Australia (2008 film)
Australia is a 2008 Australian-American-British epic historical adventure film directed by Baz Luhrmann and starring Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman. It is the third-highest grossing Australian film of all time, behind Crocodile Dundee and Mad Max, the screenplay was written by Luhrmann and screenwriter Stuart Beattie, with Ronald Harwood and Richard Flanagan. The film is a story, set between 1939 and 1942 against a dramatised backdrop of events across northern Australia at the time. Production took place in Sydney, Darwin and Bowen, the film was released to cinemas on 26 November 2008 in both the United States and Australia, with subsequent worldwide release dates throughout late December 2008 and January and February 2009. Australia received mixed reviews critics and it earned $211.3 million on a $130 million budget. In 1939, Lady Sarah Ashley travels from England to northern Australia to force her husband to sell his faltering cattle station. Her husband sends an independent cattle drover, called Drover, to transport her to Faraway Downs, Lady Sarahs husband is murdered shortly before she arrives, and the authorities tell her that the killer is an Aboriginal elder, King George.
The childless Lady Sarah is captivated by the boy Nullah, who has an Aboriginal mother, Nullah tells her that he has seen her cattle being driven onto Carneys land — in other words, stolen from her. Because of this Fletcher mistreats Nullah and threatens him and his mother, so Lady Sarah fires Fletcher, when Nullah and his mother hide from the authorities in a water tower, his mother drowns. Lady Sarah comforts Nullah by singing the song Over the Rainbow from the film The Wizard of Oz, Nullah tells her that King George is his grandfather, and that like the Wizard, he too is a magic man. Lady Sarah persuades Drover to take the cattle to Darwin for sale, Drover is friendly with the Aborigines, and therefore shunned by many of the other whites in the territory. It is revealed that he was married to an Aboriginal woman, Lady Sarah reveals she is unable to have children. Drover leads a team of six riders, including Lady Sarah, Drovers Aboriginal brother-in-law Magarri, Nullah. Lady Sarah and Drover fall in love, and she gains a new appreciation for the Australian territory, the team drive the cattle through the dangerous Never Never desert.
Then, when at last delivering the cattle in Darwin, the group has to them onto the ship before Carneys cattle are loaded. Afterwards, Lady Sarah and Drover live together happily at Faraway Downs for two years, Fletcher kills Carney, marries his daughter Cath Carney, takes over Carneys cattle empire, and continues to menace Lady Sarah. It is established that Fletcher was the murderer of Lady Sarahs husband. Nullah is drawn to go on a walkabout with his grandfather King George, Lady Sarah, who has come to regard Nullah as her adopted son, vows to rescue him
Melville Island (Australia)
Melville Island, known in the Tiwi language as Yermalner, is in the eastern Timor Sea, off the coast of the Northern Territory, Australia. It is west of the Cobourg Peninsula in Arnhem Land and north of Darwin, the largest community/town on the island is Milikapiti, pop. The second village is Pirlangimpi, pop,440,27 km west of Milikapiti, on the west coast of Melville Island. About 30 more people live in five family outstations, at 5,786 square kilometres it is just outside the 100 largest islands in the world, but is the second biggest island in Australia, after Tasmania. Only 55 metres south of its tip is Irrititu Island. Together, Melville Island and Bathurst Island are known as the Tiwi Islands and it is said that the first European to sight the island was Abel Tasman in 1644, although this is now disputed. King named it for Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville, first lord of the Admiralty, shortly after this, the British made the first attempt to settle Australias north coast, at the short-lived Fort Dundas.
