Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe which reached a record depth of about 10,911 metres in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific. On 23 January 1960, Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh achieved the goal of Project Nekton, it was the first manned vessel to reach the bottom of the Challenger Deep. Trieste consisted of a float chamber filled with gasoline for buoyancy, with a separate pressure sphere to hold the crew; this configuration, allowed for a free dive, rather than the previous bathysphere designs in which a sphere was lowered to depth and raised again to the surface by a cable attached to a ship. Trieste was designed by the Swiss scientist Auguste Piccard and built in Italy, his pressure sphere, composed of two sections, was built by the company Acciaierie Terni. The upper part was manufactured by the company Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico, in the Free Territory of Trieste; the installation of the pressure sphere was done in the Cantiere navale di Castellammare di Stabia, near Naples.
Trieste was launched on 26 August 1953 into the Mediterranean Sea near the Isle of Capri. The design was based on previous experience with the bathyscaphe FNRS-2. Trieste was operated by the French Navy. After several years of operation in the Mediterranean Sea, the Trieste was purchased by the United States Navy in 1958 for $250,000. At the time of Project Nekton, Trieste was more than 15 m long; the majority of this was a series of floats filled with 85,000 litres of gasoline, water ballast tanks were included at either end of the vessel, as well as releasable iron ballast in two conical hoppers along the bottom and aft of the crew sphere. The crew occupied the 2.16 m pressure sphere, attached to the underside of the float and accessed from the deck of the vessel by a vertical shaft that penetrated the float and continued down to the sphere hatch. The pressure sphere provided just enough room for two people, it provided independent life support, with a closed-circuit rebreather system similar to that used in modern spacecraft and spacesuits: oxygen was provided from pressure cylinders, carbon dioxide was scrubbed from breathing air by being passed through canisters of soda-lime.
Power was provided by batteries. Trieste was subsequently fitted with a new pressure sphere, manufactured by the Krupp Steel Works of Essen, Germany, in three finely-machined sections. To withstand the enormous pressure of 1.25 metric tons per cm2 at the bottom of Challenger Deep, the sphere's walls were 12.7 centimetres thick. The sphere weighed 14.25 metric tons in eight metric tons in water. The float was necessary because of the sphere's density: it was not possible to design a sphere large enough to hold a person that could withstand the necessary pressures, yet have metal walls thin enough for the sphere to be neutrally buoyant. Gasoline was chosen as the float fluid because it is less dense than water, less compressible, thus retaining its buoyant properties and negating the need for thick, heavy walls for the float chamber. Observation of the sea outside the craft was conducted directly by eye, via a single tapered, cone-shaped block of acrylic glass, the only transparent substance identified which would withstand the external pressure.
Outside illumination for the craft was provided by quartz arc-light bulbs, which proved to be able to withstand the over 1,000 standard atmospheres of pressure without any modification. Nine metric tons of magnetic iron pellets were placed on the craft as ballast, both to speed the descent and allow ascent, since the extreme water pressures would not have permitted compressed air ballast-expulsion tanks to be used at great depths; this additional weight was held in place at the throats of two hopper-like ballast silos by electromagnets, so in case of an electrical failure the bathyscaphe would automatically rise to the surface. Transported to the Naval Electronics Laboratory's facility in San Diego, Trieste was modified extensively by the Americans, used in a series of deep-submergence tests in the Pacific Ocean during the next few years, culminating in the dive to the bottom of the Challenger Deep during January 1960. Trieste departed San Diego on 5 October 1959 for Guam aboard the freighter Santa Maria to participate in Project Nekton, a series of deep dives in the Mariana Trench.
On 23 January 1960, she reached the ocean floor in the Challenger Deep, carrying Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh. This was the first time a vessel, manned or unmanned, had reached the deepest known point of the Earth's oceans; the onboard systems indicated a depth of 11,521 metres, although this was revised to 10,916 metres. The descent to the ocean floor took 4 hours 47 minutes at a descent rate of 0.9 metres per second. After passing 9,000 metres, one of the outer Plexiglas window panes cracked, shaking the entire vessel; the two men spent twenty minutes on the ocean floor. The temperature in the ca
The Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago is a contemporary art museum near Water Tower Place in downtown Chicago in Cook County, United States. The museum, established in 1967, is one of the world's largest contemporary art venues; the museum's collection is composed of thousands of objects of Post-World War II visual art. The museum is run gallery-style, with individually curated exhibitions throughout the year; each exhibition may be composed of temporary loans, pieces from their permanent collection, or a combination of the two. The museum has hosted several notable debut exhibitions including Frida Kahlo's first U. S. exhibition and Jeff Koons' first solo museum exhibition. Koons presented an exhibit at the Museum that broke the museum's attendance record; the current record for the most attended exhibition is the 2017 exhibition of Takashi Murakami work. The museums collection, which includes Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol, Cindy Sherman, Kara Walker, Alexander Calder, contains historical samples of 1940s–1970s late surrealism, pop art and conceptual art.
