St James's Street
St James's Street is the principal street in the district of St James's, central London. It runs from Piccadilly downhill to St James's Pall Mall; the main gatehouse of the Palace is at the southern end of the road, in the 17th century Clarendon House faced down the street across Piccadilly on the site of most of Albemarle Street. St James's Street was built up without an overall plan but received a boost with Lord St Albans' planned construction of St. James's Square of harmonious grand town houses. Today St James's Street contains several of London's best-known gentlemen's clubs, such as Boodle's, Brooks's, the Carlton Club and White's, some exclusive shops and various offices. A series of small side streets on its western side lead to some expensive properties overlooking Green Park, including Spencer House and the Royal Over-Seas League at the end of Park Place. Two 18th-century yards survive behind the noble frontages and giant orders of columns or pilasters of the street. One is Blue Ball Yard, with stables built in 1742.
The other is Pickering Place, with four informal Georgian brick houses of 1731. Jermyn Street, noted for gentlemen's tailors and associated shops, leads off St James's Street to the east; the nearest tube station is Green Park to the west on Piccadilly. St. James's Street is referenced in T. S. Eliot's "Bustopher Jones: The Cat About Town" from Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats, wherein Bustopher Jones, a parody of an Edwardian gentleman of leisure, is described as "the St. James's Street Cat". St. James's Street was featured as the new location for the fictional headquarters of the Kingsman Secret Service in the 2017 film, Kingsman: The Golden Circle. St James's Church, Piccadilly St. James's Park St James's Place St. James's Square Cavendish Hotel London, located on the corner of Jermyn Street and Duke Street, St James's
US Squash is the national governing body for the sport of squash in the United States. US Squash was known as The United States Squash Racquets Association; the organization is headquartered in New York City and is a member of the U. S. Olympic Committee. US Squash owns and licenses the U. S. Open, the North American Open and all other U. S. Championships. Last year the organization held twenty-one championship events for juniors, adults and doubles; the U. S. National High School Championships, held alternatingly in the Hartford and Philadelphia areas, is the largest squash tournament in the world in terms of overall number of participants; the Men's National Championship and the Women's National Championship are held every year at the National Singles. US Squash supports four national teams that compete abroad in World Squash Federation and Pan American team tournaments; the current male U. S. Champion is Chris Hanson and the female U. S. Champion is Olivia Blatchford; the organization has 21,000 current members.
US Squash was founded in 1904 in Philadelphia to meet the needs of a growing population of squash players. With its creation, US Squash—which at the time was called the "United States Squash Racquets Association"—was the first squash organization in the world; the organization took up the mantle for being the arbiter in all dealings of the sport when concerning rules and regulations by being the first association to define and regulate the sport: this not only included rules about play, but ball and court specifics/regulations. By 1923, US Squash had grown in popularity throughout the country; this caused the organization to start to annually gather with an executive board meeting. The board members were to address the ever-growing and evolving issues that manifest from such a human enterprise and conceive the new policies, by-laws and goals of the organization. In February 1924 an American Squash Racquets Singles Championship was held in Boston, Mass. and was won on February 24 by Gerald Robarts of England, defeating William F. Harrity of Philadelphia in the final.
As the 1950s approached, the US Squash's Board's goal to organize the sport had been realized. With evermore players the organization expanded the board positions and hired full-time executives to run it. In 1957, US Squash incorporated as a "not-for-profit" organization in the state of New York. By the 1970s, US Squash had helped pioneer the female surge in athletics for America; the organization had started a sister organization called "The United States Women’s Squash Racquets Association". The USWSRA was meant to organize the sport for women on a national level; the USWSRA and The USSRA worked together in conjunction until 1979 when the two organizations decided to merge in an effort to help unify the sport to be a more influential advocate for squash around the country. In 1975, Darwin P. Kingsley was made the first executive director of US Squash. From there he helped bring the sport to its modern prominence; when Kingsley first took the position in 1975, there were 800 members and 40 clubs, when he left in 1992 there were 10,000 members and 250 clubs.
Kingsley's successor, Craig Brand left behind a legacy for the game as the chief executive officer of US Squash. In the ten years Brand had as CEO, he helped the integration of the international popular soft ball game to the US. Brand is credited for bringing the opportunity for US Squash to become a member of the U. S. Olympic Committee. Palmer Page's stint as the CEO of US Squash from 2003-2004 was effective. Page celebrated the end of his position with US Squash shortly after its 100th anniversary in 2004. Current CEO Kevin Klipstein took over Page's position at US Squash in 2004; the United States has the fastest growing squash participation worldwide–the Sports & Fitness Association shows 101% growth overall between 2009 and 2014 to 1.6 million squash players. Junior Participation has grown over 400% nationally since 2007. Since 2010, west coast junior tournaments have seen a 634% increase in junior tournament participation, 375% increase in the number of tournaments and a 55% increase in the average number of players per tournament.