Fort Dundas Tiwi Land Council Tiwi Art Tourist Information
Bathurst Island (Nunavut)
A member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Bathurst Island is one of the Queen Elizabeth Islands in Nunavut, Canada. The area of the island is estimated at 16,042 km2,115 to 117 miles long and from 63 mi to 72 mi to 92.9 mi wide, making it the 54th largest island in the world and Canadas 13th largest island. The island is low-lying with few parts higher than 330 m in elevation, the highest point is 412 m at Stokes Mountain in the Stokes Range. This in turn part of the Arctic Cordillera mountain system. Good soil conditions produce abundant vegetation and support a more prolific wildlife population than other Arctic islands, the island contains both the International Biological Program site Polar Bear Pass and Qausuittuq National Park. Brooman Point Village on the eastern coast of Bathurst Island was the site of Thule native tribes around A. D.1000, william Edward Parry was the first European to discover the island in 1819, charting its southern coast. It was named for Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, British Secretary of State for War, robert Aldrich charted much of its west coast in 1851, while George Henry Richards and Sherard Osborn charted its north coast in 1853.
The Earths North Magnetic Pole tracked northwards across Bathurst Island during the 1960s and 1970s, Bathurst Island in the Atlas of Canada - Toporama, Natural Resources Canada
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Consolidated B-24 Liberator
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator is an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California. It was known within the company as the Model 32, and some models were laid down as export models designated as various LB-30s. At its inception, the B-24 was a design featuring a highly efficient shoulder-mounted. The wing gave the Liberator a high speed, long range. Early RAF Liberators were the first aircraft to cross the Atlantic Ocean as a matter of routine, the type was difficult to fly and had poor low speed performance. It had a ceiling and was less robust than the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. While aircrews tended to prefer the B-17, General Staff favored the B-24, the B-24 was used extensively in World War II. It served in every branch of the American armed forces, as well as several Allied air forces and navies, along with the B-17, the B-24 was the mainstay of the US strategic bombing campaign in the Western European theater. Due to its range, it proved useful in bombing operations in the Pacific, long range anti-submarine Liberators played an instrumental role in closing the Mid-Atlantic Gap in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The C-87 transport derivative served as a range, higher capacity counterpart to the Douglas C-47 Skytrain. The B-24 was produced in large numbers. At the end of World War II, the Liberator had been surpassed by more modern types such as the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the type was rapidly phased out of US service, although the PB4Y-2 Privateer derivative carried on in service with the US Navy in the Korean War. Two B-24s, one LB-30B and one Liberator V representing a B-24H, are airworthy as of 2016, the Liberator originated from a United States Army Air Corps request in 1938 for Consolidated to produce the B-17 under license. After company executives including President Reuben Fleet visited the Boeing factory in Seattle and this new fuselage was intentionally designed around twin bomb bays, each one being the same size and capacity of the B-17 bomb bays. In January 1939, the USAAC, under Specification C-212, formally invited Consolidated to submit a design study for a bomber with longer range, higher speed, the specification was written such that the Model 32 would automatically be the winning design.
The program was run under the group, Project A. Although the B-24 did not meet Project A goals, it was a step in that direction, Project A led to the development of the Boeing B-29 and Consolidateds own B-32 and B-36. The B-24 had a shoulder mounted high aspect ratio Davis wing and this wing was highly efficient allowing a relatively high airspeed and long range
Elcho Island is an island off the coast of Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. It is located at the end of the Wessel Islands group located in the East Arnhem Region. The islands largest community is the settlement of Galiwinku, Elcho Island is approximately 55km long and 6km across at its widest point. It is bounded on the side by the Arafura Sea. Elcho Island is a distance away from the mainland and Howard Island. Galiwinku, located near the southern tip, is the main community on the island. There is a number of tribal groups, with up to 22 different dialects being used in the community. The people of Galiwinku retain their tradition and culture for future generations by strict traditional methods, the island has a base population of 2,200 people, including 70 non-Aboriginal people. It is the home of the Aboriginal folk musician Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu, the population of Galiwinku varies during the seasons, with many outstation residents migrating to the community during the wet season due to inaccessibility.
The community serves approximately 25 outstations with a population of approx. Galiwinku is a traditional Aboriginal community with restricted access, permission to visit is required by law, total alcohol restrictions apply and there is no gasoline available on the island, all gasoline-powered vehicles use the low-aromatic petrol Opal as a fuel substitute. The settlement was established as a Methodist mission in 1942, with the arrival of Harold Shepherdson. It remained under Church direction until 1974 when it became self-managed, eighteen connected clan groups within the Elcho Island locale have close cultural ties with mainland Arnhem Land clans and language groups. The most commonly spoken languages are Djambarrpuyngu and Gupapuyngu, there are at least twelve more languages in use in the region. Another settlement is Gäwa, which is located on the tip of Elcho Island. The island is served by Elcho Island Airport, in 2007 a group of local Elcho Island dancers choreographed and performed a dance routine to Zorba the Greek.
