League of Assassins
The League of Assassins is a group of fictional villains appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. The group is depicted as a collective of assassins who work for Ra's al Ghul, an enemy of the superhero Batman; the League of Assassins has been adapted into other media several times, predominantly in animated Batman productions, the live action Batman film series The Dark Knight Trilogy, as well as the CW TV show Arrow, the FOX TV show Gotham. Ra's al Ghul split from the ancient Order of the Assassins in a successor movement, their followers claim to have annulled and deposed centers of civilizations such as: Baghdad, Rome. The followers of the League Of Assassins aim to enforce their brutal and ruthless brand of justice on the world; the recruits of the League of Assassins follow a strict regimen, carrying distinct black emblems and supplies up to their mountain lairs. These new recruits are called Ghuls, because they emerge after proclaiming their final prayers in their own prefabricated graves before initiating in various, assigned operations.
Unlike the ancient Order of the Assassins, whose main objective was to halt sectarian conflicts and wars within the world. The League of Assassins was founded by Ra's al Ghul to be "the fang that protects the head". Members of the League demonstrated willingness to die at a word from Ra's, they have included some of the most dangerous assassins in the world including Lady Shiva, David Cain, Merlyn. For much of its current history, any member who failed in an assassination was in turn targeted by the League. Indeed, one of its best-known members, the master-archer Merlyn, was forced to flee from the League, fearing for his life, having failed to assassinate Batman. In more recent years, this policy has relaxed somewhat. Ebeneezer Darcel, aka Doctor Darrk, was the first known individual assigned to head the League of Assassins by Ra's al Ghul. Darrk himself was seconded by the Sensei, a martial arts master from Hong Kong. Although many of the League's leaders over the years have been accomplished martial artists, Darrk himself did not depend on physical prowess, as an assassin he instead relied upon careful planning and manipulation and death traps, as well as a variety of cleverly concealed weapons and poisons.
Although the League had an inner circle of elite fighters as well as a large number of warriors trained in the martial arts, the League during Darrk's tenure as leader reflected his personal methodology. Following a "falling out" with Ra's Darrk kidnapped Ra's daughter, Talia al Ghul. Batman became involved in this matter while attempting to bring the League to justice for a number of recent killings. Although he had connected the League to several assassinations over the years, all previous attempts to investigate had met dead-ends. Batman rescued Darrk died while trying to kill them. Under the direction of the organization's second known leader, the villainous Sensei, the League became more brutal, rebelled against Ra's' rule. Although the Sensei's methods resembled Darrk's, the majority of the League's operatives showed little to no real skill in personal combat, the Sensei did show more reliance on skilled martial artists; this version of the League is best known for two assassinations. As part of an initiation process, the operative known as'the Hook was assigned to murder Boston Brand.
Additionally, Professor Ojo brainwashed Ben Turner, creating an alternate personality dubbed the Bronze Tiger, turning the master martial artist into a League operative. As the Bronze Tiger, Turner defeated Batman in personal combat while another League operative murdered Kathy Kane. Turner's earlier training at the hands of O-Sensei proved too strong for the League to break, when he refused to kill Batman he was forced to flee the League. Not long afterwards, the insane Sensei - no longer motivated by anything but a desire to raise assassination to an art – attempted to cause an artificial earthquake in order to kill a number of diplomats gathered for peace talks. Batman traced Ben Turner to a hospital. Turner could not remember the actions of his alternate personality but he was able to aid Batman in uncovering the Sensei's latest plot. Although Batman was unable to prevent the earthquake it was only the Sensei himself that died in the disaster, control of the League returned to Ra's, it was more revealed that, prior to the betrayals of Doctor Daark and the Sensei, Ra's had grown tired of the fickle loyalties of his warriors.