In the southeast, in 2010 there were no US Squash accredited junior tournaments. In the 2015 season there were more than eleven accredited tournaments in this area accounting for more than 500 accredited matches played. Since 2006, the U. S. Junior Open Squash Championships has increased from 271 to more than 1000 players in 2016 from more than thirty-seven countries, making it the largest individual junior squash tournament in the world. US Squash organizes Women's Squash Week, an initiative that has turned international with a focus on bringing women players together around the world. Women's participation has doubled since 2008. United States Open US Pro Squash Series US Junior Open squash championship Men's National Champions Women's National Champions United States men's national squash team United States women's national squash team USsquash.com
Sir Henry Channon known as Chips Channon, was an American-born British Conservative politician and diarist. Channon moved to England in 1920 and became anti-American, feeling that American cultural and economic views threatened traditional European and British civilisation, he wrote extensively about these views. Channon became enamoured of London society and became a social and political climber. Channon was first elected as a Member of Parliament in 1935. In his political career he failed to achieve ministerial office and was unsuccessful in his pursuit of a peerage, but he is remembered as one of the most famous political and social diarists of the 20th century, his diaries have so far been published only in an expurgated edition. Channon was born in Chicago to an Anglo-American family. In adult life he took to giving 1899 as his year of birth, was embarrassed when a British newspaper revealed that the true year was 1897, his grandfather had immigrated to the US in the mid-nineteenth century and established a profitable fleet of vessels on the Great Lakes, which formed the basis of the family's wealth.
Channon's paternal grandmother was descended from eighteenth-century English settlers. Channon's parents were Henry Channon II, known as Harry. After graduating from Francis W. Parker School and taking classes at the University of Chicago, Channon travelled to France with the American Red Cross in October 1917 and became an honorary attaché at the American embassy in Paris the next year. In 1920 and 1921, Channon was at Christ Church, Oxford where he received a pass degree in French, acquired the nickname "Chips", he began a lifelong friendship with Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, whom in his diaries he called "the person I have loved most". The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography said of this phase of Channon's life, "adoring London society, privilege and wealth, he became an energetic, but endearing social climber." He became an author. Channon rejected his American background and was passionate about Europe in general and England in particular; the US, he said, was "a menace to the future of the world.
If it triumphs, the old civilisations, which love beauty and peace and the arts and rank and privilege, will pass from the picture." His anti-Americanism was reflected in his novel, Joan Kennedy published in 1929, described by the publishers as "the story of an English girl's marriage to a wealthy American and of her attempts to bridge the gulf created by differences of race and education." Channon's anti-Americanism did not prevent his living off American money. A grant of $90,000 from his father, an $85,000 inheritance from his grandfather made him financially comfortable with no need to work, he wrote two more books: a second novel, Paradise City about the disastrous effects of American capitalism, a non-fiction work, The Ludwigs of Bavaria. The latter, a study of the last generations of the ruling Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavarian kings, received excellent notices, was in print twenty years later; some critical reservations reflected Channon's adulation of minor European royalty: The Manchester Guardian said of his account of the 1918 revolution, "he seems to have depended exclusively on aristocratic sources, which are most insufficient."
Despite this, the book was described on its reissue in 1952 as "a fascinating study... excellently written". Reviews of both the 1933 edition and the reissue singled out a section on architecture and décor, Channon's expertise in which took a practical form shortly after the publication of the book when he had first a large town house and a country house in which to engage his passion for design. In 1933, Channon married the brewing heiress Lady Honor Guinness, eldest daughter of Rupert Guinness, 2nd Earl of Iveagh. In 1935 their only child was born, a son. On 31 January 1936, the Channons moved into a grand London house at 5 Belgrave Square, near the London house of the Duke of Kent, two years also acquired a country estate at Kelvedon Hatch, near Brentwood in Essex. Channon established himself as a society host, in his famous blue and silver dining room designed by Stéphane Boudin and modelled on the Amalienburg; the apogee of his career in that role came on Thursday, 19 November 1936, with a guest list headed by Edward VIII, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia Regent and his wife Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, the Duke of Kent and his wife Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark and Mrs Simpson, of whom Channon was a friend and admirer.
