Adnan Kapau Gani
Adnan Kapau Gani abbreviated as A. K. Gani, was an Indonesian politician. Born in West Sumatra, he spent much of his youth in Java, where he studied medicine and became involved with the nascent nationalist movement before going to South Sumatra to work as a doctor. During the Indonesian National Revolution he served three terms as Minister of Welfare. Afterwards Gani went to Palembang, South Sumatra, where he remained active in politics until his death. In November 2007 Gani was made a National Hero of Indonesia. Gani was born in Palembajan, West Sumatra, west of Bukittinggi, on 16 September 1905; the son of a teacher, he finished his early studies in Bukittinggi in 1923 before going to Batavia, first for his secondary studies and to study medicine. He graduated from STOVIA, a school for prospective doctors, in 1926. From his teens Gani was active in social organisations, he was a member of several groups for native youth, including Jong Sumatera. By the late 1920s he had several enterprises running, including book reseller.
This revenue enabled him to donate funds to the Youth Congress of 1928, where the Youth Pledge was first read and "Indonesia Raya" was first played. In 1931 he joined Partindo, which had split off from the Indonesian National Party shortly after Sukarno's arrest by the colonial government. Gani became acquainted with Sukarno after the latter's release from prison the following year and joined the Indonesian Political Federation with him. Long interested in theatre, in 1941 Gani starred in Union Film's Asmara Moerni after being invited by the film's director, Rd. Ariffien. At the time the country's film industry was beginning to cater to well-educated audiences. Although some of the audience considered Gani's involvement in Asmara Moerni as besmirching the independence movement, Gani considered it necessary to improve how the people viewed local productions; the film, the only one Gani made, was a commercial success. That year Gani received his medical degree. After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, Gani refused to collaborate.
As such, he was held until October of the following year. He spent the rest of the occupation as a private practitioner. After the country's independence and during the ensuing revolution, Gani gained greater political power while serving with the military. From 1945 to 1947 he was the commissioner for the PNI in South Sumatra serving on that party's board, he coordinated military efforts in the province. He considered Palembang a viable economic powerhouse for the newly independent nation, arguing that with oil they could gather international support, he negotiated sales with international interests, including the Dutch-owned Shell while smuggling weapons and military supplies past the Dutch blockade. He had numerous connections in the Chinese community in Singapore, which assisted him in these tasks. From 2 October 1946 until 27 June 1947 Gani served as Minister of Welfare under Sutan Sjahrir in the prime minister's third cabinet. While serving as minister of welfare Gani, with Sjahrir and Mohammad Roem, served as the Indonesian delegation to the third plenary session for the Linggadjati Agreement, becoming a signatory on 25 March 1947.
He worked to establish a national banking network, the BTC, as well as several trade organisations. With Amir Sjarifuddin and Setijadji, Gani was a formateur for the new cabinet, which received its mandate on 3 July, he stayed on as Minister of Welfare while serving as a deputy prime minister under Sjarifuddin. Gani was the first cabinet member arrested during Operation Product, a Dutch assault on Indonesian-held territory in mid-July, but was released, he attended a trade conference in Havana, Cuba. In Sjarifuddin's second cabinet, Gani continued to serve as a deputy prime minister and minister of welfare until the cabinet collapsed on 29 January 1948 owing to dissatisfaction with the Renville Agreement. After the revolution ended in 1949, Gani became the Military Governor of South Sumatra. In 1954, while still involved in politics as minister of transportation in the First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet, he became the rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, he was buried in Siguntang Heroes' Cemetery in Palembang.
