europe have higher prices compared to their North American counterpart due to the extra sales taxes which these stores are now subject to.
However, the changeover included access to labels unavailable to non-European customers, notably London-based Domino Records and artists such as The White Stripes and Mogwai. It is notable that the European version of the store is for customers within the European Union, not customers within Europe. EMusic's early growth may have been due to its early support of the MP3 format, lack of digital rights management encoding and low prices. Devin Leonard of CNN attributed eMusic's growth to its being the only online music store aside from iTunes that sold tracks that could be played on an iPod. In 2009, eMusic changed its pricing structure, raising prices for most existing users; the move was unpopular with some, but tracks from the Sony catalogue over two years old were made available to eMusic customers. Prior to July 2009, eMusic sold music from independent labels.eMusic shares the revenue with artists who have submitted music via digital distribution service providers such as CD Baby, TuneCore, State 51 and EmuBands.
EMusic has not had significant growth in subscribers - maintaining over 400,000 subscribers since 2007.eMusic was the first digital retailer to sell DRM-free downloadable audiobooks in the MP3 format beginning in 2007. Audible.com, its largest competitor, offers audiobooks with digital rights management in the.aa format. EMusic launched a Canadian version of its store in 2008. On July 14, 2016, eMusic launched eStories, an audiobook service that will offer 80,000 titles at a cost of $11.95 per title to use, plus 33 percent off additional purchases. Due to the contentious nature of DRM encoding, used by competing download services, eMusic won early praise for not including any in their own files, despite the fact that it cost them contracts with the major record labels. EMusic stated that this was a business move that has aided the site's popularity. While the site sells music from the four major record labels, the company has stated that it will remain true to its independent roots and build new product features that are geared towards members who are independent-minded, not mainstream pop-culturists.eMusic stores a record of user purchases on its internal servers, but does not place any purchaser information inside the tracks that are sold.
The service uses the LAME mp3 encoder to produce variable bit rate MP3 files. Analysis on the files show that the preset used is alt-preset-standard, a high quality VBR preset aiming at an average bit rate around 192kbit/s. However, contrary to the information published on the web site, files can sometimes be found in lower quality bit rates, including for recent releases; the preview streams provided for each song match the bit rate quality of the full download files. EMusic has had contracts with both the independent labels and the four major music labels in the United States. Most of eMusic's contracts are with independent labels, giving the service a reputation for offering indie rock, indie pop, heavy metal, punk rock and classical music. EMusic highlights its offerings through a host of exclusive editorial content, along the lines of monthly "editor's picks", columns and guides; the site's alternative rock selection has been aided by the rise in widely
Swedes are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden. They inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries, in particular Finland, with a substantial diaspora in other countries the United States; the English term "Swede" has been attested in English since the late 16th century and is of Middle Dutch or Middle Low German origin. In Swedish, the term is svensk, believed to have been derived from the name of svear, the people who inhabited Svealand in eastern central Sweden, were listed as Suiones in Tacitus' history Germania from the 1st century AD; the term is believed to have been derived from the Proto-Indo-European reflexive pronominal root, *se, as the Latin suus. The word must have meant "one's own"; the same root and original meaning is found in the ethnonym of the Germanic tribe Suebi, preserved to this day in the name Swabia. Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44, 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow in both ends.
Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has survived from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages. In the 6th century Jordanes named two tribes, which he calls the Suehans and the Suetidi, who lived in Scandza; these two names are both considered to refer to the same tribe. The Suehans, he says, has fine horses just as the Thyringi tribe; the Icelander Snorri Sturluson wrote of the 6th-century Swedish king Adils that he had the finest horses of his days. The Suehans supplied black fox-skins for the Roman market. Jordanes names the Suetidi, considered to be the Latin form of Svitjod.
He writes that the Suetidi are the tallest of men—together with the Dani, who were of the same stock. He mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of the same height. Originating in semi-legendary Scandza, a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, they reaching Scythia on the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine, where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy respectively. Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in the Crimea until the late-18th century; the Swedish Viking Age lasted between the 8th and 11th centuries. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south, it is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea and further as far as Baghdad.
Their routes passed through the Dnieper down south to Constantinople, on which they did numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the varangian guard; the Swedish Vikings, called "Rus" are believed to be the founding fathers of Kievan Rus. The Arabic traveller Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as following: I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms and ruddy; each man has an axe, a sword, a knife, keeps each by him at all times. The swords are grooved, of Frankish sort; the adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. There was considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commemorated on stones such as the England Runestones; the last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea.
Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones. What happened to the crew is unknown, it is not known when and how the'kingdom of Sweden' was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled both Svealand and Götaland as one province with Erik the Victorious. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that into antiquity, it is not known how long they existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the 6th century. During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centres. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 AD. In Paviken, an important centre of trade in the Baltic region during the 9th and 10th centuries, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of