Twenty-two days on 11 December, Edward abdicated. Channon, a naturalised British citizen, joined the Conservative Party. At the 1935 general election, he was elected Member of Parliament for Southend, the seat held by his mother-in-law Gwendolen Guinness, Countess of Iveagh. After boundary changes in 1950, he was returned for the new Southend West constituency, holding the seat until his death in 1958. In 1936, the rising Conservative minister R A Butler, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign Office appointed Channon his Parliamentary Private Secretary. Butler was associated with the appeasement wing of the Conservative party, Channon, as with the abdication, found himself on the losing side. In the words of the ODNB: "Always ferociously anti-communist, he was an early dupe of the Nazis because his attractive German princelings hoped that Hitler might be preparing for a Hohenzollern restoration." Just as after George VI's accession Channon's standing in royal circles went from high to low, so, as an appeaser, did his standing in the Conservative party after the failure of
The Drones Club is a recurring fictional location in the stories of British comic writer P. G. Wodehouse, it is a gentlemen's club in London. Many of Wodehouse's Jeeves and Blandings Castle stories feature its members. Various members of the club appear in stories included in the "Drones Club series", which contains stories not included in other series. Most of the Drones Club stories star either Freddie Widgeon or Bingo Little; the name "Drones" has been used by restaurants. The Drones Club is in Mayfair, located in Dover Street, off Piccadilly. A drone being a male bee that does no work, living off the labour of others, it aptly describes the contemporary Edwardian stereotype of rich, idle young club members, though some of the members have careers and jobs; as decided by a vote of the club's members, the Drones Club tie is a striking "rich purple". A Drones Club scarf is mentioned. Wodehouse based the Drones Club on a combination of three real London clubs: the Bachelors' Club, Buck's Club, a dash of the Bath Club for its swimming pool's ropes and rings.
The fictional Drones barman, McGarry, has the same surname as the Buck's first bartender, a Mr McGarry. However Evelyn Waugh declared. A real club has been based at 40 Dover Street since The Arts Club. Other gentlemen's clubs which have existed on Dover Street but are now dissolved include the Bath Club, the Junior Naval and Military Club, the Scottish Club, as well as two mixed-sex clubs, the Albemarle Club and the Empress Club. None of these were considered among London's'premier' clubs of the kind found on St James's Street and Pall Mall, so their ambience had something of the raucous informality of the fictional Drones Club. About a dozen club members are secondary recurring characters in the Wodehouse stories. In addition to Bertie Wooster, Pongo Twistleton, Rupert Psmith, Freddie Threepwood, prominent recurring drones include Bingo Little and Freddie Widgeon, plus Monty Bodkin, Barmy Fotheringay-Phipps, Tuppy Glossop, Catsmeat Potter-Pirbright, Archibald Mulliner, the club millionaire Oofy Prosser.
The Drones Club Annual Golf Rally: A yearly golf tournament, held one year at Bingley-on-Sea. The Drones Club Annual Squash Handicap: A yearly squash tournament. One year, Bertie Wooster was runner-up; the Drones Club Annual Darts Tournament: A darts tournament held in February. Tickets are purchased for ten shillings and members draw tournament contestants; the darts tournament takes place, the member who drew the winner of the tournament wins the jackpot. The Drones Club Annual Fat Uncles Contest: A contest introduced by Freddie Widgeon. Members enter their uncles in the Fat Uncles sweep and the uncles' names are drawn from a hat. On the first day of the Eton v Harrow match, the members bring their uncles to the Drones Club for lunch. McGarry, the club bartender, having the uncanny ability of estimating the weight of anything to an ounce by sight, estimates the weight of the uncles and determines the fattest uncle; the member that drew the fattest uncle wins the jackpot, well over a hundred pounds the first year the contest was run.
A change made to the contest is that fifty pounds is allocated from the jackpot to the nephew of the winning uncle as prize money. Among the Wodehouse works, what was dubbed the "Drones Club series" is a loose set of separate stories told by various narrators about members of the Drones Club. Many of the stories have some events happening at the club. Main canonThe main canon consists of 21 short stories, as collected in the omnibus: Tales from the Drones Club The Drones Omnibus The same set of short stories is available in their original collections: Collected in Young Men in Spats "Fate" "Tried in the Furnace" "Trouble Down at Tudsleigh" "The Amazing Hat Mystery" "Goodbye to All Cats" "The Luck of the Stiffhams" "Noblesse Oblige" "Uncle Fred Flits By" Collected in Lord Emsworth and Others "The Masked Troubadour" Collected in Eggs and Crumpets "All's Well with Bingo" "Bingo and the Peke Crisis" "The Editor Regrets" "Sonny Boy" Collected in Nothing Serious "The Shadow Passes" "Bramley Is So Bracing" Collected in A Few Quick Ones "The Fat of the Land" "The Word in Season" "Leave it to Algy" "Oofy and the Beef Trust" Collected in Plum Pie "Bingo Bans the Bomb" "Stylish Stouts" Bingo Little "All's Well with Bingo" "Bingo and the Peke Crisis" "The Editor Regrets" "Sonny Boy" "The Shadow Passes" "The Word in Season" "Leave it to Algy" "Bingo Bans the Bomb" "Stylish Stouts" Freddie Widgeon "Fate" (Y
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground or built above ground, are a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, plastic or fiberglass, can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of, the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, are common in homes and health clubs. Special swimming pools are used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts.
