Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
Caldwell County, Texas
Caldwell County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,066, its county seat is Lockhart. The county was founded in 1848 and named after Mathew Caldwell, a ranger captain who fought in the Battle of Plum Creek against the Comanches and against Santa Anna's armies during the Texas Revolution. Caldwell was a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Caldwell County is part of the Greater Austin metropolitan area. 8000 b.c. Paleo-Indians Hunter-gatherers, Tonkawa, Karankawa.and Comanche, first inhabitants. 1825 Caldwell County is part of Green DeWitt's petition for a land grant to establish a colony in Texas is approved by the Mexican government. 1839 Edmund Bellinger becomes the first settler of the county's oldest town. Sam Houston names the town for his future wife Margaret Lea Houston. 1848 March – The legislature forms Caldwell County from Bastrop and Gonzales counties. The county seat is called Lockhart. 1860 County population is 2,871. There are 1,610 slaves.
Community of Fentress is established as Riverside changed to Fentress to honor the town's first physician James Fentress. 1861 County votes 434-188 in favor of secession from the Union. Several hundred men from Caldwell County serve in the Confederate States Army. 1870's St. John Colony established by former slaves. 1874 Town of Luling is established. John and James Merriwether and Leonidas Hardeman build a gristmill and a sawmill to be known as Zedler's Mills. 1887 The Missouri and Texas completes its track between Lockhart and San Marcos. 1889 The San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway connects Luling to Shiner. 1892 The Missouri and Texas lays track from Lockhart east to Smithville. 1880-1900 Tenant farming accounts for nearly half of all the county's farming and as much as 75 percent of the 3,149 farms. 1902 The Southwest Texas Sacred Harp Singing Convention is established in McMahan. 1922, August 9 – Edgar B. Davis discovers the Luling Oilfield. 1927 The Luling Foundation is established by Edgar B. Davis to teach diversity in agriculture and improve the lives of farm and ranch families.
1948 Lockhart State Park opens to the public. 1953 Luling establishes its annual Watermelon Thump celebration. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 547 square miles, of which 545 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 183 State Highway 80 State Highway 130 Travis County Bastrop County Fayette County Gonzales County Guadalupe County Hays County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,066 people residing in the county. 75.8% were White, 6.8% Black or African, 0.9% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 13.1% of some other race and 2.5% of two or more races. 47.1% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,194 people, 10,816 households, 8,079 families residing in the county; the population density was 59 people per square mile. There were 11,901 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.13% White, 8.50% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 17.66% from other races, 2.74% from two or more races.
40.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,816 households out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.00% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.28. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 5.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.30% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 20.80% from 45 to 64, 12.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,573, the median income for a family was $41,300.
Males had a median income of $29,295 versus $21,595 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,099. About 10.40% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.10% of those under age 18 and 15.40% of those age 65 or over. Lockhart Luling Martindale Mustang Ridge Niederwald San Marcos Uhland Brownsboro Dale Delhi Elm Grove Fentress Joliet Lytton Springs Maxwell McMahan McNeil Mendoza Pettytown Prairie Lea Reedville Saint Johns Colony Seawillow Soda Springs Stairtown Taylorsville Tilmon Atlanta Holmes Mackiesville Polonia Rest Rogers Ranch List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Caldwell County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Caldwell County County of Caldwell Caldwell County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Bastrop County Complex Fire
The Bastrop County Complex fire was the most destructive wildfire in Texas history, striking areas of Bastrop County in September and October 2011. Three separate fires started on September 4, 2011, as a result of strong winds caused by nearby Tropical Storm Lee, merged into one large blaze that burned east of the city of Bastrop. Two people were killed by the fire, which destroyed 1,673 homes and inflicted an estimated $325 million of insured property damage; the fire furthermore caused severe damage to the ancient Lost Pines Forest. After being contained in late September, the fire was declared controlled on October 10; the fire moved underground in October and was extinguished on October 29. In the months before the Bastrop County Complex fire, Texas was affected by a series of wildfires amid several distinct record-breaking meteorological conditions conducive to combustion. During 2011, Texas endured its most severe single-year drought since the 1950s, received the lowest single-year rainfall since 1895, experienced the hottest June–August period of any U.