Ra's assigned David Cain to create a perfect bodyguard. After early attempts to raise such a person resulted in hopelessly psychotic children, Cain decided that he needed a genetically suited child and began searching for a possible mother. To this end he assassinated Carolyn Woosan/Wu-San, one of two astonishingly talented martial artist sisters he had seen fighting in an exhibition. Carolyn'
The Bat-Signal is a distress signal device appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, as a means to summon the superhero, Batman. It is a specially modified searchlight with a stylized emblem of a bat affixed to the light, allowing it to project a large bat symbol onto the skies over Gotham City; the signal is used by the Gotham City Police Department as a method of contacting and summoning Batman in the event his help is needed and as a weapon of psychological intimidation to the numerous criminals of Gotham City. It doubles as the primary logo for the Batman series of TV shows and movies; the Bat-Signal first appeared in Detective Comics #60. The signal has several different origins in comics featuring post-Crisis continuity, it is introduced as a new tool after the Batman's first encounter with the Joker in the 2005 series Batman: The Man Who Laughs, during the 1990 "Prey" storyline in Legends of the Dark Knight. In the 2006 series Batman and the Mad Monk, Gordon uses a pager to contact Batman, but during a meeting with the superhero Gordon throws it away, saying he prefers a more public means of contacting him.
In the 1989 Batman film, Batman gives the signal to the Gotham police force, enabling them to call him when the city was in danger. In 2005's Batman Begins, then-lieutenant James Gordon installs the Bat signal on the roof of the police department himself; the film suggests Gordon was inspired to create the signal after Batman left mobster Carmine Falcone chained across a spotlight, his silhouette vaguely resembling a bat. On the 1992 television show Batman: The Animated Series, the signal is introduced in the episode "The Cape and Cowl Conspiracy", though a makeshift signal was used earlier in "Joker's Favor". On 2004's The Batman, Gordon invents it to summon Batman in "Night in the City", although the signal is alluded to in an earlier episode. In Detective Comics #466, the villainous Signalman traps Batman inside the Bat-Signal device. In issue #6 of the 1989 series Legends of the Dark Knight, a group of crime bosses projects the signal upside down in order to summon Batman to help them fight a killer they cannot defeat.
During the 1993 Knightfall storyline, one of Bane's henchmen remarks that the Bat-Signal is a "stupid set-up", as it allows criminals to know where Batman is, or at least where he will be, lets them keep track of his movements. In the 1996 Halloween special comic series, Batman: Haunted Knight, Scarecrow alters the Bat-Signal to notify Batman that he has kidnapped Gordon. By adding an orange bulb and painting "eyes" on the signal, he turns the beam into a stylized Jack-o'-lantern image, with the bat symbol forming the mouth beneath two eyes. Catwoman uses the Bat-Signal in the 1996 special The Long Halloween. In the 1999 miniseries Batman: Dark Victory, the Hangman sneaks onto the roof of Police Headquarters and turns the Bat-Signal on to lure then-recently appointed Commissioner Gordon to the roof and try to kill him, but is thwarted when Two-Face cuts Gordon down; the Riddler uses the Bat-Signal in the 1999 miniseries Dark Victory. In the beginning of the 1999 No Man's Land story arc in Batman, a junior officer creates an improvised Bat-Signal out of spare parts.
Gordon smashes it to pieces. Oracle builds a small Bat-Signal to summon Batman. In the 2002 comic book series Gotham Central, Batman's existence is not recognized by the Gotham City authorities, the police explain to Gotham citizens that the Bat-Signal is a method of using the Batman "urban legend" to intimidate Gotham's criminal underworld. Owing to the events in the "War Crimes" storyline, relations between Batman and the Gotham City Police Department under Commissioner Michael Akins are severed, as a result, the Bat-Signal is removed from the roof of Gotham Central. Needing Batman's help Akins retrieves a spare Bat-Signal for a single use; this signal is a more sophisticated laser which paints a green bat symbol in the clouds and is more visible. This version of the signal is donated by Kord Industries; the laser signal is said to have been unused because the city council deems it an "inappropriate gift." In the 2006 series 52, The Question alters the traditional Bat-Signal to project a spray-painted question mark.
