A cup is an open-top container used to hold liquids for pouring or drinking. Cups may be made of clay, stone, metal, styrofoam, plastic, or other materials, are sometimes fixed with a stem, handles, or other adornments. Cups are used for quenching thirst across a wide range of cultures and social classes, different styles of cups may be used for different liquids or in different situations. Cups of different styles may be used for different liquids or other foodstuffs, in different situations, or for decoration. Cups are an obvious improvement on using cupped feet to hold liquids, they have certainly been used since before recorded history, have been found at archaeological sites throughout the world. Prehistoric cups were sometimes hollowed out stones. In ancient Mesopotamia, cups were made for a variety of purposes including the transportation and drinking of alcoholic beverages. There is evidence the Roman Empire may have spread the use of cups throughout Europe, with notable examples including silver cups in Wales and a color-changing glass cup in ancient Thrace.
In England, cups have been discovered which date back to several thousand years, including the Rillaton Gold Cup, about 3,700 years old. Cups were used in the Americas several centuries prior to the European arrivals. Around the Gulf of Mexico, Native American societies used the Horse conch for drinking cups, among other purposes. Since cups have been an integral part of dining since time immemorial, they have become a valued part of human culture; the shape or image of a cup appears in various places in human cultures. Monarchs have been concerned about assassination via poisoning. To avoid this fate, they used dedicated cups, with cup-bearers to guard them. A "divining cup" was supposed to be able to detect poison. In the Bible, Joseph interpreted a dream for Pharaoh's cup-bearer, a silver divining cup played a key role in his reconciliation with his brothers. Spa cups are a special cup used to drink mineral or thermal water directly from a spring, developed in north-west Bohemia during the 17th century and are now part of Czech folklore.
In the Christian ritual of Communion, adherents drink from a cup of wine to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus. A chalice is used for this purpose. Ancient Greek religious practices included libations; the rhyton was one cup used for libations. The measuring cup, an adaptation of a simple cup, is a standard tool in cooking, in use at least as far back as Roman times. Apart from serving as drinking vessels, cups can be used as an alternative to bowls as a receptacle for soup. Recipes have been published for cooking various dishes in cups in the microwave. Chalices are sometimes used in heraldry ecclesiastical heraldry. A Kronkåsa is a type of elaborate wooden cup, used by the Swedish nobility during the Renaissance. Drinking from a cup is a significant step on a baby's path to becoming a toddler. Sippy cups are used for this transition. Many trophies take the form of a large, decorated cup. In cases such as the FIFA World Cup and the Stanley Cup, the competition itself may grow to take on the name of the trophy, awarded to the winner.
Owing to the common usage of cup-shaped trophies as prizes for the winners, a large number of national and international competitions are called "cups". In Tarot divination, the suit of cups is associated with the element of water and is regarded as symbolizing emotion and the soul. Cards that feature cups are associated with love, relationships and desires. Various cups have been designed; these are called puzzle cups. Pythagorean cup Fuddling cup Puzzle jugThe. In the developed world, cups are distributed for promotional purposes. For example, a corporation might distribute cups with their logo at a trade show, or a city might hand out cups with slogans promoting recycling. There are companies. Solo cups carry strong cultural connotations in America referring to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Names for different types of cups may overlap. Any transparent cup, regardless of actual composition, is to be called a "glass". While in theory, most cups are well suited to hold drinkable liquids, hot drinks like tea are served in either insulated cups or porcelain teacups.
Coffee cup Mazagran Mug Teacup Thermos Travel mug Disposable cups are intended to be used only once. They are used by fast-food restaurants and coffee shops to serve beverages. Institutions that provide drinking water, such as offices and hospitals, may use disposable cups for sanitary reasons. Paper cup Plastic cup Glass cup styrofoam cup Some styles of cups are used for alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. There are over a dozen distinct styles of cups for drinking beer, depending on the precise variety of beer; the idea that a certain beer should be served in a cup of a certain shape may have been promulgated more for marketing purposes, but there well may be some basis in fact behind it. Wine glasses come in different shapes, depending on the color and style
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called a honeycomb; the variety of honey produced by honey bees is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping or apiculture. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose, it has attractive chemical properties for a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil after thousands of years. Honey provides 46 calories in a serving of one tablespoon. Honey is regarded as safe. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity.