S. state at any point in time on record – exceeding that of the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Circumstances were further exacerbated by Tropical Storm Lee, which produced strong winds over the Labor Day weekend, creating ideal conditions for wildfires to spread. Between September 4 and September 6, reports indicated. On September 6, the Texas Forest Service released a statement, describing the fire's behavior as "unprecedented" and stating that "no one on the face of this Earth has fought fires in these extreme conditions". On the afternoon of September 4, two fires started near Bastrop State Park: one in the community of Circle D-KC Estates and the other four miles north. Fire officials stated that the cause of the blaze was sparks from electric power lines – 30-mile-per-hour gusts of wind on September 4 toppled trees which tumbled into electrical lines at the two initial locations, creating sparks that fell onto and ignited the dry grass and leaf litter below; the high winds spread the fires among the towering loblolly pine trees and the two fires merged, engulfing 400 homes.
A few hours a third fire broke out on the south side of Texas State Highway 71 near the Tahitian Village subdivision and merged with the other two. Multiple areas and locales were evacuated, including the Bastrop Animal Shelter, Bastrop State Park, other communities near the fire. Bluebonnet Electric Cooperative relocated its operations to a backup location and cut power in the area to protect firefighters. Bulldozers and pumpers were deployed to help combat the fire, according to Bastrop County Judge Ronnie McDonald. By early September 6, reports indicated that two lives had been lost, that the number of destroyed homes had increased to at least 600. Although the winds had calmed, the fire had no containment. Urban Search and Rescue Texas Task Force 1 was deployed to the area. By the morning of September 7, the Texas Forest Service reported that 785 homes had been destroyed, with the fire only 30 percent contained; the fire jumped the Colorado River on at least two separate occasions. On the morning of September 8, the number of homes destroyed reached 1,386.
Texan officials reported that they lacked the tanks and pipes necessary to load Tanker 910, a converted McDonnell Douglas DC-10 airtanker, with fire retardant, as well as a qualified aerial firefighting pilot to operate it. Air quality in neighboring Austin reached 14-year lows due to drifting smoke from the fire. In the evening of September 8, officials announced that they expected Tanker 910 to be in action by the morning of Friday September 9. However, Tanker 910 did not receive authorisation to combat the Bastrop fire, instead being used to fight a separate wildfire outside Houston. By Sunday, September 11, the fire had been 50% contained, some evacuated residents were permitted to return home as firefighting efforts continued. By this point, more than 1,500 homes had been destroyed by the fire. On September 16, the fire was reported to be 80% contained, more evacuated residents began returning to the affected area. On September 17, light rain began to fall in the fire zone, the fire was 85% contained, although Bastrop County emergency management coordinator Mike Fisher warned that complete containment would take a further 7 days.
On September 27, the fire was reported to be 98% contained, with no fire burning outside of the main containment lines. By September 30, cleanup operations had begun, although the fire was not formally declared to be contained until October 10; the cost of the removal of fire debris was estimated at $25 million, of which the Federal Emergency Management Agency was expected to contribute $19 million. The fire caused two confirmed deaths in the Bastrop area, destroyed 1,691 residential structures, more than any other single fire in Texas history. By comparison, the second-most destructive fire on record, in April 2011, destroyed 168 homes, while the third, in December 2005, destroyed 116. Total insured losses caused by the Bastrop fire were estimated at $325 million. According to Texas Parks & Wildlife officials, only 50-100 acres of the Bastrop State Park's 5,926-acre premises remained undamaged following the wildfire; the fire destroyed two scenic overlooks constructed during the New Deal of the 1930s, as well as the park's vintage Rain Shelter building.
Buescher State Park was closed for two weeks due to the wildfire threat, but reopened. Contrary to earlier reports, a Texas Parks & Wildlife press release reported that the park was untouched by the wildfire; the endangered Houston toad was believed to have lost the vast maj
Elgin is a city in Bastrop and Travis Counties in the U. S. state of Texas. The population was 8,135 at the 2010 census; the city is a suburb of Austin, is part of the Greater Austin metropolitan area. Elgin is known as the Sausage Capital of Texas and the Brick Capital of the Southwest, due to the presence of three operating brickyards in the mid-20th century; the City of Elgin owes its existence to a major flood of the Colorado River in 1869. The railroad was to have run from McDade, 10 miles east of Elgin, southwest to the Colorado River at a point somewhere between Bastrop and Webberville to Austin following the river. In 1871, the Houston and Texas Central Railroad built through the area and established a flag stop called Glasscock named for George W. Glasscock, a local resident and Republic of Texas soldier who lived in the area in the 1830s. Glasscock was renamed on August 18, 1872, for Robert Morris Elgin, the railroad's land commissioner, following the practice of naming new railroad towns after officers of the company.
Elgin was established. The original plat placed the train depot in the center of a one-square-mile area. Elgin was incorporated, received a post office the following year, a Baptist Sunday school began meeting in a private home. Much of the town's early population was drawn from nearby Perryville, which the railroad had bypassed. Perryville, or Hogeye as it was nicknamed, was located 2.5 miles to the south. The town was known by three different names: the name Young's Settlement was chosen in honor of the Michael Young family; the post office was named Young's Settlement, the churches and Masonic Lodge carried the name Perryville. The name Hogeye was given to the stage stop at the Litton home where dances were held and, according to legend, the fiddler knew only one tune: "Hogeye", which he played over and over as the crowd danced on the puncheon floor. In 1879, Elgin was described as a "thriving depot town" of 400, it had a newspaper, a gin, a gristmill. Three years Methodists erected the first church building in town.
In 1884, Elgin had five general stores, two druggists, three cotton gins, a saloon. In 1885, a group of citizens met in Elgin to organize a new north-south railroad which would run from Taylor, the rail head for the Missouri and Texas Railroad 16 miles to the north, through Elgin to Bastrop, the county seat, 16 miles to the south; the Taylor and Bastrop Railroad was formed in 1886 and began building the line. That same year, the "Katy" continued the construction on to Houston. Thus, Elgin became the beneficiary of two major rail lines with eight passenger trains daily, adding to Elgin's business as a shipping point for cotton and livestock. By 1890, Elgin had a population of 1,100 and supported two hotels, a broom factory, two doctors, a dentist, the Elgin Courier newspaper; the next year oil was discovered 5 miles southeast of town. Coal proved better for the economy, when the large coal belt nearby was mined in the early 20th century, bringing Latin-Americans and African-Americans to the area.
The year 1900 resulted in a bumper crop of Elgin prospered. Elgin grew but through the 20th century, from 1,258 in 1904 to 4,846 in 1990; the city incorporated in 1901, electing Charles Gillespie, building contractor, as mayor, as well as J. D. Hemphill as marshal, W. E. McCullough, J. Wed Davis, Ed Lawhon, Max Hirach, F. S. Wade as aldermen. Local law enforcement was established to enforce newly established criminal codes. By 1910, Elgin was enjoying a period of great prosperity as families from out on the prairie and surrounding communities moved to town and built nice homes. By 1940, Elgin was the site of two big brick and tile plants. Elgin enterprise was stimulated during World War II by the proximity of the army training facility Camp Swift. A third brick company was established in the town in the mid-1950s, lured by the high-quality clay deposits in the area. In addition to the brick plants, a local sausage factory processed thousands of pounds of beef and pork a week. Five cotton gins and a cotton oil mill were in operation at the same time.
Other industries included grain processing and hydraulic press manufacturing. By the 1980s, proximity to Austin had begun to attract commuters to Elgin. In the mid-1980s, the Elgin Courier was still being published, the sausage had achieved wider fame, two brick and tile plants were still in operation. Elgin was the site of a furniture plant and a leather works; the Elgin Commercial Historic District includes 14 city blocks of commercial and industrial buildings. Most of these buildings are constructed of locally produced brick and were erected from 1872 to 1947; the Elgin Commercial Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Within the 14-block district, 67 buildings are considered contributing structures. A contributing structure is one. Southside includes Central Avenue C in the downtown district. Five buildings are under restoration in the Southside area. During the past 14 years, private property owners, business owners, the public sector have invested about $9 million in the downtown are
Stephen F. Austin
Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", the founder of Texas, he led the second, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825. Born in Virginia and raised in southeastern Missouri, Austin served in the Missouri territorial legislature before moving to Arkansas Territory and Louisiana, his father, Moses Austin, received an empresario grant from Spain to settle Texas. After Moses Austin's death in 1821, Stephen Austin won recognition of the empresario grant from the newly independent state of Mexico. Austin convinced numerous American settlers to move to Texas, by 1825 Austin had brought the first 300 American families into the territory. Throughout the 1820s, Austin sought to maintain good relations with the Mexican government, he helped suppress the Fredonian Rebellion, he helped ensure the introduction of slavery into Texas despite the attempts of the Mexican government to ban the institution.
He led the initial actions against the Karankawa people in this area. As Texas settlers became dissatisfied with the Mexican government, Austin advocated conciliation, but the dissent against Mexico escalated into the Texas Revolution. Austin led Texas forces at the successful Siege of Béxar before serving as a commissioner to the United States. Austin was defeated by Sam Houston. Houston appointed Austin as secretary of state for the new republic, Austin held that position until his death in December 1836. Numerous places and institutions are named in his honor, including the capital of Texas, Austin in Travis County, Austin County, Austin Bayou, Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Austin College in Sherman, a number of K-12 schools. Stephen F. Austin was born in the mining region of southwestern Virginia in what is known as Austinville today, some 256 miles southwest of Richmond, Virginia, he was the second child of Mary Brown Moses Austin. On June 8, 1798, when Stephen was four years old, his family moved west to the lead-mining region of present-day Potosi, Missouri, 40 miles west of the Mississippi River.
His father Moses Austin received a sitio from the Spanish government for the mining site of Mine à Breton, established by French colonists. His great-great-grandfather, Anthony Austin, was the son of Richard Austin, he and his wife Esther were original settlers of Suffield, which became Connecticut in 1749; when Austin was eleven years old, his family sent him back east to be educated, first at the preparatory school of Bacon Academy in Colchester, Connecticut. He studied at Transylvania University in Lexington, from which he graduated in 1810. After graduation, Austin began reading the law with an established firm. At age 21, he was served in the legislature of the Missouri Territory; as a member of the territorial legislature, he was "influential in obtaining a charter for the struggling Bank of St. Louis."Left penniless after the Panic of 1819, Austin decided to move south to the new Arkansas Territory. He acquired property on the south bank of the Arkansas River, in the area that would become Little Rock.
After purchasing the property, he learned the area was being considered as the location for the new territorial capital, which could make his land worth a great deal more. He made his home in Arkansas. Two weeks before the first Arkansas territorial elections in 1820, Austin declared his candidacy for Congress, his late entrance meant his name did not appear on the ballot in two of the five counties, but he still placed second in the field of six candidates. He was appointed as a judge for the First Circuit Court. Over the next few months, Little Rock did become the territorial capital, but Austin's claim to land in the area was contested, the courts ruled against him. The Territorial Assembly abolished Austin's judgeship. Austin left the territory, he reached New Orleans in November 1820, where he met and stayed with Joseph H. Hawkins, a New Orleans lawyer and former Kentucky congressman, he made arrangements to study law with him. During Austin's time in Arkansas, his father traveled to Spanish Texas and received an empresarial grant that would allow him to bring 300 American families to Texas, they would be called "The Old 300."
Moses Austin caught pneumonia soon after returning to Missouri. He directed. Although Austin was reluctant to carry on his father's Texas venture, he was persuaded to pursue the colonization of Texas by a letter from his mother, Mary Brown Austin, written two days before Moses Austin would die. Austin boarded the steamer and departed to New Orleans to meet Spanish officials led by Erasmo Seguín, he was on June 31, 1821, when he learned of his father's death. "This news has effected me much, he was one of the most feeling and affectionate Fathers that lived. His faults I now say, always have, were not of the heart."Austin led his party to travel 300 miles in four weeks to San Antonio with the intent of reauthorizing his father's grant, arriving on August 12. While in transit, they learned Mexico had declared its independence from Spain, Texas had become a Mexican province, rather than a Spanish territory. José Antonio Navarro, a San Antonio native with ambitious visions of the future of Texas, befriended Stephen F. Austin, the two developed a lasting association.
Navarro, proficient in Spanis