It presents dance, theater and multidisciplinary arts. The current location at 220 East Chicago Avenue is in the Streeterville neighborhood of the Near North Side community area. Josef Paul Kleihues designed the current building after the museum conducted a 12-month search, reviewing more than 200 nominations; the museum was located at 237 East Ontario Street, designed as a bakery. The current building is known for its signature staircase leading to an elevated ground floor, which has an atrium, the full glass-walled east and west façades giving a direct view of the city and Lake Michigan; the Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago was created as the result of a 1964 meeting of 30 critics and dealers at the home of critic Doris Lane Butler to bring the long-discussed idea of a museum of contemporary art to complement the city's Art Institute of Chicago, according to a grand opening story in Time. It opened in fall 1967 in a small space at 237 East Ontario Street that had for a time served as the corporate offices of Playboy Enterprises.
Its first director was Jan van der Marck. In 1970 he invited Wolf Vostell to make the Concrete Traffic sculpture in Chicago; the museum was conceived as a space for temporary exhibitions, in the German kunsthalle model. However, in 1974, the museum began acquiring a permanent collection of contemporary art objects created after 1945; the MCA expanded into adjacent buildings to increase gallery space. In 1978, Gordon Matta-Clark executed his final major project in the townhouse. In his work Circus Or The Caribbean Orange, Matta-Clark made circle cuts in the walls and floors of the townhouse next-door to the first museum. In 1991, the museum's Board of Trustees contributed $37 million of the expected $55 million construction costs for Chicago's first new museum building in 65 years. Six of the board members were central to the fundraising as major donors: Jerome Stone, Beatrice C. Mayer and family, Mrs. Edwin Lindy Bergman, the Neison Harris and Irving Harris families, Thomas and Frances Dittmer.
The Board of Trustees weighed architectural proposals from six finalists: Emilio Ambasz of New York. According to Chicago Tribune Pulitzer Prize-winning architecture critic Blair Kamin, the list of contenders was controversial because no Chicago-based architects were included as finalists despite the fact that prominent Chicago architects such as Helmut Jahn and Stanley Tigerman were among the 23 semi-finalists. In fact, none of the finalists had made any prior structures in Chicago; the selection process, which started with 209 contenders, was based on professional qualifications, recent projects, the ability to work with the staff of the aspiring museum. In 1996, the MCA opened its current museum at 220 East Chicago Avenue, the site of a former National Guard Armory between Lake Michigan and Michigan Avenue from 1907 until it was demolished in 1993 to make way for the MCA; the four-story 220,000-square-foot building designed by Josef Paul Kleihues, five times larger than its predecessor, made the Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago the largest institution devoted to contemporary art in the world.
The physical structure is said to reference the modernism of Mies van der Rohe as well as the tradition of Chicago architecture. The museum opened at its new location June 21–22, 1996, with a 24-hour event that drew more than 25,000 visitors. For its 50th anniversary in 2017, the museum unveiled a $16 million renovation by architects Johnston Marklee, which redesigned 12,000 square feet within the existing footprint of the original Joseph Paul Kleihues design; the museum operates as a tax-exempt non-profit organization, its exhibitions and operations are member-supported and funded. The board of trustees is composed of 6 officers, 16 life trustees, more than 46 trustees; the current board chair is Michael O'Grady. The museum has a director, who oversees the MCA's staff of about 100. Madeleine Grynsztejn replaced 10-year director Robert F
A house party is a type of party where medium to large groups of people gather at the residence of the party's host. In modern usage, a house party is associated with teenage or young adult crowds, loud music and the consumption of alcohol, marijuana or other recreational drugs; the term has referred to more genteel gatherings at country estates, lasting anywhere from several days to weeks, as well as rent parties held by African Americans in Harlem during the early Jazz Age. A house party might be organized several months, or down to just a few hours, in advance. News of a party is spread by word of mouth, the sending of formal invitations, or on social networking websites like Facebook. In the case of the latter, the host must be careful of how public the information regarding the party is made. There have been cases where hundreds of people have turned up to a party they found out about on the internet without knowing the host causing massive damage to the house or the items within it. In the United Kingdom, such an occurrence may be referred to as a'Skins' party, named after a well-known TV show set in the English city of Bristol focusing on the lives of teenagers who participate in and host such parties.
A person who attends a house party, but has not been invited, is referred to as a "gatecrasher". Such an activity is perceived negatively, although more liberal hosts may permit gatecrashers, depending on their behaviour. In some instances house parties do not attract large crowds, with ten or fewer people are referred to as a'gathering'. An early example of a house party can be seen in the play Mostellaria by the Roman playwright Plautus. In it a young man called. House parties have become a prominent feature in popular movies movies aimed at teenagers. While many have been present before the movie, Animal House is one of the first to properly provide a scene of a house party. In the former Yugoslavia, a sijelo, silo or selo is an evening social gathering at a house; the use of the word sijelo is widespread in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cocktail party House Party, Inc. House Party Political houseparty Šokačko sijelo, minority festival For Sijelo: Milenko S. Filipović. Among the people, native Yugoslav ethnography: selected writing of Milenko S. Filipović.
Michigan Slavic Publications, Dept. of Slavic Languages and Literatures. P. 97. Norman M. Naimark. Yugoslavia and Its Historians: Understanding the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4594-9