The performance was recorded and uploaded to YouTube, in under 12 months the video received more than 850,000 views, due to this success the group toured parts of Queensland and performed in the Art Gallery of NSW in Sydney in June 2008. They appeared as the act at the Melbourne International Comedy Festival Gala 2009
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
His 2008 film Australia is an epic historical romantic drama film starring Hugh Jackman and Nicole Kidman. His 2013 drama The Great Gatsby, based on F. Scott Fitzgeralds 1925 novel of the name, stars Leonardo DiCaprio. His mother, Barbara Carmel, was a dance teacher and dress shop owner, and his father, Leonard Luhrmann, ran a petrol station. He was raised in Herons Creek, a rural settlement in northern New South Wales. Luhrmann received the nickname Baz from his father Leonard and he officially changed his given name from Mark to Baz sometime around 1979. In 1983, he commenced a course at the National Institute of Dramatic Art. He graduated in 1985 alongside Sonia Todd, Catherine McClements and Justin Monjo, on 26 January 1997, he married Catherine Martin, a production designer, the couple have two children. Luhrmann supports the Melbourne Demons in the Australian Football League, Australia The Great Gatsby The modern film interpretation Romeo + Juliet, starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes, defeated Titanic at the BAFTAs for best direction and screenplay.
The film was celebrated at the Berlin Film Festival, where it was recognised with the Gold Bear award for direction, Luhrmann produced the soundtrack albums for the film. Was named one of the AFIs top ten films of 2001, the film gave birth to a successful soundtrack album, selling more than seven million copies, led by the Grammy-winning number one hit single Lady Marmalade. Luhrmanns 2008 romantic epic Australia starred Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman and it is the second-highest grossing Australian film of all time, next to Crocodile Dundee and ahead of Happy Feet. In 2016, Luhrmann collaborated with award-winning playwright Stephen Adly Guirgis on the Netflix series The Get Down about the birth of hip-hop in the 1970s. 1981, A young Luhrmann can be seen in an acting role in the film Winter of Our Dreams. Luhrmann has a part playing opposite Judy Davis. 1992, Luhrmann directed a video for John Paul Youngs Love Is in the Air,1993, Luhrmann staged his interpretation of Benjamin Brittens version of A Midsummer Nights Dream, set in colonial India, for the Australian Opera.
After successful seasons in Sydney and Melbourne, the production went on to win the Critics Prize at the Edinburgh Festival, music extracts can be heard on his album Something for Everybody. 1993, Luhrmann assisted in the campaign of former Australian prime minister Paul Keating. 1997, The CD of Something for Everybody was released, featuring music from Luhrmanns films, Luhrmann created his own company with his wife Catherine Martin, Bazmark
Bombing of Darwin
The Bombing of Darwin, known as the Battle of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia. The town was lightly defended and the Japanese inflicted heavy losses upon the Allied forces at little cost to themselves. The urban areas of Darwin suffered damage from the raids. The two Japanese air raids were the first, and largest, of more than 100 air raids against Australia during 1942–43, in 1942, Darwin was a small town with limited civil and military infrastructure. Due to its position in northern Australia, the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force had constructed bases near the town in the 1930s. The first flight to use the route occurred when nine B-17D bombers of the 14th Bombardment Squadron left Hawaii on 5 September and passed through Darwin 10–12 September. By October 1941 plans were underway to position fuel and supplies with two ships, including USAT Don Esteban, being chartered and actively engaged in that purpose when war came, following the outbreak of the Pacific War in early December 1941, Darwins defences were strengthened.
The improvised plan for support of the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies that was completed in Washington on 20 December 1941 by the U. S, in the two months before the air raids, all but 2,000 civilians were evacuated from the town. Japanese submarines I-121 and I-123 laid mines off Darwin in January 1942, by mid-February 1942 Darwin had become an important Allied base for the defence of the DEI. The Japanese had captured Ambon and Celebes between December 1941 and early-February 1942, landings on Timor were scheduled for 20 February, and an invasion of Java was planned to take place shortly afterwards. In order to protect these landings from Allied interference, the Japanese military command decided to conduct an air raid on Darwin. Among the ships in harbour were those returned the morning before the attack from the convoy escorted by USS Houston involved in the effort to reinforce Timor. Despite Darwins strategic importance to the defence of Australia, the city was poorly defended, the crews of these guns had conducted little recent training due to ammunition shortages.
The air forces stationed in and near the town comprised No.12 Squadron, which was equipped with CAC Wirraway advanced trainers, and No.13 Squadron which operated Lockheed Hudson light bombers. Six Hudsons,3 from No.2 Squadron and 3 from No.13 Squadron arrived at Darwin on 19 February after having evacuated from Timor. None of the six Wirraways at Darwin on the day of the raid were serviceable, at the time of the event, there were no radars functioning to provide early warning of air raids, and the towns civil defences were dysfunctional. In addition to the Australian forces, ten United States Army Air Forces Curtiss P-40 Warhawks were passing through Darwin en route to Java on the day of the attack, the P-40 pilots were in the main little experienced in combat. A total of 65 Allied warships and merchant vessels were in Darwin harbour at the time of the raids, the warships included the United States Navy destroyer Peary and seaplane tender William B
Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst
Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst KG PC was a High Tory, High Church Pittite from the end of the Second Empire. For thirty years an MP and whence ennobled one of the governments main stalwarts on Colonial policy. Not a good speaker in debates, he was nevertheless a competent administrator, a personal friend of William Pitt he became a broker of deals across cabinet factions during the volatile Napoleonic era. After the wars he was on the wing of the Liberal Tory party. Lord Bathurst was the son of Henry Bathurst, 2nd Earl Bathurst, by his wife Tryphena. He was educated at Eton from 1773 to 1778 and up to Christ Church, the college was always considered the most academic, and he went up with his closest companions at Eton William Wyndham Greville, Lord Wellesley and Canon Bathurst, his cousin. The influences on his strong, but affable character were aristocratic, whiggish at the beginning of the industrial revolution, britain had lost the American colonies but gained a larger empire in the Far East.
Affable man of character and wit, Bathurst was known in society for a sense of humour. He was a book-lover, which he inherited from his parents, his fathers learning had acquired a library, while his mother was artistic. It was however his mother who was more business-like, and from her he learnt some cunning and he was a bad godfather to his religious charges, but a good father to his children. Not especially religious or church-going, Bathurst was worldly and intelligent, aged sixteen he matriculated at Christ Church on 22 April 1779. His father was overjoyed, and from 1790 he bought a living at Sapperton, where the family farmed the estate, in 1781 he decided to embark on a Grand Tour of Europe. Without taking a degree he left Oxford for Germany where he travelled with Greville, from Switzerland he went to Italy, before moving north to Paris. On hearing that Shelburnes government was challenged by a Fox-North coalition he headed back to London in February 1783, the old enemy France had been defeated on every continent, and on every ocean.
Immediately on entering politics he admired the patriotism and oratory of a youthful garrulous drinker William Pitt, Bathurst liked the young dissolute parliamentarian, but refused to join his frequent bouts. Pitt was tall and slender from a Navy family, but Bathurst was more self-restrained, the beauty aesthetic rendered Bathurst more sensitive and scholarly towards departmental duties. The strongest quality he possessed was loyalty to his friends, he was the only society family that would entertain Lady Wellesley, when appointed head of the Gloucestershire Militia and it embodied he owed it to Wellesley, a born soldier in 1798 who made his name in India. High Anglicanism meant antiquarian attitudes to assiduous recording of letters and correspondence and this was how he came to the conclusion that slavery was cruel, but was wary about voting for a franchise extension