1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
The Campana Company
The Campana Company of Batavia, Illinois was a major manufacturer of cosmetics in the 20th century. The Campana Company was incorporated in Illinois in 1927, its first product was Italian a hand lotion. The formula was purchased from where the company derives its name. Although the company first operated only two years before the start of The Great Depression, it was very prosperous due to innovative advertising promoted by its owner, Ernest Morgan Oswalt. Campana was one of the first companies to offer free cosmetics samples in magazines, a method, still extensively used. A second method of advertising was the use of radio commercials. Oswalt hired writer Florence Ward to create a radio variety show that would feature commercials for the company; the show, The First Nighter Program, was successful and ran for 22 years. The company's treasurer and Oswalt's nephew, I. Willard Crull, would write over a hundred radio plays for the program under the pen name Anthony Wayne. Due in part to these commercials, Italian Balm became one of the best-selling hand lotions in the United States.
Spinoffs from First Nighter included Grand Hotel. Campana sponsored First Nighter premiered on ABC Television's prime time schedule in 1950, its Wednesday night time slot was eight p.m. which had it competing against NBC's Four Star Revue and CBS's Arthur Godfrey and His Friends. By the late 1930s, The Campana Company wanted a new factory to keep up with the high demand for their product. Oswalt wanted a building that would reflect the modern appeal of his products, commissioned a Streamline Moderne building in Batavia, Illinois; the Campana Factory featured many new technologies, including air conditioning. At this time, an adage was added to the English lexicon, "To work at Campana is like being a member of Frederick Stock's musical ensemble"; the Campana Factory had to change the name of its popular lotion to Campana Balm after World War II due to growing anti-Italian sentiment. By the late 1940s, I. Willard Crull took full rein of Campana, he would serve as its president until his retirement in the mid-1970s.
He had expanded the company in the 1940s with Parfums Anjou and would thereafter acquire Old South Toiletries. They would provide stiff competition for French perfumers as Cosmopolitan Magazine highlighted in 1956. Campana's takeover of Carlay Company brought the "Ayds Reducing Plan vitamins and mineral candy" into the Campana product line. A merger with Allied Laboratories of Kansas City in 1958 left Crull in charge. Allied was sold to Dow Chemical in 1960. Although Campana's product line was not compatible with Dow's, Crull was still tapped to serve as an interim president of Dow for a few months, which allowed him time to seek a more compatible suitor for Campana. In 1962 Purex would buy Campana, with Crull serving as the head of its toiletries division, while Campana was able to function as a separate company with Crull at its head. After Crull retired in the 1970s, Purex retained some of Campana's product lines while selling off others. Thereafter, Purex relocated the workers and shut down Campana operations in 1982.
Ownership of the CAMPANA ITALIAN BALM trademark by Purex from Logos Database
DuPage County, Illinois
DuPage County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois, one of the collar counties of the Chicago metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 916,924, its county seat is Wheaton. DuPage County has become developed and suburbanized, although some pockets of farmland remain in the county's western and northern parts; the county has a high socioeconomic profile and residents of Hinsdale and Oak Brook include some of the wealthiest people in the Midwest. On the whole, the county enjoys above average median household income levels and low overall poverty levels when compared to the national average. In 2018 Niche ranked two DuPage municipalities amongst the top 20 best places to live in America. DuPage County was formed on February 1839 out of Cook County; the county took its name from the DuPage River, which was, in turn, named after a French fur trapper, DuPage. The first written history to address the name, the 1882 History of DuPage County, Illinois, by Rufus Blanchard, relates: The DuPage River had, from time immemorial, been a stream well known.
It took its name from a French trader who settled on this stream below the fork previous to 1800. Hon. H. W. Blodgett, of Waukegan, informs the writer that J. B. Beaubien had spoken to him of the old Frenchman, Du Page, whose station was on the bank of the river, down toward its mouth, stated that the river took its name from him; the county name must have the same origin. Col Gurden S. Hubbard, who came into the country in 1818, informs the writer that the name DuPage, as applied to the river was universally known, but the trader for whom it was named lived there before his time. Mr. Beaubien says; this was in reply to Mr. Blodgett’s inquiry of him concerning the matter; the first white settler in DuPage County was Bailey Hobson, with Lewis Stewart, built a house in 1831 for the Hobson family at a site about 2 miles south of present-day downtown Naperville. Hobson built a mill to serve surrounding farmers. Today, the Hobson house still stands on Hobson Road in Naperville, the location of the mill is commemorated with a millstone and monument in today’s Pioneer Park.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 336 square miles, of which 327 square miles is land and 8.9 square miles is water. The DuPage River and the Salt Creek flow through DuPage County. According to the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County, the highest point in the county is located at the Mallard Lake Landfill, which at its highest point is 982 feet above mean sea level. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Wheaton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1995. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.56 inches in February to 4.60 inches in August. Counties that are adjacent to DuPage include: Cook County Will County Kendall County Kane County I-55 I-88 I-290 I-294 I-355 US 20 US 34 IL 19 IL 38 IL 53 IL 56 IL 59 IL 64 IL 83 IL 390 DuPage County's population's distribution by race and ethnicity in the 2010 census was as follows: DuPage County has become more diverse.