Gani was survived by Masturah. On 9 November 2007, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono gave Gani the title National Hero of Indonesia. Footnotes Bibliography
Air Marshal Omar Dani was commander of the Indonesian Air Force from 1962 until 1965. He was a leading leftist figure in Indonesia during the Sukarno era. Dani first worked on a plantation at the government radio station, in the ministry of information, in a bank, he enrolled in the Air Force Academy in 1950, in 1956, attended the Royal Air Force Staff College, Andover in Great Britain. He rose through the ranks to become Minister and Commander of the Air Force in January 1962, his support for Sukarno, his apparent support for the 30 September Movement in 1965 was his undoing. Shortly after the downfall of President Sukarno, he was arrested and sent to prison by the new government led by Suharto. In 1995, he was pardoned, released from jail and became one of the main sources for research into the Air Force's role during the 1965 coup, he died on 24 July 2009, at the age of 85. He is buried at Jeruk Purut Cemetery in South Jakarta
Kodam Jaya is a military command area of the Military of Indonesia. It oversees Jakarta, the capital city, as well as three regions outside of Jakarta: Bekasi and Depok, which are administratively in West Java province. On 1 September 1945, the People's Security Bureau was founded in Jakarta, was led by Lt. Col. Mufraeni Mukmin. On 29 September 1945, allied forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Sir Philip Christison landed from the HMS Cumberland in Tanjung Priok Harbor to disarm Japanese troops and to liberate prisoners of war. BKR and Indonesian youth in API, Kris Hisbulah, other paramilitary organisations confronted the allied forces. To increase armed resistance against the allied forces, the government of the Republic of Indonesia founded the People's Security Forces on 5 October 1945. One regiment of TKR in Jakarta was organised under the command of Lt. Col. Mufraini Mukmin. On 24 September 1949, the Dutch government recognised Indonesia's Independence, one of the first actions of, the signing of documents for the transfer of power in Jakarta Raya area from Comando Batavia En Ommelanden of the Dutch to Basis Comando Jakarta Raya of Indonesia, under supervision of Komisi Tiga Negara.
This established 24 September as the anniversary day of Kodam Jaya. In December 1949, some units such as "Kala Hitam" Battalion and "Siluman" Battalion were dispatched to reinforce Basis Comando Jakarta Raya, following which Lt. Col. R. Taswin Natadiningrat was appointed as commander of Basis Comando Jakarta Raya. In January 1950, Basis Comando Jakarta Raya change its name to Komando Militer Pangkalan Jakarta Raya. In accordance with instruction from Army HQ on 10 May 1950, Komando Militer Kota was changed to Komando Militer Kota Besar Jakarta Raya; as the Republic of Indonesia continued to developm, the Army Chief of Staff released two letters of command numbered SP 1671/10/1959 and SP 1672/10/1959, which reorganized the Army command for the capital, thus the 5th Military Regional Command/Jayakarta was founded in the basis of the KMKB-DR which a new commander was to be named for this separate command for the region. After that, on 19 January 1960, at 9:00 am in Lapangan Banteng, the Chief of Staff of the Army, Lt. Gen. Abdul Haris Nasution, appointed Col. Umar Wirahadikusumah as the first Commander of Kodam V/Jaya.
The 1st Mechanized Infantry Brigade took part in the events of the 30 September Movement, its commander being one of the coup attempt leaders. Col. Wirahadikusumah was spared from any action due to pressure from Maj Gen Suharto commander of Kostrad, for him to prevent having to join the rebel forces in his area of operations. In 1984, the command became Kodam Jaya as part of an armed forces-wide reorganization, its numerical designation removed; the Territorial Units in Kodam Jaya are two Military Area Command units and a self-supporting Military District Command. Korem 051/Wijayakarta, consisting of five Military District Commands: Kodim 0504/South Jakarta Kodim 0505/East Jakarta Kodim 0507/Bekasi Kodim 0508/Depok Kodim 0509/Bekasi Regency Korem 052/Wijayakrama, consisting of four Military District Commands: Kodim 0502/North Jakarta Kodim 0503/West Jakarta Kodim 0506/Tangerang Kodim 0510/Tigaraksa Kodim 0501/Central Jakarta 1st Capital Guards Infantry Brigade /Jayasakti Brigade HQ 201st Mechanised Infantry Battalion/Jaya Yudha 202nd Mechanised Infantry Battalion/Tajimalela 203rd Mechanised Infantry Battalion/Arya Kemuning 9th Assault Armored Cavalry Squadron/Satya Dharma Kala 1st Air Defence Artillery Regiment/Falatehan Regiment HQ 6th Medium Air Defence Artillery Battalion 10th Medium Air Defence Artillery Battalion 3rd Missile Detachment 7th Special Panzer Motorized Cavalry Squadron/Pragosa Satya 7th Field Artillery Battalion/Biring Galih 3rd Combat Engineers Detachment/Agni Tirta Dharma Training units in Kodam Jaya are organised under Kodam Jaya Training Regiment.