In the One Year Later series, with the re-installation of Gordon as commissioner, relations with Batman improve. Upon Batman's return from one year of self-imposed exile, the Bat-Signal is activated once again. In the "Lovers and Madmen" story arc from the 2006 series Batman Confidential, Batman sees the Bat-Signal and assumes Gordon is calling him to ask for his help; when he reaches the rooftop, however, he finds the Joker instead. In the 2009 crossover event Blackest Night: Batman and Robin deal with resurrected zombies of their dead foes, some of which have attacked the GCPD Headquarters; when Black Lanterns attack the headquarters, the Bat-Signal shines in the sky and covered with two corpses surrounding the bat symbol. This prompts the Dynamic Duo to help. In the 2014 series Batman Eternal, the Bat-Signal is shattered by new Commissioner Jack Forbes as part of his campaign against Batman, Forbes acting as a patsy for Carmine Falcone as he seeks to undermine Batman's status in the city as part of a new plan by an unknown foe.
At the conclusion of the storyline, Cluemaster—the true villain of the piece—ties Batman to the Bat-Signal before unmasking him and carving the bat symbol onto his chest, but Bruce manages to escape his bonds, the storyline concluding with a new signal on the roof of the GCPD as Gordon is released and Batman's reputation is redeemed. Dur
The Joker is a supervillain created by Bill Finger, Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson who first appeared in the debut issue of the comic book Batman, published by DC Comics. Credit for the Joker's creation is disputed. Although the Joker was planned to be killed off during his initial appearance, he was spared by editorial intervention, allowing the character to endure as the archenemy of the superhero Batman. In his comic book appearances, the Joker is portrayed as a criminal mastermind. Introduced as a psychopath with a warped, sadistic sense of humor, the character became a goofy prankster in the late 1950s in response to regulation by the Comics Code Authority, before returning to his darker roots during the early 1970s; as Batman's nemesis, the Joker has been part of the superhero's defining stories, including the murder of Jason Todd—the second Robin and Batman's ward—and the paralysis of one of Batman's allies, Barbara Gordon. The Joker has had various possible origin stories during his decades of appearances.
The most common story involves him falling into a tank of chemical waste which bleaches his skin white and turns his hair green and lips bright red. The antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance, the Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary; the Joker possesses no superhuman abilities, instead using his expertise in chemical engineering to develop poisonous or lethal concoctions, thematic weaponry, including razor-tipped playing cards, deadly joy buzzers, acid-spraying lapel flowers. The Joker sometimes works with other Gotham City supervillains such as the Penguin and Two-Face, groups like the Injustice Gang and Injustice League, but these relationships collapse due to the Joker's desire for unbridled chaos; the 1990s introduced a romantic interest for the Joker in his former psychiatrist, Harley Quinn, who becomes his villainous sidekick. Although his primary obsession is Batman, the Joker has fought other heroes including Superman and Wonder Woman. One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the Joker has been listed among the greatest comic book villains and fictional characters created.
The character's popularity has seen him appear on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectible items, inspire real-world structures, be referenced in a number of media. The Joker has been adapted to serve as Batman's adversary in live-action and video game incarnations, including the 1960s Batman television series and in films by Jack Nicholson in Batman. Mark Hamill, Troy Baker, others have provided the character's voice. Bill Finger, Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson are credited with creating the Joker, but their accounts of the character's conception differ, each providing his own version of events. Finger's, Kane's, Robinson's versions acknowledge that Finger produced an image of actor Conrad Veidt in character as Gwynplaine in the 1928 film The Man Who Laughs as an inspiration for the Joker's appearance, Robinson produced a sketch of a joker playing card. Robinson claimed that it was his 1940 card sketch that served as the character's concept, which Finger associated with Veidt's portrayal.