Several cave paintings in Cuevas de la Araña, depict humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago. Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply. During foraging, bees access part of the nectar collected to support metabolic activity of flight muscles, with the majority of collected nectar destined for regurgitation and storage as honey. In cold weather or when other food sources are scarce and larval bees use stored honey as food. By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are: a single female queen bee a seasonally variable number of male drone bees to fertilize new queens 20,000 to 40,000 female worker beesLeaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus, which lies just dorsal to its food stomach.
The honey stomach holds about 40 mg of nectar, or 50% of the bee's unloaded weight, which can require over a thousand flowers and more than an hour to fill. The nectar begins with a water content of 70 to 80%. Salivary enzymes and proteins from the bee's hypopharyngeal gland are added to the nectar to begin breaking down the sugars, raising the water content slightly; the forager bees return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles until it is digested; the bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. Bee digestive enzymes hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose, break down other starches and proteins, increasing the acidity; the bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality.
It is placed in honeycomb cells and left unsealed while still high in water content and natural yeasts which, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment. Bees are some of the few insects that can generate large amounts of body heat, thus the hive bees regulate the hive temperature, either heating with their bodies or cooling with water evaporation, to maintain a constant temperature in the honey-storage areas around 35 °C; the process continues as hive bees flutter their wings to circulate air and evaporate water from the honey to a content around 18%, raising the sugar concentration beyond the saturation point and preventing fermentation. The bees cap the cells with wax to seal them; as removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed. Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica, which are found in South and Central America; these species are known to produce honey.
Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor consume honey themselves, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from domesticated beehives. On average, a hive will produce about 65 pounds of honey per year. Wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers pacify the bees using a bee smoker; the smoke triggers a feeding instinct, making them less aggressive and the smoke obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from that, either by crushing or by using a honey extractor; the honey is usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris. Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were sacrificed to conduct the harvest; the harvester would replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar.
The amount o
Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower, native to southern Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is cultivated commercially in tropical and subtropical areas for its sweet, seedy fruit called passion fruit; the fruit is a pepo, a type of berry, round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit is both eaten or juiced, the juice added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma; the passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of passion flower, the English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora. Around 1700, the name was given by missionaries in Brazil as an educational aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity. P. edulis is a perennial vine. There are two main varieties: a purple-fruited type, P. edulis f. edulis, the yellow-fruited P. edulis f. flavicarpa. The vine produces a single flower 5–7.5 cm wide at each node. The flower has green sepals and 5 white petals.
The sepals and petals form a fringe. The base of the flower is a rich purple with 5 stamens, an ovary, a branched style; the styles bend backward and the anthers, which are located on top of the styles, have a distinct head. The fruit produced is fleshy, is spherical to ovoid; the outside color of the berry ranges from dark-purple with fine white specks to light yellow. The fruit is 4—7.5 cm in diameter. The smooth, leathery rind is 9–13 mm thick, including a thick layer of pith. Within the berry, there are 250 black seeds, each 2.4 mm in length. Each seed is surrounded by a membranous sac filled with pulpy juice; the flavor of the juice is acidic and musky. The passion fruit's flavor can be compared to that of the guava fruit. Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with differing exterior appearances exist; the bright yellow flavicarpa variety known as yellow or golden passionfruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy and airy rind, has been used as a rootstock for purple passionfruit in Australia.
The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than yellow passionfruit, has a richer aroma and flavour. Passion fruit has a variety of uses juice. In Australia and New Zealand, it is fresh and tinned, it is added to fruit salads, fresh fruit pulp or passion fruit sauce is used in desserts, including as a topping for pavlova and ice cream, a flavouring for cheesecake, in the icing of vanilla slices. A passionfruit-flavored soft drink called Passiona has been manufactured in Australia since the 1920s, it can be used in some alcoholic cocktails. In Brazil, the term maracujá applies to passion granadillo. Passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, passion fruit pulp is used to decorate the tops of cakes. Passion fruit juice, ice pops and more soft drinks are popular; when making caipirinha, one may use passion fruit instead of lime. In Colombia, it is one of the most important fruits for juices and desserts, it is available all over the country and three kinds of "maracuyá" fruit may be found.
In the Dominican Republic, where it is locally called chinola, it is used to make juice and Fruit preserves. Passion fruit-flavored syrup is used on shaved ice, the fruit is eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar. In East Africa, passion fruit is used to make fruit juice and is eaten as a whole fruit. In Hawaii, where it is known as liliko'i, passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice, it is used as a dessert flavouring for malasadas, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can be used to glaze or to marinate meat and vegetables. In India, the government of Andhra Pradesh started growing passion fruit vines in the Chintapalli forests to make fruit available within the region; the fruit is eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar and is used to make juice. In Indonesia, there are two types of white flesh and yellow flesh; the white one is eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is strained to obtain its juice, cooked with sugar to make thick syrup.