Swimming pools may be unheated. The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC; this pool is 12 by 7 metres, is lined with bricks, was covered with a tar-based sealant. Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina; the first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman considered one of the first patrons of arts. Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC, they were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, scroll design. Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century; as early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in England.
The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway since would-be rescuers would drown because they themselves could not swim to safety; the club used to swim in the River Medway, would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river; the coffee was kept hot over a fire. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators; the Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England, the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909. The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers became swimmers, bathing pools became swimming pools.. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley.
The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools; the first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906. The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts. Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight; some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry. A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.
According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It has an area of 8 ha. At its deepest, it is 3.5 m deep. It was completed in December 2006; the largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston. In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium held the record until the Y-40 was completed; the Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol, it was closed in 1971 due to low patronage. In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg, providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (3
Brook Street is one of the principal streets on the Grosvenor Estate in the exclusive central London district of Mayfair. Named after the Tyburn Brook that ran nearby, it was developed in the first half of the 18th century and runs from Hanover Square to Grosvenor Square; the continuation from Grosvenor Square to Park Lane is called Upper Brook Street. Both sections consisted of typical London terraced houses built to individual designs; some of them are quite grand and were designed by well known architects for aristocratic clients near Grosvenor Square, while others are more modest. Some of the original houses survive while others have been replaced by buildings from a variety of periods. Features of the street include the grand hotel Claridge's, at the junction with Davies Street, Le Gavroche, a famous restaurant; the former United States Embassy, which abutted Upper Brook Street and Grosvenor Square, necessitated security arrangements which impeded free access to the former. The Embassy of Argentina is at number 65.
The Handel & Hendrix in London is in Brook Street, occupying numbers 23 and 25, the former residences of famous musicians Jimi Hendrix and Handel. 23 Brook Street: Jimi Hendrix — guitarist 25 Brook Street: George Frideric Handel — composer 39 Brook Street: Sir Jeffry Wyatville — architect 39 Brook Street: Sibyl, Lady Colefax and John Fowler — interior decorator and interior designer 67 Brook Street: Brothers Gibb / The Bee Gees 74 Brook Street: Sir William Gull - Royal physician 74 Brook Street: Robert Bentley Todd - Physician 76 Brook Street: Colen Campbell — Architect 78 Brook Street: Ronald Firbank - Novelist 22 Upper Brook Street: Leo Bonn — founder of what became the Royal National Institute for Deaf People. 24 Upper Brook Street: Richard Bull, MP and art collector. 27 Upper Brook Street: Anne Seymour Damer - sculptor 40 Upper Brook Street: Edward Hughes Ball Hughes, Regency dandy 51 Upper Brook Street: Giorgos Seferis — Greek Ambassador and Nobel Laureate 56 Upper Brook Street: David Ricardo - Economist 13 Avery Row: W. H. Davies - Welsh tramp-poet Brook Street — detailed architectural history of Brook Street from the Survey of London Upper Brook Street — detailed architectural history of Upper Brook Street from the Survey of London Brook Street at Curlie
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the latter called "The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, he served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada, he referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, where he had spent some time as a miner; the short story brought international attention and was translated into French. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty.
Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—such as the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but he overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers, he chose to pay all his pre-bankruptcy creditors in full after he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well, he was lauded as the "greatest humorist this country has produced", William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, the sixth of seven children born to Jane, a native of Kentucky, John Marshall Clemens, a native of Virginia, his parents met when his father moved to Missouri, they were married in 1823. Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent.
Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion and Pamela. His sister Margaret died when Twain was three, his brother Benjamin died three years later, his brother Pleasant Hannibal died at three weeks of age. When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, it became a theme in these writings, his father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. The next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice. In 1851 he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned; when he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union.
He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. Pilot was the grandest position of all; the pilot in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, no board to pay. As Twain describes it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain; the pilot had to:...get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents and how to read the river and its shifting channels, submerged snags, rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that floated", it was. Piloting gave him his pen name from "mark twain", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, safe water for a steamboat.
As a young pilot, Clemens served on the steamer A. B. Chambers with Grant Marsh, who became famous for his exploits as a steamboat captain on the Missouri River; the two liked each other, admired one another, maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him, arranged a post of mud clerk for him on the steamboat Pennsylvania. On June 13, 1858, the steamboat's boiler exploded. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, which inspired his interest in parapsychology. Twain held himself responsible for the rest of his life, he continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curta