Kane hired the 17-year-old Robinson as an assistant in 1939, after he saw Robinson in a white jacket decorated with his own illustrations. Beginning as a letterer and background inker, Robinson became primary artist for the newly created Batman comic book series. In a 1975 interview in The Amazing World of DC Comics, Robinson said he wanted a supreme arch-villain who could test Batman, but not a typical crime lord or gangster designed to be disposed, he wanted an exotic, enduring character as an ongoing source of conflict for Batman, designing a diabolically sinister-but-clownish villain. Robinson was intrigued by villains, he said that the name came first, followed by an image of a playing card from a deck he had at hand: "I wanted somebody visually exciting. I wanted somebody that would make an indelible impression, would be bizarre, would be memorable like the Hunchback of Notre Dame or any other villains that had unique physical characters." He told Finger about his concept by telephone providing sketches of the character and images of what would become his iconic Joker playing-card design.
Finger thought the concept was incomplete, providing the image of Veidt with a ghastly, permanent rictus grin. Kane countered that the Robinson's sketch was produced only after Finger had shown the Gwynplaine image to Kane, that it was only used as a card design belonging to the Joker in his early appearances. Finger said that he was inspired by an image in Steeplechase Park at Coney Island that resembled a Joker's head, which he sketched and shared with future editorial director Carmine Infantino. In a 1994 interview with journalist Frank Lovece, Kane stated his position: Bill Finger and I created the Joker. Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. That's the way. Looks like Conrad Veidt – you know, the actor in The Man Who Laughs, by Victor Hugo.... Bill Finger had a book with a photograph of Conrad Veidt and showed it to me and s
The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the original PlayStation console and is the second iteration in the PlayStation lineup of consoles, it was released in 2000 and competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation 2 offered backwards compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as for its games; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 155 million units, with 150 million confirmed by Sony in 2011. More than 3,874 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004. In 2006, Sony announced and launched its successor, the PlayStation 3. With the release of its successor, the PlayStation 2 remained popular well into the seventh generation and continued to be produced until January 4, 2013, when Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs for a video game console.
Despite the announcement, new games for the console continued to be produced until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, FIFA 13 for North America, Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Europe. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on September 7, 2018. Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, work on the console began around the time that the original PlayStation was released. Insiders stated that it was developed in the U. S. West Coast by former members of Argonaut Software. By 1997 word had leaked to the press that the console would have backwards compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, Internet connectivity. Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1, 1999; the video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released, although the main rivals of the PS2 were Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast itself launched successfully in North America that year, selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.
Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20, 1999. Sony showed playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the console's graphic abilities and power; the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console; the PS2 sold well on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition.
Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player; this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market. The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful launch; the PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from newer rivals. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player. While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals.
Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox, it planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3. Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs to demon
Tim Drake is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with the superhero Batman. Created by Marv Wolfman and Pat Broderick, he first appeared in Batman #436 as the third character to assume the role of Batman's vigilante partner Robin. Following the events in Batman: Battle for the Cowl in 2009, Drake adopted the alias of Red Robin; as of 2019, Tim has returned to his original Robin persona in the Wonder Comics relaunch of Young Justice. As a young boy, Drake was in the audience the night Dick Grayson's parents were murdered and managed to discover the identities of Batman and the original Robin through their exploits. After the death of the second Robin, Jason Todd, witnessing Batman spiral into darkness, Tim was convinced that he should train to become the third Robin; the character has been featured in various adaptations, including the animated television series The New Batman Adventures, Young Justice: Invasion, the video game series Batman: Arkham.
In 2011, Tim Drake was ranked 32nd in IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes. Tim Drake was named after Tim Burton, director of the then-upcoming 1989 film, introduced in 1989's Batman: Year Three and his origin detailed in Batman: A Lonely Place of Dying, in which he first introduced himself to Dick Grayson and impressed the former Robin with his skills; this led to Grayson and Alfred Pennyworth, Bruce Wayne's butler, to support Tim's request to be Batman's new partner. Not wanting to make the same mistake as he did with Jason Todd, Batman had Tim endure an intensive period of training, never given to his predecessors. After Tim rescues Batman from Scarecrow, he proves his capability and becomes Robin. Batman editor Dennis O'Neil hoped that Grayson's approval of Drake would ease reader acceptance of him. Evidently, this approach was successful with the character being so accepted by readers that, after three successful miniseries, the character had his own 183-issue series from 1993 through 2009. Mike Mullins on Newsarama has stated: Throughout, the character of Robin has been captured showing him to step up to greater and greater challenges.