In Mexico, passion fruit is eaten raw with chilli powder and lime. In Paraguay, passion fruit is used principally for its juice, to prepare desserts such as passion fruit mousse, ice cream, to flavour yogurts and cocktails. In Peru, passion fruit has long been a staple in homemade ice pops called "marciano" or "chupetes". Passion fruit is used in several desserts mousses and cheesecakes. Passion fruit juice is drunk on its own and is used in ceviche variations and in cocktails, including the Maracuyá sour, a variation of the Pisco sour. Can be eaten raw. In the Philippines, passion fruit is sold in public markets and in public schools; some vendors sell the fruit with a straw to enable sucking out the juices inside. In Portugal the Azores
Vodka is a clear distilled alcoholic beverage originating from Poland and Russia, composed of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, it is made by distilling the liquid from cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented, though some modern brands, such as Ciroc, CooranBong, Bombora, use fruits or sugar as the base. Since the 1890s, the standard Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Slovak and Ukrainian vodkas are 40% alcohol by volume, a percentage misattributed to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Meanwhile, the European Union has established a minimum alcohol content of 37.5% for any European vodka to be named as such. But beverages sold as vodka in the United States must have a minimum alcohol content of 40%. With these loose restrictions, most commercial vodka contains 40% alcohol. Vodka is traditionally drunk "neat" or "straight", though it is served freezer chilled in the vodka belt countries of Belarus, Finland, Lithuania, Norway, Russia and Ukraine.
It is used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the Vodka martini, Vodka Tonic, Greyhound, Black or White Russian, Moscow Mule, Bloody Mary, Bloody Caesar. The name vodka is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda, interpreted as little water: root вод- + -к- + -a; the word vodka was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka, the source of Ukrainian horilka; the word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. Although the word vodka could be found in early manuscripts and in lubok pictograms, it began to appear in Russian dictionaries only in the mid-19th century, it was attested in Sámuel Gyarmathi's Russian-German-Hungarian glossary of 1799, where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum. In English literature the word vodka was attested in the late 18th century.
In a book of his travels published in English in 1780, Johann Gottlieb Georgi explained that "kabak in the Russian language signifies a public house for the common people to drink vodka in." William Tooke in 1799 glossed vodka as "rectified corn-spirits". In French, Théophile Gautier in 1800 glossed it as a "grain liquor" served with meals in Poland. Another possible connection of vodka with "water" is the name of the medieval alcoholic beverage aqua vitae, reflected in Polish okowita, Ukrainian оковита, Belarusian акавіта, Scandinavian akvavit. People in the area of vodka's probable origin have names for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish: gorzała. Horílka. Harelka. In Russian during the 17th and 18th centuries, горящѣе вино or горячее вино was used. Others languages include the German Branntwein, Danish brændevin, Dutch: brandewijn, Swedish: brännvin, Norwegian: brennevin. Scholars debate the beginnings of vodka, it is a contentious issue because little historical material is available.
For many centuries, beverages differed compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor and smell, was used as medicine. It contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%; the still, allowing for distillation, increased purity, increased alcohol content, was invented in the 8th century. In Poland, vodka has been produced since the early Middle Ages with local traditions as varied as the production of cognac in France, or Scottish whisky; the world's first written mention of the drink and of the word "vodka" was in 1405 from Akta Grodzkie recorder of deeds, in the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland and it went on to become a popular drink there. At the time, the word wódka referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage known as vodka was called gorzałka, the source of Ukrainian horilka; the word written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'.