The population of foreign-born residents increased from about 71,300 in 1990 to 171,000 by 2009 estimates. There were 325,601 households, out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present and 28.00% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64 and 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females, age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $98,441 and the median income for a family was $113,086. Males had a median income of $60,909 versus $41,346 for females.
The mean or average income for a family in DuPage County is $121,009, according to the 2005 census. The per capita income for the county was $38,458. About 2.40% of families and 3.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.90% of those under age 18 and 4.30% of those age 65 or over. DuPage County has several hundred Christian churches. Well-known churches include Community Christian Church of Naperville, College Church of Wheaton, Wheaton Bible Church, First Baptist Church of Wheaton. There is a large Catholic contingency, part of the Diocese of Joliet, a Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Glendale Heights; the Theosophical Society in America in Wheaton, the North American headquarters of the Theosophical Society Adyar, provides lectures and classes on theosophy, yoga and New Age spirituality. Islamic mosques are located in Villa Park, Glendale Heights, Westmont, Bolingbrook, Woodale, West Chicago, unincorporated Glen Ellyn. There are Hindu temples in Bartlett, Bloomingdale, Carol Stream and Medinah, an Arya Samaj center in West Chicago.
There is a Nichiren Shōshū Zen Buddhist temple in West Chicago and a Theravada Buddhist Temple, called the Budd
Mary Todd Lincoln
Mary Ann Todd Lincoln was the wife of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, as such the First Lady of the United States from 1861 to 1865. She dropped the name Ann after her younger sister, Ann Todd, was born, did not use the name Todd after marrying. Mary was a member of a large, wealthy Kentucky family, was well educated. After finishing school during her teens, she moved to Springfield, where she lived with her married sister Elizabeth Edwards. Before she married Abraham Lincoln, Mary was courted by his long-time political opponent Stephen A. Douglas, she and Lincoln had four sons only one of whom outlived her. Their home of about 17 years still stands at Jackson Streets in Springfield, Illinois, she supported her husband throughout his presidency. She witnessed his fatal shooting when they were together in the President's Box at Ford's Theatre on Tenth Street in Washington. Mary was involuntarily institutionalized for psychiatric disease ten years after her husband's murder, but retired to the home of her sister.
She complained of many physical symptoms during her adult life. Mary was born in Lexington, Kentucky as the fourth of seven children of Robert Smith Todd, a banker, Elizabeth "Eliza" Todd, her family were slaveholders, Mary was raised in comfort and refinement. When Mary was six, her mother died in childbirth. Two years her father married Elizabeth "Betsy" Humphreys and they had nine children together. Mary had a difficult relationship with her stepmother. From 1832, Mary and her family lived in what is now known as the Mary Todd Lincoln House, an elegant 14-room residence at 578 West Main Street in Lexington, Kentucky. Mary's paternal great-grandfather, David Levi Todd, was born in County Longford and immigrated through Pennsylvania to Kentucky. Another great-grandfather, Andrew Porter, was the son of an Irish immigrant to New Hampshire and Pennsylvania, her great-great maternal grandfather Samuel McDowell was born in Scotland, emigrated to Pennsylvania. Other Todd ancestors came from England. At an early age Mary was sent to Madame Mantelle's finishing school, where the curriculum concentrated on French and literature.
She learned to speak French fluently and studied dance, drama and social graces. By age 20, she was regarded with a grasp of politics. Like her family, she was a Whig. Mary began living with her sister Elizabeth Porter Edwards in Springfield, Illinois in October 1839. Elizabeth, married to Ninian W. Edwards, son of a former governor, served as Mary's guardian. Mary was popular among the gentry of Springfield, though she was courted by the rising young lawyer and Democratic Party politician Stephen A. Douglas and others, she chose Abraham Lincoln, a fellow Whig. Mary Todd married Abraham Lincoln on November 4, 1842, at her sister Elizabeth's home in Springfield, Illinois, she was 23 years old and he was 33 years of age. Their four sons, all born in Springfield, were: Robert Todd Lincoln, diplomat, businessman Edward Baker Lincoln, known as "Eddie", tuberculosis William Wallace Lincoln, known as "Willie", died of typhoid fever while Lincoln was President Thomas Lincoln, known as "Tad", died at age 18 Robert and Tad survived to adulthood and the death of their father, only Robert outlived his mother.
Lincoln and Douglas became political rivals in the great Lincoln-Douglas debates for a seat representing Illinois in the United States Senate in 1858. Although Douglas secured the seat when elected by the Illinois legislature, Lincoln became famous for his position on slavery, which generated national support for him. While Lincoln pursued his successful career as a Springfield lawyer, Mary supervised their growing household, their house, where they resided from 1844 until 1861, still stands in Springfield, has been designated the Lincoln Home National Historic Site. During Lincoln's years as an Illinois circuit lawyer, Mary was left alone for months at a time to raise their children and run the household. Mary supported her husband and politically, not least when Lincoln was elected president in 1860. During her White House years, Mary Lincoln faced many personal difficulties generated by political divisions within the nation, her family was from a border state. Several of her half-brothers served in the Confederate Army and were killed in action, one brother served the Confederacy as a surgeon.
Mary staunchly supported her husband in his quest to save the Union and was loyal to his policies. Considered a "westerner" although she had grown up in the more refined Upper South city of Lexington, Mary worked hard to serve as her husband's First Lady in Washington, D. C. a political center dominated by eastern culture. Lincoln was regarded as the first "western" president, critics described Mary's manners as coarse and pretentious, she had difficulty negotiating White House social responsibilities and rivalries, spoils-seeking solicitors, baiting newspapers in a climate of high national intrigue in Civil War Washington. She refurbished the White House, which included extensive redecorating of all the public and private rooms as well as the purchase of new china, which led to extensive overspending; the president was angry over the cost though Congress passed two additional appropriations to cover these expenses. Mary was a frequent purchaser of fine jewelry and on many occasions bought jewelry on credit from the local Galt & Bro. jewelers.
Upon President Lincoln's death, she had a
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, the Universities Research Association. Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Research Corridor. Fermilab's Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator. At 3.9 miles, it was the world's fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron's CDF and DØ detectors, it was shut down in 2011. In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE, NOνA and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS, MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE; the MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors.
An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE had fine-grained tracking capabilities; the NOνA experiment uses, the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab's NuMI beam, an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, site of the NOνA far detector. In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries; the site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors. Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory. Weston, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab; the laboratory was founded in 1967 as the National Accelerator Laboratory. The laboratory's first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation.
He is the namesake of the site's high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and, the center of activity on the campus. After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job, it was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman remains Director Emeritus; the science education center at the site was named in his honor. The directors include: John Peoples, 1989 to 1999 Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005 Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013 Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the presentFermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider; as of 2014, the first stage in the acceleration process takes place in two ion sources which turn hydrogen gas into H− ions. The gas is introduced into a container lined with molybdenum electrodes, each a matchbox-sized, oval-shaped cathode and a surrounding anode, separated by 1 mm and held in place by glass ceramic insulators.
A magnetron generates a plasma to form the ions near the metal surface. The ions are accelerated by the source to 35 keV and matched by low energy beam transport into the radio-frequency quadrupole which applies a 750 keV electrostatic field giving the ions their second acceleration. At the exit of RFQ, the beam is matched by medium energy beam transport into the entrance of the linear accelerator; the next stage of acceleration is linear particle accelerator. This stage consists of two segments; the first segment has 5 vacuum vessel for drift tubes, operating at 201 MHz. The second stage has operating at 805 MHz. At the end of linac, the particles are accelerated to about 70 % of the speed of light. Before entering the next accelerator, the H− ions pass through a carbon foil, becoming H+ ions; the resulting protons enter the booster ring, a 468 m circumference circular accelerator whose magnets bend beams of protons around a circular path. The protons travel around the Booster about 20,000 times in 33 milliseconds, adding energy with each revolution until they leave the Booster accelerated to 8 GeV.
The final acceleration is applied by the Main Injector, the smaller of the two rings in the last picture below. Completed in 1999, it has become Fermilab's "particle switchyard" in that it can route protons to any of the experiments installed along the beam lines after accelerating them to 120 GeV; until 2011, the Main Injector provided protons to the antiproton ring and the Tevatron for further acceleration but now provides the last push before the particles reach the beam line experiments. Recognizing higher dema
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to the skin. By contrast and gels have higher viscosity due to lower water content. Lotions are applied to external skin with a brush, a clean cloth, or cotton wool. While a lotion may be used as a medicine delivery system, many lotions hand lotions and body lotions are meant instead to smooth, moisturize and perfume the skin; some skincare products, such as sunscreen and moisturizer, may be available in multiple formats, such as lotions, creams, or sprays. Dermatologists can prescribe lotions to prevent skin diseases, it is not unusual for the same drug ingredient to be formulated into a lotion and ointment. Creams are the most convenient of the three but are inappropriate for application to regions of hairy skin such as the scalp, while a lotion is less viscous and may be applied to these areas. Lotions had an advantage in that they may be spread thinly compared to a cream or ointment and may economically cover a large area of skin, but product research has eroded this distinction.
Non-comedogenic lotions are recommended for use on acne prone skin. Lotions can be used for the delivery to the skin of medications such as: Antibiotics Antiseptics Antifungals Corticosteroids Anti-acne agents Soothing, moisturizing or protective agents Since health care workers must wash their hands to prevent disease transmission, hospital-grade lotion is recommended to prevent skin dermatitis caused by frequent exposure to cleaning agents in the soap. A 2006 study found that application of hospital-grade lotion after hand washing reduced skin roughness and dryness. Care must be taken not to use consumer lotions in a hospital environment, as the perfumes and allergens may be a danger to those who are immunodeficient. Most cosmetic lotions are moisturizing lotions, although other forms, such as tanning lotion exist. Cosmetic lotions may be marketed as anti-aging lotions, which can be classified as a cosmetic in many cases, may contain fragrances; the Food and Drug Administration voiced concern about lotions not classified as drugs that advertise anti-aging or anti-wrinkle properties.
Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions using a substance such as cetearyl alcohol to keep the emulsion together, but water-in-oil lotions are formulated. The key components of a skin care lotion, cream or gel emulsion are the aqueous and oily phases, an emulgent to prevent separation of these two phases, and, if used, the drug substance or substances. A wide variety of other ingredients such as fragrances, petroleum jelly, preservatives and stabilizing agents are added to lotions. Since thickness and consistency are key factors in lotions and creams, it is important to understand the manufacturing process that determines viscosity. Manufacturing lotions and creams can be completed in two cycles: Emollients and lubricants are dispersed in oil with blending and thickening agents. Perfume and preservatives are dispersed in the water cycle. Active ingredients are broken up in both cycles depending on the raw materials involved and the desired properties of the lotion or cream. A typical oil-in-water manufacturing process might go like this: Step 1: Add flake/powder ingredients to the oil being used to prepare the oil phase.
Step 2: Disperse active ingredients. Step 3: Prepare the water phase containing emulsifiers and stabilizers. Step 4: Mix the oil and water to form an emulsion. Step 5: Continue mixing until the end product is completedCareful note should be taken in choosing the right mixing equipment for lotion manufacturing to avoid agglomerates and long processing times, it can make all the difference in costs. Conventional agitators can present a number of problems including agglomerates and longer processing times. On the other hand, high shear in-line mixers can produce quality lotions and creams without many of the complications encountered with conventional mixers. Sonolation is a process, growing in popularity. Depending on their composition, lotions can be comedogenic, meaning that they can result in the increased formation of comedones. People who are prone to acne or forming comedones prefer lotions that are designed to be non-comedogenic. All topical products, including lotions, can result in the percutaneous absorption of their ingredients.
Though this has some use as a route of drug administration, it more results in unintended side effects. For example, medicated lotions such as diprolene are used with the intention of exerting only local effects, but absorption of the drug through the skin can occur to a small degree, resulting in systemic side effects such as hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Absorption through the skin is increased when lotions are applied and covered with an occlusive layer, when they are applied to large areas of the body, or when they are applied to damaged or broken skin. There is no regulation over use of the term "hypoallergenic", pediatric skin products with the label were found to still contain allergens; those with eczema are vulnerable to an allergic reaction with lotion, as their compromised skin barrier allows preservatives to bind with and activate immune cells. The American Academy of Allergy and Immunology warns that natural lotion containing ingredients found in food (such as goats milk, cow's milk, coconut