Robin is a character, driven to do what he views as right. He knows he is living up to a legacy left by Dick Grayson and strives to not disappoint Bruce Wayne, Batman. Tim is a more natural detective than previous Robins and is talented with computers, which allows him to stand in his own unique spotlight. Unlike his predecessors, Tim is not the most proficient combatant and has had to work on his fighting technique, taking up the bo staff to give him an edge that Batman does not need. Tim always seeks to analyze a problem and to outthink his opponent but has shown the ability to win a fight when necessary; as Robin, the character has been featured prominently in the Young Justice and 2003 Teen Titans series. As of June 2009, he took on the new identity of Red Robin, starring in yet another series by the same name. Tim Drake is the son of Jack Drake and Janet Drake, coming from the same social class as Bruce Wayne; when he was a young child, he visited the circus for the first time with his parents.
The Drakes asked the Flying Graysons for a photo together, resulting in a momentary bond between Tim and Dick Grayson as they met for the first time. By the age of nine, Drake had deduced the identities of Batman and Robin as Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson after witnessing a gymnastic move by Robin that he saw Grayson display in the Flying Graysons. Inspired by the heroes' exploits, Tim trained himself in martial arts, detective skills, scholastics to better himself both physically and intellectually; when Tim reached the age of thirteen, he saw that Batman had grown reckless and violent following the second Robin's murder by the Joker. After his mother's death and his father's paralysis, Drake decided to intervene and Batman enlisted him as the third Robin. Before joining Batman as the third Robin, Tim Drake was given a modern redesign of the Robin costume and sent to train abroad with numerous experts to refine his martial arts; when Bruce Wayne retires after Knightfall, Robin goes solo to defend Gotham City.
Robin would go on to co-star with other teenaged superheroes in Young Justice and Teen Titans. He made guest appearances in other DC comic books such as Nightwing and Azrael. Following the deaths of his father in Identity Crisis, his best friend Superboy in Infinite Crisis, the presumed death of his girlfriend Stephanie Brown in Batman: War Games, Drake was relocated to Blüdhaven, the city where his brother Nightwing fights crime, for a period of time in order to escape the "ghosts" of Gotham City and to stay close to his stepmother Dana Winters, admitted into a Blüdhaven clinic after going into psychological shock over Jack Drake's murder at the hands of Captain Boomerang. Tim Drake was given another redesign of the Robin costume with a red and black color scheme; the colors are those in tribute to Superboy after he dies in battle. Once Dick takes over the role of Batman after Bruce's apparent death in Batman R. I. P. and Final Crisis, Dick gives it to Damian Wayne. Tim, still believing that his mentor is still alive, assumes the identity of Red Robin and leaves Gotham City to go on a worldwide search for Wayne.
Red Robin, launched in late 2009, depicted Tim Drake's search to find evidence that Bruce Wayne was still alive after cutting himself off from the rest of the Bat Family. He was approached by Ra's al Ghul's assassins who were interested in finding out what happened to Batman. At the same time, Tamara "Tam
Barbara Gordon is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with the superhero Batman. The character was created by William Dozier, Julius Schwartz, Carmine Infantino. At the request of the producers of the 1960s Batman television series, DC editor Schwartz called for a new female counterpart to the superhero Batman that could be introduced into publication and the third season of the show simultaneously; the character subsequently made her first comic book appearance as Batgirl in Detective Comics #359, titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!", by writer Gardner Fox and artist Carmine Infantino. Barbara Gordon is the daughter of Gotham City police commissioner James Gordon, the sister of James Gordon Jr. and is employed as head of the Gotham City Public Library. Although the character appeared in various DC Comics publications, she was prominently featured in Batman Family which debuted in 1975, partnered with the original Robin, Dick Grayson.