In these early days, the spirits were used as medicines. Stefan Falimierz asserted in his 1534 works on herbs that vodka could serve "to increase fertility and awaken lust". Wodka lub gorzałka, by Jerzy Potański, contains valuable information on the production of vodka. Jakub Kazimierz Haur, in his book Skład albo skarbiec znakomitych sekretów ekonomii ziemiańskiej, gave detailed recipes for making vodka from rye; some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Most notable are Żubrówka, from
Condensed milk is cow's milk from which water has been removed. It is most found in the form of "sweetened condensed milk", with sugar added, the terms "condensed milk" and "sweetened condensed milk" are used interchangeably today. Sweetened condensed milk is a thick, sweet product, which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if not opened. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries. A related product is evaporated milk, which has undergone a more complex process and, not sweetened. Evaporated milk is known in some countries as unsweetened condensed milk. According to the writings of Marco Polo, in the thirteenth century the Tatars were able to condense milk. Marco Polo reported that ten pounds of milk paste was carried by each man, who would subsequently mix the product with water. However, this refers to the soft Tatar curd, which can be made into a drink by diluting it, therefore refers to fermented, not fresh, milk concentrate. Nicolas Appert condensed milk in France in 1820, Gail Borden, Jr. in the United States in 1853, in reaction to difficulties in storing milk for more than a few hours.
Before this development, milk could be kept fresh for only a short while and was available only in the immediate vicinity of a lactating cow. While returning from a trip to England in 1851, Borden was devastated by the deaths of several children from poor milk obtained from shipboard cows. With less than a year of schooling and following a series of failures, both of his own and of others, Borden was inspired by the vacuum pan he had seen being used by Shakers to condense fruit juice and managed to reduce milk without scorching or curdling it, his first two factories failed and only the third, built with new partner Jeremiah Milbank in Wassaic, New York, produced a usable milk derivative, long-lasting and needed no refrigeration. Of equal importance for the future of milk production were Borden's requirements for farmers who wanted to sell him raw milk: they were required to wash the cows' udders before milking, keep barns swept clean, scald and dry their strainers morning and night. By 1858, Borden's milk, sold as Eagle Brand, had gained a reputation for purity and economy.
In 1864, Gail Borden's New York Condensed Milk Company constructed the New York Milk Condensery in Brewster, New York. This was the largest and most advanced milk factory of its day and was Borden's first commercially successful plant. More than 200 dairy farmers supplied 20,000 gallons of milk daily to the Brewster plant as demand increased driven by the American Civil War; the U. S. government ordered huge amounts of condensed milk as a field ration for Union soldiers during the war. This was an extraordinary field ration for the nineteenth century: a typical 10-oz can contained 1,300 calories, 1 oz each of protein and fat, more than 7 oz of carbohydrate. Soldiers returning home from the war soon spread the word, by the late 1860s condensed milk was a major product; the first Canadian condensery was built at Truro, Nova Scotia, in 1871. In 1899, E. B. Stuart opened the first Pacific Coast Condensed Milk Company plant in Washington; the condensed milk market developed into a bubble, with too many manufacturers chasing too little demand.
In 1911, Nestlé constructed the world's largest condensed milk plant in Dennington, Australia. By 1912, high stocks of condensed milk led to a drop in price and many condenseries went out of business. In 1914, Otto F. Hunziker, head of Purdue University's dairy department, self-published Condensed Milk and Milk Powder: Prepared for the Use of Milk Condenseries, Dairy Students and Pure Food Departments; this text, along with the additional work of Hunziker and others involved with the American Dairy Science Association and improved condensery operations in the United States and internationally. Hunziker's book was republished in a seventh edition in October 2007 by Cartwright Press; the First World War regenerated interest in, the market for, condensed milk due to its storage and transportation benefits. In the U. S. the higher price for raw milk paid by condenseries created significant problems for the cheese industry. Raw milk is clarified and standardised to a desired fat to solid-not-fat ratio, is heated to 85–90 °C for several seconds.
This heating process decreases fat separation and inhibits oxidation. Some water is evaporated from the milk and sugar is added until a 9:11 ratio of sugar to milk is reached; the sugar extends the shelf life of sweetened condensed milk. Sucrose increases the liquid's osmotic pressure; the sweetened evaporated milk is cooled and lactose crystallization is induced. Condensed milk is used in recipes for the Brazilian candy brigadeiro, key lime pie, caramel candies, other desserts. Condensed milk and sweetened condensed milk is sometimes used in combination with clotted cream to make fudge in certain countries such as the United Kingdom. In parts of Asia and Europe, sweetened condensed milk is the preferred milk to be added to coffee or tea. Many countries in Southeast Asia, such as Vietnam and Cambodia, use condensed milk to flavor their hot or iced coffee. In Malaysia and Singapore, teh tarik is made from tea mixed with condensed milk, condensed milk is an integral element in Hong Kong tea culture.