The units are: Regiment HQ Satuan Dodik Latpur Satuan Dodik Kejuruan Sekolah Calon Bintara Sekolah Calon Tamtama Satuan Dodik Bela Negara Kodam Jaya Capital Military Police Command Kodam Jaya Capital Public Affairs and Press Office Kodam Jaya Office of the Adjutant General Kodam Jaya Military Physical Fitness and Sports Office Kodam Jaya Medical Department Kodam Jaya Veterans and National Reserves Administration Kodam Jaya Topography Service Kodam Jaya Chaplaincy Corps Kodam Jaya Finance Office Kodam Jaya Legal Affairs Office Kodam Jaya HQ and HQ Services Detachment Kodam Jaya Information and Communications Technology Office Kodam Jaya Supply Corps Kodam Jaya Transport Corps Kodam Jaya Ordnance Department Kodam Jaya Engineers Command Kodam Jaya Signals Corps Kodam Jaya Intelligence Command Indonesian Army official website
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
The Merdeka Palace, is one of six presidential palaces in Indonesia. It is located on the north side of the Merdeka Square in Central Jakarta, Indonesia and is used as the official residence of the President of the Republic of Indonesia; the palace was a residence for the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies during the colonial era. In 1949, the palace was renamed Merdeka Palace, "merdeka" meaning "freedom" or "independence"; the Merdeka Palace is part of the 6.8 hectares Jakarta Presidential Palace Complex, which includes the Negara Palace, Wisma Negara, Sekretariat Negara, the Bina Graha building. It is the center of the Indonesian executive authority; the building, now the Merdeka Palace was built in the premise of the Rijswijk Palace when it was considered no longer sufficed for administrative purposes e.g. big receptions and conferences during the mid-19th-century. In 1869, the instruction to construct a new palace was given by Governor-General Pieter Mijer. Construction took place on the south lawn of the Rijswijk Palace on March 23, 1873 during the tenure of Governor-General James Loudon.
The Neo-Palladian palace was designed by Jacobus Bartholomeus Drossaers and was built by the Department of Public Works and the contracting firm Drossaers & Company at a cost of ƒ 360,000. The new building was built in southern part of the Rijswijk Palace grounds, directly facing Koningsplein. Construction of the palace was finished in 1879 during the tenure of Governor-General Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge; the new palace was given the official name Paleis van de Gouverneur Generaal, the official residence of the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies and his family. Governor-General Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge was the first to reside in the building. Governor-General Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer was the last Dutch governor-general to reside in the Palace. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, the Saiko Shikikan of the Japanese garrison resided in the Rijswijk Palace compound. Three Japanese commanders have taken residence in the Merdeka Palace; the Indonesian national revolution ended with the Netherlands' recognition of the Republic of Indonesia.
The Indonesian declaration of independence from the Dutch in 1949 was announced in Gambir Palace. During the ceremony, the Dutch flag was substituted with the Flag of Indonesia. Many spectators were rejoicing when the flag was hoisted, yelled "Merdeka!". From that moment, Gambir Palace became known as Merdeka Palace. Tony Lovink, the High Commissioner of the Dutch Crown was the last man representing the Dutch power to leave the Palace; the name of the palace changed to Istana Merdeka on 28 December 1949 at 17.55 hours. On 27 December 1949, a day after the ceremony, President Sukarno and his family arrived from Yogyakarta. For the first time, the President of the Republic of Indonesia settled in Merdeka Palace; the first annual Independence Day ceremony was held at the Merdeka Palace in 1950. The building has remain unchanged since the building was finished in 1879. After the Indonesian independence, the Merdeka Palace compound was expanded to include not only Istana Negara, but to construct Wisma Negara, Sekretariat Negara and Bina Graha.