In 1988, following the editorial retirement of the character's Batgirl persona in Batgirl Special #1, the graphic novel Batman: The Killing Joke depicts the Joker shooting her through the spinal cord in her civilian identity, resulting in paraplegia. In subsequent stories, the character was reestablished as a technical advisor, computer expert and information broker known as Oracle. Providing intelligence and computer hacking services to assist other superheroes, she makes her first appearance as Oracle in Suicide Squad #23 and became a featured lead of the Birds of Prey series. Reverting the character to her Batgirl persona, DC Comics relaunched its comic book titles in 2011 during The New 52 event, featuring her in the eponymous Batgirl monthly title as well as Birds of Prey; these changes were retained for the second company wide relaunch in 2016 known as DC Rebirth. The character was a popular comic book figure during the Silver Age of Comic Books, due to her appearances in the Batman television series and continued media exposure.
She has achieved similar popularity in the Modern Age of Comic Books under the Birds of Prey publication and as a disabled icon. The character has been the subject of academic analysis concerning the roles of women and disabled people in mainstream media; the events of The Killing Joke, which led to the character's paralysis, as well as the restoration of her mobility, has been a subject of debate among comic book writers, artists and readership. Viewpoints range from sexism in comic books, to the limited visibility of disabled characters and the practicality of disabilities existing in a fictional universe where magic and medical science exceed the limitations of the real world; as both Batgirl and Oracle, Barbara Gordon has been featured in various adaptations related to the Batman franchise, including television, animation, video games, other merchandise. The character has been portrayed by Yvonne Craig, Dina Meyer and Jeté Laurence has been voiced by Melissa Gilbert, Tara Strong, Danielle Judovits, Alyson Stoner, Mae Whitman, Kimberly Brooks, Ashley Greene and Rosario Dawson, among others.
In 2011, she was ranked 17th in IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". Prior to the introduction of Barbara Gordon, the Batwoman character and her sidekick Bat-Girl appeared in Batman-related publications, but were removed at the direction of editor Julius Schwartz for being outdated and unrealistic. Schwartz stated that he had been asked to develop a new female character in order to attract a female viewership to the Batman television series of the 1960s. Executive producer William Dozier suggested that the new character would be the daughter of Gotham City's Police Commissioner James Gordon, that she would adopt the identity of Batgirl; when Dozier and producer Howie Horowitz saw rough concept artwork of the new Batgirl by artist Carmine Infantino during a visit to DC offices, they optioned the character in a bid to help sell a third season to the ABC television network. Infantino reflected on the creation of Batgirl, stating "Bob Kane had had a Bat-Girl for about three stories in the'50s but she had nothing to do with a bat.
She was like a pesky girl version of Robin. I knew we could do a lot better, so Julie and I came up with the real Batgirl, so popular she got her own TV show." Yvonne Craig portrayed the character in the show's third season. Barbara Gordon and her alter ego Batgirl debuted in Detective Comics #359, "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl", as the daughter of Gotham City's Police Commissioner James Gordon. In the debut story, while driving to a costume ball dressed as a female version of Batman, sporting a black bodysuit with yellow gloves, utility belt and a bat-symbol along with a blue cape and cowl, Barbara Gordon intervenes in a kidnapping attempt on Bruce Wayne by the super villain Killer Moth, attracting Batman's attention and leading to a crime-fighting career. Although Batman insists she give up crime-fighting because of her gender, Batgirl disregards his objections. In her civilian identity, Barbara Gordon, Ph. D. is depicted as a career woman with a doctorate in library science, as well as being head of Gotham City public library, "presumably one of the largest public libraries in the DC Comics version of reality."
She was given a regular backup slot in Detective Comics starting with issue #384, alternating issues with Robin until issue #404, after which she had the backup slot to herself. Frank Robbins wrote nearly all of these backups, which were penciled first by Gil Kane and by Don Heck. Barbara Gordon's Batgirl exceeded the earlier Bat-Girl and Batwoman characters in popularity, readers requested for her to appear in other titles. Although some readers
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam