Sarah Baartman District Municipality
Sarah Baartman District Municipality is situated in the western part of the Eastern Cape province, covering an area of 58 242 square kilometres. The area of the district municipality includes nine local municipalities; the seat of Sarah Baartman is the city of Port Elizabeth, although Port Elizabeth is not itself in the district. The largest languages among the 388,201 people are Xhosa and Afrikaans.. The district code is DC10; the municipality is a new, multi-ethnic administration, formed by the ANC government through the merging of the predominantly Afrikaans-speaking western part of the Eastern Cape, together with Xhosa areas near the Fish river, the English district of Albany. In 2015, Cacadu District was renamed for Saartjie "Sarah" Baartman, a Khoikhoi woman, brought to London to perform at freak shows and after death her body parts were exhibited until 1974; the renaming is part of an effort to redress marginalisation of the Khoikhoi people. The Executive Mayor of Sarah Baartman District Municipality is Khunjuzwa Eunice Kekana, the Municipal Manager is Ted Pillay.
The Sarah Baartman district covers an area of 58,243 square kilometres in the southwestern part of the Eastern Cape province. It extends to the Sneeuberge in the north; the metropolitan area around Port Elizabeth is excluded from the district, forming the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality. The southwestern part of the district is marked by several ranges of mountains that run parallel to the sea, including the Baviaanskloof Mountains, the Kouga Mountains and the Tsitsikamma Mountains. In the southeastern part is the Albany region around the city of Grahamstown; the northern interior of the district is the southeastern end of the Karoo. To the west the district borders on the Garden Route and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape. Sarah Baartman district is divided into nine local municipalities, described in the following table. After the municipal elections on 3 August 2016, the Camdeboo and Baviaans municipalities were merged to form the new Dr Beyers Naudé Local Municipality, with its headoffices in Graaff-Reinet.
This merger resulted in there being 7 local municipalities within the Sarah Baartman District. The following statistics are from the 2001 census. Election results for Cacadu in the South African general election, 2004. Population 18 and over: 252,570 Total votes: 161,399 Voting % estimate: 63.90% votes as a % of population 18 and over Sarah Baartman District Municipality Official Website
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London, it was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing home of the 1820 Settlers; the central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people. The Eastern Cape as a South African Province came into existence in 1994 and incorporated areas from the former Xhosa homelands of the Transkei and Ciskei, together with what was part of the Cape Province; this resulted in several anomalies including the fact that the Province has four supreme courts and enclaves of KwaZulu-Natal in the province. The latter anomaly has fallen away with amendments to provincial boundaries; the province is made of Mpondo tribe, which primitively descended from Xhosa clan. Some of the Mpondo tribe went to this province. Mpondo people are more related to Xhosa, as they use Xhosa as their main home language.
There are other tribes that erroneously referred to as Xhosa people such as: AmaMpondo, AbaThembu, AmaMpondomise, AmaHlubi, AmaBhaca, AmaXesibe, AmaBomvana and other tribes. The first premier was Raymond Mhlaba and the current premier is Phumulo Masualle, both of the African National Congress This region is the birthplace of many prominent South African politicians, such as Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, Fort Calata, James Calata, Charles Coghlan, Matthew Goniwe, Chris Hani, Bantu Holomisa, Govan Mbeki, his two sons Moeletsi Mbeki and Thabo Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Vuyisile Mini, Wilton Mkwayi, Oscar Mpetha, Griffiths Mxenge, Robert Resha, Walter Rubusana, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe, David Stuurman, Oliver Tambo; the Eastern Cape gets progressively wetter from west to east. The west is semiarid Karoo, except in the far south, temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma region; the coast is rugged with interspersed beaches. Most of the province is hilly to mountainous between Graaff-Reinet and Rhodes including the Sneeuberge, Stormberge and Drakensberg.
The highest point in the province is Ben Macdhui at 3001 m. The east from East London and Queenstown towards the KwaZulu-Natal border – a region known as Transkei – is lush grassland on rolling hills, punctuated by deep gorges with intermittent forest. Eastern Cape has a coast on its east which lines southward, creating shores leading to the south Indian Ocean. In the northeast, it borders the following districts of Lesotho: Mohale's Hoek District – west of Quthing Quthing District – between Mohale and Qacha's Nek Qacha's Nek District – east of QuthingDomestically, it borders the following provinces: Western Cape – west Northern Cape – northwest Free State – north KwaZulu-Natal – far northeast Climate is varied; the west is dry with sparse rain with frosty winters and hot summers. The area Tsitsikamma to Grahamstown receives more precipitation, relatively evenly distributed and temperatures are mild. Further east, rainfall becomes more plentiful and humidity increases, becoming more subtropical along the coast with summer rainfall.
The interior can become cold in winter, with heavy snowfalls occurring in the mountainous regions between Molteno and Rhodes. Port Elizabeth: Jan Max: 25 °C, Min: 18 °C; the western interior is arid Karoo, while the east is well-watered and green. The Eastern Cape offers a wide array of attractions, including 800 km of untouched and pristine coastline along with some splendid beaches, "big-five" viewing in a malaria-free environment; the Addo Elephant National Park, situated 73 km from Port Elizabeth, was proclaimed in 1931. Its 743 km² offers sanctuary to 170 elephants, 400 Cape buffalo and 21 black rhino of the scarce Kenyan sub-species; the province is the location of South Africa's only Snow skiing resort, situated near the hamlet of Rhodes in the Southern Drakensberg on the slopes of Ben Macdhui, the highest mountain peak in the Eastern Cape. The National Arts Festival, held annually in Grahamstown, is Africa's largest and most colourful cultural event, offering a choice of the best of both indigenous and imported talent.