Several colonial buildings and residences were demolished in the Weltevreden area to make way for today's State Palace compound. A small octagonal gazebo located in the courtyard of the palace was used as private school for Sukarno's and the palace staff's children; this gazebo was used by Dutch colonial officials as muziekkoepel, where music performances were played during formal balls. When Suharto became president of Indonesia, he made changes to the residential function of the Palace. Sukarno's bedroom was converted into Ruang Bendera Pustaka and the room of Sukarno's wife Fatmawati became the President's bedroom. An old wooden building in the palace complex known as "Sanggar" was demolished to make way for the Puri Bhakti Renatama building, was used as a museum to store valuable artifacts and gifts from foreign emissaries, he built the Bina Graha building on the palace grounds, which he used as his office. When Megawati took office, she had the Puri Bhakti Renatama building converted into the President's office, while its contents moved to Bina Graha building.
She restored the furniture and decorations of the palace back to the way it was under Sukarno. Suharto's Jepara wood carving furniture was removed, with the exception of the Ruang Jepara, replaced with the old colonial refurbishment; the Merdeka Palace serves as an official venue for state events such as the Independence Day ceremony, welcoming dignitaries, cabinet meetings, state banquets and reception of letters of credence from foreign ambassadors. Additionally, it still contains offices; the administrative role that the palace once had, has been shifted to the State Palace and State Secretariat, while the Merdeka Palace remains a symbol of authority. A 17 m tall flagpole and a fountain are located on the front lawn of the Merdeka Palace; the annual flag raising ceremony takes place during the Indonesian Independence day on 17 August. During the Independence ceremony, the veranda is used as a ceremonial stage for the President and dignitaries. Notable rooms in the Palace include: Ruang Kredensial provides
Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the war in September 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history; the Dutch East Indies had been a colony of the Netherlands since 1819. However, the Netherlands itself had been occupied by Germany, thus had little ability to defend its colony against the Imperial Japanese Army, less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo, the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces. Most Indonesians joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters; the sentiment changed, however, as Indonesians realized that they were expected to endure more hardship for the Japanese war effort. In 1944–1945, Allied troops bypassed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra; as such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of its surrender in August 1945.
The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia and ended the Dutch colonial rule, and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesian National Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level. In Java and, to a lesser extent, the Japanese educated and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus, through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for the proclamation of Indonesian independence within days of the Japanese surrender in the Pacific. However, the Netherlands sought to reclaim the Indies, a bitter five-year diplomatic and social struggle ensued, resulting in the Netherlands recognising Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949; until 1942, Indonesia was known as the Dutch East Indies.
In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause. The Japanese spread the word that they were the'Light of Asia'. Japan was the only Asian nation that had transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the 19th century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, had beaten a European power, Russia, in war. Following its military campaign in China, Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia, advocating to other Asians a'Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere', which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership; the Japanese had spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the 20th century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.
The Japanese population peaked in 1931 with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government. A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan; such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an'Asia for the Asians'. While most Indonesians were hopeful for the Japanese promise of an end to the Dutch racially based system, Chinese Indonesians, who enjoyed a privileged position under Dutch rule, were less optimistic. Concerned were members of the Indonesian communist underground who followed the Soviet Union's popular united front against fascism. Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.
In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organisation of religious and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilisation of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat. The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago. On 8 December 1941, the Dutch government-in-exile declared war on Japan. In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia, under the command of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile, taking political prisoners and personal staff to Australia. Before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese - and Dutch-owned properties were destroyed.
The invasion in early 1942 was complete. By January 1942, parts of Sulawesi and Kalimantan were under Japanese control. By February, the Japanese had landed on Sumatra where they had encouraged the Acehnese to rebel against the Dutch. On 19 February, having taken Ambon, the Japanese Eastern Task Force landed in Timor, dropping a special parachute unit into West Timor near Kupang, landing in the Dili area of Portuguese Timo
Bogor is a city in the West Java province, Indonesia. Located around 60 kilometers south of the national capital of Jakarta, Bogor is the 6th largest city of Jabodetabek and the 14th nationwide; the city covers an area of 118.5 km2, it had a population of 950,334 at the 2010 Census. Bogor is an important economic, scientific and tourist center, as well as a mountain resort. In the Middle Ages, the city served as the capital of Sunda Kingdom and was called Pakuan Pajajaran or Dayeuh Pakuan. During the Dutch colonial era, it was named Buitenzorg and served as the summer residence of the Governor-General of Dutch East Indies. With several hundred thousand people living on an area of about 20 km2, the central part of Bogor is one of the world's most densely populated areas; the city has a presidential palace and a botanical garden – one of the oldest and largest in the world. It bears the nickname "the Rain City", because of frequent rain showers, it nearly always rains during the dry season. The first mentioning of a settlement at present Bogor dates to the 5th century when the area was part of Tarumanagara, one of the earliest states in Indonesian history.
After a series of defeats from the neighboring Srivijaya, Tarumanagara was transformed into the Sunda Kingdom, in 669, the capital of Sunda was built between two parallel rivers, the Ciliwung and Cisadane. It was named Pakuan Pajajaran, that in old Sundanese means "a place between the parallel ", became the predecessor of the modern Bogor. Over the next several centuries, Pakuan Pajajaran become one of the largest cities in medieval Indonesia with population reaching 48,000; the name Pajajaran was used for the entire kingdom, the capital was called Pakuan. The chronicles of that time were written in Sanskrit, the language used for official and religious purposes, using the Pallava writing system, on rock stellas called prasasti; the prasasti found in and around Bogor differ in shape and text style from other Indonesian prasasti and are among the main attractions of the city. In the 9–15th centuries, the capital was moving between Pakuan and other cities of the kingdom, returned to Pakuan by King Siliwangi on 3 June 1482 – the day of his coronation.
Since 1973, this date is celebrated in Bogor as an official city holiday. In 1579, Pakuan was captured and completely destroyed by the army of Sultanate of Banten, ceasing the existence of the State of Sunda; the city remained uninhabited for decades. In the second half of the 17th century, the abandoned Pakuan as most of West Java, while formally remaining under the Sultanate of Banten passed under control of the Dutch East India Company; the formal transition occurred on 17 April 1684 by signing an agreement between the Crown Prince of Banten and the VOC. The first, temporal, colonial settlement at Pakuan was a camp of lieutenant Tanoejiwa, a Sundanese employed by the VOC, sent in 1687 to develop the area, it was damaged by the eruption on 4–5 January 1699 of the Mount Salak volcano, however the concomitant forest fires removed much forest, leaving much area for the planned rice and coffee plantations. In a short time, several agricultural settlements appeared around Pakuan, the largest being Kampung Baru.
In 1701, they were combined into an administrative district. The district was further developed during the 1703 Dutch mission headed by the Inspector General of the VOC Abraham van Riebeeck; the expedition of van Riebeeck performed a detailed study of the Pakuan ruins and described many archaeological artifacts, including prasasti, erected buildings for the VOC employees. The area attracted the Dutch by a favorable geographical position and mild climate, preferred over the hot Batavia, the administrative center of the Dutch East Indies. In 1744–1745, the residence of the Governor-General was built in Pakuan, hosting the government during the summer. In 1746, by the order of the Governor-General Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, the Palace, a nearby Dutch settlement and nine native settlements were merged into an administrative division named Buitenzorg Around the same time, the first reference to Bogor as the local name of the city was documented; this name became used for the whole city as the local alternative to Buitenzorg.
This name is believed to originate from the Javanese word bogor meaning sugar palm, still used in the Indonesian language. Alternative origins are the old-Javanese word bhagar, or the misspelling of "Buitenzorg" by the local residents; the city grew in the late 18th – early 19th centuries. This growth was stimulated by the temporary liberation of the Dutch East Indies by United Kingdom in 1811–1815 – the British landed on Java and other Sunda Islands to prevent their capture by Napoleonic France which conquered the Netherlands; the head of the British administration Stamford Raffles moved the admin