In the Canary Islands, it is served as the bottom stripe in a glass of the local café cortado and, in Valencia, it is served as a
Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated pulp of a mature coconut. The opacity and rich taste of coconut milk are due to its high oil content, most of, saturated fat. Coconut milk is a traditional food ingredient used in Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Caribbean, northern South America. Coconut milk is distinguished from coconut water by milkier appearance. Unlike coconut water, the liquid found directly inside a coconut, coconut milk is the result of crushing coconut pulp. Coconut milk is traditionally made by grating the white inner flesh of a brown coconut and mixing the shredded coconut pulp with a small amount of water in order to suspend the fat present in the grated pulp; the grating process can be carried by machine. Coconut milk has a fat content of up to 24%, depending on the fat level of the coconut pulp and the quantity of added water. Coconut milk exists in two grades: thin. Thick coconut milk contains 20–22% fat while thin coconut milk contains 5–7% fat. Thick milk is prepared by directly squeezing grated coconut pulp through cheesecloth.
Thin milk is produced by soaking the squeezed coconut pulp in water and further squeezing the pulp until a thinner liquid forms. Thick milk contains soluble, suspended solids, which makes it a good ingredient for desserts and rich and dry sauces; because thin milk does not contain these soluble solids, it is used in general cooking. The distinction between thick and thin milk is not made in Western nations due to the fact that fresh coconut milk is uncommon in these countries and most consumers buy coconut milk in cartons or cans; when refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream will rise to the top and separate out from the milk. To avoid this in commercial coconut milk, an emulsifier and a stabiliser have to be used. Manufacturers of canned coconut milk combine diluted and comminuted milk with the addition of water as a filler. Depending on the brand and age of the milk itself, a thicker, more paste-like consistency floats to the top of the can and is sometimes separated and used in recipes that require coconut cream rather than coconut milk.
Some brands sold in Western countries add thickening agents or emulsifiers to prevent the milk from separating inside the can. Coconut milk can used in both savory dishes. In many tropical and Asian cuisines it is a traditional ingredient in curries and other dishes, including desserts. Coconut rice is a rice cooked in coconut milk consumed in the Caribbean. Nasi lemak is a Malaysian version of coconut rice, while the same dish is called nasi uduk in Indonesia. Coconut milk is used throughout Asia for making traditional serabi, an Asian style pancake. In Brazil, coconut milk is used in northeastern cuisine with seafood stews and desserts. In Colombia and Panama, the grated flesh of coconut and coconut milk are used to make sweet titoté. In Venezuela, pulp dishes are prepared with coconut milk and shredded fish in a dish called mojito en coco. Coconut milk is used to make traditional Venezuelan dishes such as majarete, a typical Venezuelan dessert, arroz con coco known as coconut rice. In Southeast Asia, coconut milk is used to make many traditional drinks.
Cendol is a popular iced drink from this region containing chilled coconut milk and green jellies made of rice flour. Coconut milk is used in hot drinks, such as bandrek and bajigur, two popular drinks from Indonesia. Sweetened coconut milk and coconut milk diluted with water are two popular coconut beverages in southern China and Taiwan; the jelly-like pulp from the inside of the coconut is added to coconut water to make a tropical drink. In Brazil, for example, coconut milk is mixed with sugar and cachaça to make a cocktail called batida de côco. Puerto Rico is popular for tropical drinks containing coconut, such as piña colada and coquito, which contain coconut milk or coconut cream. In a 100 milliliter portion, coconut milk contains 230 kilocalories and is 68% water, 24% total fat, 6% carbohydrates, 2% protein; the fat composition includes 21 grams of saturated fat, half of, lauric acid. Coconut milk is a rich source of manganese and an adequate source of phosphorus and magnesium, with no other nutrients in significant content.
One of the most prominent components of coconut milk is coconut oil, which many health organizations, such as the United States Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, International College of Nutrition, the United States Department of Health and Human Services, American Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, British National Health Service, Dietitians of Canada, discourage people from consuming in significant amounts due to its high levels of saturated fat. Excessive coconut milk consumption can raise blood levels of cholesterol due to the amount of lauric acid, a saturated fat that contributes to higher blood cholesterol by increasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In 1943, it was discovered that coconut milk could encourage plant growth. Although there are many factors that attribute coconut milk to plant growth, the main cause is the existence of a cytokinin known as zeatin found in coconut milk. While the zeatin in coconut milk speeds up plant growth in general, it does not speed up growth in certain plants such as radishes.
However, when 10% coconut milk is added to the substrate in which wheat is grown, substantial improvements have been noted. Creamed coconut Ginataan List of dishes using coconut milk Plant milk Media related to Coconut milk at Wikimedia Commons
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like flowering plant originating in West Africa. It is cultivated for its fruit; the subdivision of this species into two varieties and citron melons, originated with the erroneous synonymization of Citrullus lanatus Matsum. & Nakai and Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. by L. H. Bailey in 1930. Molecular data including sequences from the original collection of Thunberg and other relevant type material, show that the sweet watermelon and the bitter wooly melon Citrullus lanatus Matsum. & Nakai are not related to each other. Since 1930, thousands of papers have misapplied the name Citrullus lanatus Matsum. & Nakai for the watermelon, a proposal to conserve the name with this meaning was accepted by the relevant nomenclatural committee and confirmed at the International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen in China in 2017. The bitter South African melon first collected by Thunberg has become naturalized in semiarid regions of several continents, is designated as a "pest plant" in parts of Western Australia where they are called pig melon.
Watermelon is a trailing vine in the flowering plant family Cucurbitaceae. The species was long thought to have originated in southern Africa, but this was based on the erroneous synonymization by L. H. Bailey of a South African species with the cultivated watermelon; the error became apparent with DNA comparison of material of the cultivated watermelon seen and named by Linnaeus and the holotype of the South African species. There is evidence from seeds in Pharaoh tombs of watermelon cultivation in Ancient Egypt. Watermelon is grown in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide for its large edible fruit known as a watermelon, a special kind of berry with a hard rind and no internal division, botanically called a pepo; the sweet, juicy flesh is deep red to pink, with many black seeds, although seedless varieties have been cultivated. The fruit can be eaten raw or pickled and the rind is edible after cooking. Considerable breeding effort has been put into disease-resistant varieties. Many cultivars are available.
In Botswana, this is known as an ingredient in the local dish bogobe jwa lerotse. Tswana: Lekatane, Makatane Afrikaans: Karkoer, Bitterwaatlemoen, Kolokwint, etc. English: Tsamma melon, Wild watermelon, etc. Nama: T’sama Zulu: Ikhabe, etc. Southern Sotho: Lehapu, etc. Former names: Kaffir melon The watermelon is an annual that has a prostrate or climbing habit. Stems are up to 3 m long and new growth has yellow or brown hairs. Leaves are 40 to 150 mm wide; these have three lobes which are themselves lobed or doubly lobed. Plants have both male and female flowers on 40-mm-long hairy stalks; these are yellow, greenish on the back. This plant is listed on the Threatened Species Programme of the South African National Biodiversity Institute; the watermelon is a large annual plant with long, trailing or climbing stems which are five-angled and up to 3 m long. Young growth is densely woolly with yellowish-brown hairs; the leaves are large, hairy pinnately-lobed and alternate. The plant has branching tendrils.
The white to yellow flowers grow singly in the leaf axils and the corolla is white or yellow inside and greenish-yellow on the outside. The flowers are unisexual, with male and female flowers occurring on the same plant; the male flowers predominate at the beginning of the season. The styles are united into a single column; the large fruit is a kind of modified berry called a pepo with a thick fleshy center. Wild plants have fruits up to 20 cm in diameter; the rind of the fruit is mid- to dark green and mottled or striped, the flesh, containing numerous pips spread throughout the inside, can be red or pink, yellow, green or white. The bitter wooly melon was formally described by Carl Peter Thunberg in 1794 and given the name Momordica lanata, it was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1916 by Japanese botanists Jinzō Matsumura and Takenoshin Nakai. The sweet watermelon was formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and given the name Cucurbita citrullus, it was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1836 by the German botanist Heinrich Adolf Schrader.
The bitter wooly melon is the sister species of Citrullus ecirrhosus Cogn. from South African arid regions, while the sweet watermelon is closer to Citrullus mucosospermus Fursa from West Africa and populations from Sudan. The watermelon is a flowering plant that originated in northeast Africa, where it is found growing wild. Citrullus colocynthis has sometimes been considered to be a wild ancestor of the watermelon. Evidence of the cultivation of both C. lanatus and C. colocynthis in the Nile Valley has been found from the second millennium BC onward, seeds of both species have been found at Twelfth Dynasty sites and in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. In the 7th century, watermelons were being cultivated in India, by the 10th century had reached China, today the world's single largest watermelon producer; the Moors introduced the fruit into Spain and there is evidence of it being cultivated in Córdoba in 961 and in Seville