Every year for 11 days the town's population doubles, as over 50,000 people flock to the region for a feast of arts and sheer entertainment. The Tsitsikamma National Park is an 80 km long coastal strip between Nature's Valley and the mouth of the Storms River. In the park the visitor finds an untouched natural landscape. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge and Bloukrans Bridge Bungy, the world's third highest bungee jump, Jeffreys Bay is an area with some of the country's wildest coastline, backed by some of Africa's most spectacular sub-tropical rainforest. Famous for its "supertubes" South Africa's longest and most good wave, it's charged with a surf vibe as relaxed as it is friendly, this tends to soften the effect of the wealthy set who have made this part of the coast their own. Aliwal North, lying on an agricultural plateau on the southern bank of the Orange River, is one of the country's most popular inland resorts and is known for its hot springs; the rugged and unspoilt Wild Coast is a place of spectacular scenery, a graveyard for many vessels.
Whittlesea, Eastern Cape, situated in the Amatola
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Port Alfred is a small town with a population of just under 26,000 in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It is situated on the eastern seaboard of the country at the mouth of the Kowie River exactly halfway between the larger cities of Port Elizabeth and East London and 30 kilometres West of Cannon Rocks. Port Alfred was established in the early 1820s by British settlers who were moved into the area by Lord Charles Somerset as a buffer between the Cape Colony and the Xhosa people, it was two separate towns. In 1860, when Queen Victoria’s son Prince Alfred visited, the name was changed in his honour. In 1839, William Cock and George Hodgkinson started to block the natural river mouth to the east and canalise the present opening to the sea. By 1841 South Africa's first man-made harbour was opened after completion of the stone lined channel between the ocean and the Kowie river; this allowed high-masted sailing ships with their heavy cargo to dock at the wharf. Port Alfred is located on the junction of the R72 roads.
The R67 connects Port Alfred with the N2 at Grahamstown to the north, while the R72 joins the N2 near Colchester to the west and follows the coast to East London in the east. Port Alfred is home to Stenden South Africa, a subsidiary campus of Stenden University in the Netherlands. Port Alfred has El Shaddai Christian Academy. Port Alfred has Port Alfred High School. Port Alfred is home to 43 Air School. Turpin, Eric W. Basket Work Harbour. Cape Town: Howard Timmins. P. 136. ISBN 0-86978-244-4. Official website 43 Air School River Hotels Port Alfred Business Directory
The Xhosa people are an ethnic group of people of Southern Africa found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. There is a small but significant Xhosa community in Zimbabwe, their language, IsiXhosa, is recognised as a national language; the Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with distinct heritages. The main tribes are the AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhabe, ImiDange, ImiDushane, AmaNdlambe. In addition, there are other tribes found near or amongst the Xhosa people such as AbaThembu, AmaBhaca, AbakoBhosha and AmaQwathi that are distinct and separate tribes which have adopted the Xhosa language and the Xhosa way of life; the name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader and King called uXhosa. There is a fringe theory that, in fact the King's name which has since been lost amongst the people was not Xhosa, but that "xhosa" was a name given to him by the San and which means "fierce" or "angry" in Khoisan languages.
The Xhosa people refer to themselves as the AmaXhosa, to their language as isiXhosa. Presently 8 million Xhosa are distributed across the country, the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous home language, after the Zulu language, to which Xhosa is related; the pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town, East London, Port Elizabeth; as of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West, the Northern Cape, Limpopo. The Xhosa are part of the South African Nguni migration which moved south from the region around the Great Lakes; these tribes lived peacefully together until the frontier wars. Xhosa people were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, occupied much of eastern South Africa from around the Port Elizabeth area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.
The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812, the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War. In the years following, many tribes found in the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natal, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering"; the Xhosa-speaking people received these scattered tribes and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions. The Xhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengu, meaning wanderers, were made up of tribes such as the amaBhaca, amaBhele, amaHlubi, amaZizi and Rhadebe.
These newcomers are sometimes considered to be Xhosa. Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856–1858. Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response, both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy; some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party. Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa", it is referred to as "Xhosa" in English. Written Xhosa uses a Latin alphabet–based system.
Xhosa is spoken by about 18% of the South African population, has some mutual intelligibility with Zulu Zulu spoken in urban areas. Many Xhosa speakers those living in urban areas speak Zulu and/or Afrikaans and/or English. Traditional healers of South Africa include diviners; this job is taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. There are herbalists and healers for the community; the Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes. One of Xhosa's descendents named Phalo gave birth to two sons, Gcaleka kaPhalo, the heir, Rarabe ka Phalo, a son from the Right Hand house. Rarabe was a great warrior and a man of great ability, much loved by his father. Gcaleka was a meek and listless man who did not possess all the qualities befitting of a future king. Matters were complicated by Gcaleka's initiation as a diviner, a forbidden practice for members of the royal family. Seeing the popularity of his brother and fearing that he might one day challenge him for the throne, Gcaleka attempted to usurp the throne from his father, but Rarabe would come to his father's aid and quell the insurrection.
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